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Full text of "The young housekeeper's friend"

IftI 




CORNELIUS 



Easter Recipes. MILDEWED CLOTHES. I huv 

Hot Cross-buns Make a sponge of aicome to say a word about thos 
cup and ^"half of milk, half a yeast- jdewed clothes. Do not be alarme 
cake dissolved in half a cup of warm we will soon have them all right 
water, and flour enough to make a 
thick batter. Set in a warm place ovei 
night. In the morning add two large 



of sugar, a saltspoonful of salt, and as 
much cinnamon or grated nutmeg 
Work in more flour until -the dough can 
be handled, kneading it well. Cover anc 
let it rise in a warm corner for five 
hours longer, then roll out into a sheet 
about half an inch thick, and cut into 
~ rounds, like biscuit. . Lay them in a 
buttered baking pan, let them rise half 
an hour, cut a cross upon each, and 
put into the oven. When they are 
baked to a light brown brush over with 
white of egg beaten up with fine sugar, 
and take from oven. For a large sup- 
ply double the quantity. 

If you have no egg-molds you may 
have improvised some by emptying the 
contents of eggs to be used in one end. 
Rinse the shells out thoroughly in cold 
water, and fill them with the blanc- 
mange mixture. Set them to form, 
open end up, in a pan of flour or meal, 
which will hold them steady, and put 
them in a cold place. Make your nest 
of preserved orange-peel, cut in shreds. 
The orange marmalade put up in glass 
jars may be used for this. ^Arrange a 
bed of it in the bottom of a glass or 
silver bowl, break the shells from the 
eggs with great care, and arrange them 
or half bury them under whipped 



on the table, sprinkling them p 
fully with dry starch, then the 
using a little more salt than st 
G-et a bar of soap and rub w 
over. Hang out in the sun or \> 
the grass. The brighter the su 
quicker will the mildew disap 
This will not injure the most de 



Just get .some starch ' and roll o 
larger lumps with the paste pin, 
board or table. - Then get rather- 



salt than starch. Now dip your 



n cold or very 
out the heaviest 



cool 
well, 



water ; sq 
throw thei 



will bleach and v\ 
I have used it ofu 



fabric, but 
them much. 

am subject to sudden attacl 
sickness caused by a hurt to the 
which often comes on after a 
washing of clothes. I have spri 
them down at night hoping tc. 
them next day, but have ofte 
seen them again for a week, and 
would be black with mildew. (1 
just got a large washing away, ^ 
was in a very bad state, not one i 
of mildew left on them.) The j 

the quickest and most sure 
At times, I have been too weak 
the making and crushing the st 
bhen I have done this way, which 
be useful to those who are not st 
and without help. Melt the 8 
and salt, say about a pound of s 
and a pound and a quarter of the 
to about two pails of water : the 
in the clothes and meve them ab 
little every day, until you can put 
out of doors. It does not rot 
or turn sour, if they have to sta 
a week or more. You may do tl 
any time of the year whether th 
shines or not. It will only take 1< 
on dull days. An English Worn 
Toledo Blade. 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

BEQUEST 

OF 
ANITA D. S. BLAKE 






. 



' 
















^ 




THE 



YOUM HOUSEKEEPER'S FBIMD. 



BY 



MRS. CORNELIUS. 



REVISED AND ENLARGED. 



BOSTON: 

THOMPSON, BROWN, & CO. 
1873. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by 

M. H. CORNELIUS, 
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by 

M. H. CORNELIUS, 
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, 

BY M. H. CORNELIUS, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



AGRICULTURE 
GIFT 



STEREOTYPED BY C. J. PETERS & SON, 
5 WASHINGTON ST., BOSTON. 




PREFACE. 



IN preparing this little volume, my aim has been to furnish 
to young housekeepers the best aid that a book can give in the 
departments of which it treats. No printed guide can perfectly 
supply the place of that experience which is gained by early 
and habitual attention to domestic concerns. But the directions 
here given are designed to be so minute, and of so practical a 
character, that the observance of them shall prevent very many 
of the perplexities which most young people suffer during their 
first years of married life. 

The receipts, with the exception of about twenty which are 
copied from books, are furnished from my own experience, or 
that of my immediate friends. An ample variety is given for 
furnishing the table of any American family ; but especial ref- 
erence has been had to those who have neither poverty nor 
riches ; and such directions have been given as will enable a 
housekeeper to provide a good and healthful table, or, if desired, 
a handsome one, at a moderate expense. 

To save repetition, very minute directions are given at the 
head of every chapter, by attending to which, the least experi- 
enced cook will learn how to proceed in making each article for 
which a receipt is given. 

249 (iii) 



IV PREFACE. 

I do not attempt to give directions in regard to the best 
methods of taking care of all sorts of furniture, and performing 
all the various kinds of household labor, because there are 
works already published which furnish copious and judicious 
instructions on these subjects. 

It may be asked, " Why then publish a book of counsels and 
receipts, for there surely are many receipt-books ? " This is 
true ; but while some of them are not ample guides on the sub- 
jects of which they treat, others are based upon a plan both 
expensive and unhealthy, and all of them that I have seen, 
leave an inexperienced housekeeper at a loss in regard to many 
of the things most necessary to economy and comfort. 

I have seen many a young lady, just entered upon the duties 
of married life, perplexed and prematurely care-worn, for want 
of experience, or a little good instruction, in regard to the sim- 
plest domestic processes ; and often have felt, with the sincerest 
sympathy, an earnest wish to render her some effectual aid. If 
I succeed in affording it through this little book, I shall esteem 
myself happy; and I have only to ask, in conclusion, that my 
numerous young friends, and all the youthful housekeepers into 
whose hands it may fall, will receive it as a token of my friend- 
ly interest and best wishes. 

M. H. c. 
ANDOVEK 1816. 



PREFACE. 

TO THE REVISED AND ENLARGED EDITION. 



IN offering to the public a new edition of "The Young 
Housekeeper's Friend," I wish gratefully to acknowledge the 
-favor with which it has heen regarded during the twenty-five 
years since its first publication. I have aimed to render it 
more worthy of patronage by a thorough revision, the omis- 
sion of a few receipts of least value; the addition of full di- 
rections for canning fruits, and more than one hundred and 
fifty new receipts, which have been tested by experienced 
housekeepers. I am indebted to several friends for kindly fur- 
nishing me some of the most valuable of these. While the 
lessons of economy taught by the late war have not been for- 
gotten, I have endeavored to meet the demands of the pres- 
ent customs of society for a greater variety of dishes than 
used to be thought requisite for the ample supply of a gentle- 
man's table. 

In the additions which I have made, I have, as heretofore, 
given much more minute directions than would be appropri- 
ate in writing for experienced housekeepers. My earnest 
wish still is, as it was when I first wrote a cook-book, to give 
real aid to ladies who have never been accustomed to family 
cares. 

I have to request that those who use this book would give 
special attention to the general Directions at the head of each 
chapter. 

MARY H. CORNELIUS. 
NEWTON CENTRE, August, 1871. 



THE 



YOUffG- HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND, 



COUNSELS AND SUGGESTIONS 

Good housekeeping compatible with intellectual culture. Persevering attention 
rewarded. Effects of unhealthy diet. RespomiUeness of women. -Appli- 
cation of 'the principles of religion to the duties of domestic life. 

A SYMMETRICAL education is extremely rare in this country. 
Nothing is more common than to see young ladies, whose in- 
tellectual attainments are of a high order, profoundly ignorant 
of the duties which all acknowledge to belong peculiarly to 
women. Consequently many have to learn, after marriage, 
how to take care of a family ; and thus their housekeeping is, 
frequently, little else than a series of experiments ; often unsuc- 
cessful, resulting in mortification and discomfort in the parlor, 
and waste and ill temper in the kitchen. 

So numerous are these instances, that excellence in house- 
keeping has come to be considered as incompatible with supe- 
rior intellectual culture. But it is not so. The most elevated 
minds fulfil best the every-day duties of life. If young women 
would resolve, let the effort cost what it will, to perfect them- 
selves in their appropriate duties, a defective domestic educa- 
tion would soon be remedied. Observation and persevering 
attention would give the requisite knowledge, and their efforts 



8 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FHIEND. 

would oring a speedy and ample reward. It were far better, 
When they enter upon the station of a mistress of a family, to 
be already possessed of such experience as would enable them 
easily to regulate the expenditures, and so to systematize the 
work of every day, as to secure economy, comfort, neatness, 
and order. But if this knowledge has not been previously 
acquired, let not the learner be discouraged, or for a moment 
yield to the idea of " letting things take their course." No 
woman can innocently or safely settle down upon this conclu- 
sion. The good to be lost, and the evils incurred, are too great 
to admit of such a decision. The result will certainly be un- 
comfortable ; and it would not be strange if the dearest domestic 
affc ctions were thus chilled, and the most valuable family inter- 
ests sacrificed. 

How often do we see the happiness of a husband abridged 
by the absence of skill, neatness, and economy in the wife ! 
Perhaps he is not able to fix upon the cause, for he does not 
understand minutely enough the processes upon which do- 
mestic order depends, to analyze the difficulty ; but he is con- 
scious of discomfort. However improbable it may seem, the 
health of many a professional man is undermined, and his use- 
fulness curtailed, if not sacrificed, because he habitually eats 
bad bread. 

How frequently, in case of students in the various profes- 
sions, is the brightest promise of future attainment and honor 
overshadowed by a total loss of health; and the young 
scholar, in whom the choicest hopes were garnered up, is 
compelled to relinquish his studies, and turn his unwilling 
thoughts to other pursuits ; or, worse than this, he becomes a 
helpless invalid for life. Yet even this is an enviable lot, 
compared with his, whose noble intellectual powers have be- 
come like the broken chords of an instrument that shall never 
again utter its melody. But are such evils as these to be 
traced to the use of unwholesome food ? Every intelligent 
physician, every superintendent of our insane hospitals, tes- 
tifies that in very many instances, this is the prominent 
cause. 



COUNSELS AND SUGGESTIONS. 9 

We often see the most pious Christians heavy-hearted, and 
doubting their share in the great salvation ; mistaking llie sal- 
utary discipline of their Heavenly Father for the rod of an 
offended judge ; forgetting the freeness of the mercy offered, 
looking only at their own unworthiness, and refusing to be 
comforted. Instances of this sort, resulting in incurable melan- 
choly, may frequently be traced to the same cause. The hu- 
man body and mind are so intimately associated, that the 
functions of the one cannot be disturbed without deranging 
the action of the other ; and it is doubtless true, that many a 
hopeless heart and feeble body would be more benefited by a 
wholesome diet, than by the instructions of the minister, or the 
prescriptions of the physician. To say the least, the good 
offices of these will avail little while counteracted by the want 
of the other. 

If this subject has a direct bearing upon the health of fam- 
ilies, so also does it exert an immediate influence upon their vir- 
tue. There are numerous instances of worthy merchants and 
mechanics whose efforts are paralyzed, and their hopes chilled 
by the total failure of the wife in her sphere of duty ; and who 
seek solace under their disappointment in the wine-party, or the 
late convivial supper. Many a day-laborer, on his return at 
evening from his hard toil, is repelled by the sight of a disor-* 
derly house and a comfortless supper ; and perhaps is met by a 
cold eye instead of " the thriftie wifie's smile ; " and he makes 
his escape to the grog-shop or the underground gambling-room. 
Can any human agency hinder the series of calamities entailed 
by these things ? No ! the most active philanthropy, the best 
schemes of organized benevolence, cannot furnish a remedy, 
unless the springs of society are rectified. The domestic influ- 
ence of woman is certainly one of these. Every woman is in- 
vested with a great degree of power over the happiness and 
virtue of others. She cannot escape using it, and she cannot 
innocently pervert it. There is no avenue or channel of society 
through which it may not send a salutary influence ; and when 
rightly directed, it is unsurpassed by any human instrumentality 
in its purifying and restoring efficacy. 



10 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

The Bible sanctions this view of female obligation and influ- 
ence, in the description it gives of the virtuous woman. " Her 
price is far above rubies. The heart of her husband doth safely 
trust in her, so that he shall have no need of spoil. She will 
do him good, and not evil, all the days of her life. She seeketh 
wool and flax, and worketh diligently with her hands. She is 
like the merchant's ships, she bringeth her food from afar. She 
riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth meat to her house- 
hold, and a portion to her maidens. She considereth a field and 
buyeth it ; with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard. 
She girdeth her loins with strength, and strengtheneth her arms. 
She perceiveth that her merchandise is good, and her candle 
goeth not out by night. She layeth her hands to the spindle, 
and her hands hold the distaff. She stretcheth out her hand to 
the poor ; yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy. She 
is not afraid of the snow for her household ; for all her house- 
hold are clothed in scarlet. She maketh herself coverings of 
tapestry; her clothing is silk and purple. Her husband is 
known in the gates, when he sitteth among the elders of the 
land. She maketh fine linen and selleth it ; and delivereth gir- 
dles unto the merchant. Strength and honor are her clothing ; 
and she shall rejoice in time to come. She openeth her mouth 
with wisdom ; and in her tongue is the law of kindness. She 
looketh well to the ways of her household, and eateth not the 
bread of idleness. Her children arise up and call her blessed ; 
her husband also, and he praiseth her. Many daughters have 
done virtuously, but thou excellest them all. Favor is deceitful, 
and beauty is vain ; but a woman that feareth the Lord she 
shall be\ praise'd. Give her of the fruit of her hands, and let 
her own works praise her in the gates." 

Like the paintings of the old artists, the beauty of this ex- 
quisite picture is enhanced by the " softened hue of years," and 
like them it must be studied long ere its finest touches will be 
revealed. Female virtue is the same now that k was in the 
days of the wise man, and this portraiture is, in its outlines, 
etill true to the life. Energy, industry, economy, order, skill, 



COUNSELS AND SUGGESTIONS. H 

vigilance, cheerfulness, kindness, charity, discretion, and the fear 
of God, are as essential to the character of a good wife now, as 
they were then ; and the effects of these are still the same in 
the embellishments of her house, the abundance of her stores, 
the happiness of her household, her husband's confidence in her, 
his honorable rank among the elders of the land, the virtues of 
her children, and her own felicity. To estimate the truth of the 
picture, we need only observe in society around us, that the hap- 
piest families are those in which the wife and mother most 
resembles it. 

In connection with this subject, the inquiry suggests itself 
whether, in the " excessive externalism of the times," due prom- 
inence is given to the practice of home-duties as a part of re- 
ligion ? Whether the spirit of the New Testament is carried, 
as it should be, into the every -day concerns of life ? Is not the 
giving largely to public objects of benevolence sometimes suf- 
fered to supersede the duty of " considering the poor," and 
" bringing him that is cast out to our house ? " Are not the 
claims of a popular charity readily allowed, while the inevitable 
ills of life, of which every family must have its share, are some- 
times permitted to remain unsoothed by the voice of sympathy, 
and the gentle ministry of skilful hands and a loving heart ? 
We may even go to church, when we should offer purer incense 
to Him who sees the heart, by performing the humblest domes~ 
tic labors at home. Let me not be misunderstood. The public, 
institutions of religion have claims upon us which we cannot in- 
nocently set aside ; but alas, erring mortals that we are ! our 
piety is seldom symmetrical and consistent. We are prone to 
love publicity. We find it easier to give money, to enlist our 
energies in behalf of benevolent societies, to go with the multi- 
tude to the house of God, than to practise, in the retirement of 
home, the " charity which sufFereth long and is kind, which en- 
vieth not, vaunteth not itself, doth not behave itself unseemly, 
seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, think eth no evil, 
beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endur- 



12 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

eth all things, and never faileth." Can we not learn, while we 
do the one, not to leave the other undone ? 



Style of living. Consistency. Economy. Neatness. Habits of regular 
attention to family concerns. Perplexing days. Company. Arrange- 
ment of family work for a week. First instructions to domestics. 
Patience. Good temper. Observance of the Golden Rule. Self-govern- 
ment when accidents happen. Sunday privileges. 

CONSIDER in the outset what mode of living best befits 
your station, resources, and obligations to others ; and so adjust 
your plan that consistency* and appropriateness shall appear 
throughout. It is much better to adopt a style of expendi- 
ture below your means than above them. Of the unhappy 
effects of this last we have many examples in our country. A 
very little advance in the style of living, creates an additional 
expense greater than would at first be believed. That little 
' sentence, " / can do without it" has saved thousands of dollars 
for future exigencies. Prodigality is as fruitful of mischief as 
Pandora's box, and no amount of wealth can justify it. Habits 
of wasteful expenditure are almost always accompanied with 
selfishness and a cold heart towards the claims of the poor. Be 
conscientious, therefore, in the practice of economy. Family 
comfort can hardly be found without it. Neatness is essential 
to it ; for though there may be neatness without economy, there 
cannot be economy without neatness. 

Accustom yourself to take good care of every thing you pos- 



* The writer has heard of more than one lady who furnished but two 
dish-towels, fearing that a more ample supply would lead to waste in the 
use of them. But in one instance, when a superb dinner was given to a 
large party, the cook was reduced to the necessity of tearing up a sheet to 
wipe the dishes. 



COUNSELS AND SUGGESTIONS. 13 

sess. The best managers probably have, at first, a few disagree- 
able lessons to learn, in the loss of things forgotten or neglected 
for want of experience in having the entire care of a family. 
But it is to be hoped there are not many who lose five or six 
hams eaten by the rats, or forty yards of Russia linen laid upon 
the snow to whiten, and forgotten till reduced to a pulp fit only 
for the paper-mill. 

Be economical without parsimony, liberal without waste, and 
practise the best methods of using your possessions \vithout hav- 
ing your mind wholly absorbed by them. 

In your arrangements for the table, have reference to the 
work which is in hand, so that dishes which are easily cooked 
shall be provided for those days when most work is to be done. 
A want of consideration in this particular often provokes ill 
temper, and may even occasion the loss of a good domestic. 
This is one of the errors which those are liable to commit who 
are unaccustomed to household labor. Provide a variety of 
food ; a frugal table, with frequent change, is much more agree- 
able and healthy than a more expensive one, where nearly the 
same things are served up every day. 

If you are subject to uninvited company, and your means do 
not allow you to set before your guests as good a table as they 
keep at home, do not distress yourself or them with apologies. 
If they are real friends, they will cheerfully sit down with you 
to such a table as is appropriate to your circumstances, and 
would be made uncomfortable by an effort on your part to pro- 
vide a better one than you can afford. If your resources are 
ample, live in such a way that an unexpected visitor shall occa- 
sion no difference. The less alteration made in family arrange- 
ments on account of visitors, the happier for them as well as for 
you. 

Never treat the subject of having company as if it were a 
great affair. Your doing this will excite your domestics, and 
lead them to imagine the addition to their usual work much 
greater than it is ; your own cares, too, will be greatly mag- 
nified. A calm and quiet way of meeting all sorts of domestic 



14 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

vicissitudes, and of doing the work of each day, be it more or 
less, equalizes the pressure of care, and prevents its becoming 
oppressive. 

Be composed when accidents happen to your furniture. 
The most careful hand is sometimes unsteady. Angry words 
will not mend broken glass or china, but they will teach your 
domestics to conceal such occurrences from you, and the 
only explanation ever given you will be, that they came 
apart. Encourage those whom you employ to' come immediately 
and tell you, when they have been so unfortunate as to 
break or injure any thing belonging to you. The cases are 
very rare, in which it is best to deduct the value from their 
wages. 

In the best regulated families there will be some laborious, 
perplexing days. Adverse and inconvenient circumstances will 
cluster together. At those times, guard against two thing*, 
discouragement and irritability. If others look- on the dark 
side, find something cheering to say ; if they fret, sympathize 
in their share of the trial, while you set them the example of 
bearing your part in it well. 

Miss Hamilton's three maxims, so often quoted, are worthy 
of an indelible inscription in every house : 

" Do every thing in its proper time. 

" Keep every thing to its proper use. 

" Put every thing in its proper place." 

She should have added, Do every thing in the best manner ; 
for the habit of aiming at a perfect standard, is not only of the 
highest importance in our moral interests, but also proportion- 
ately so in reference to the common affairs of life. 

Accustom yourself, each evening, to arrange in your own 
mind the meals for the next day, and also the extra work to be 
done by others, and what you will do yourself. This habit 
promotes order and system, and gives quietness and ease to 
the movement of the whole family machinery. When you 
see defects, such as irregularity, confusion, waste, or want of 
cleanliness in any part of your household concerns, consider 



COUNSELS AND SUGGESTIONS. 13 

what is the best remedy, and be willing to attend to the subject 
till the evil is cured. 

Visit all the rooms and closets that are in constant use, every- 
day. You will thus acquire that habit of attention to minutiae, 
upon which neatness and order so much depend, and it will 
cost a less expenditure of time and effort to secure these ends, 
than if a great many little things requiring attention are suffered 
to accumulate. This habit will also have the best effect upon 
those who serve you. They will not be tempted to negligence 
or waste, by the idea that you will never discover it. They 
will anticipate your daily inspection, and soon find themselves 
so much benefited by your habits of system and order, that 
their own convenience will dictate obedience to your directions 
and suggestions. Endeavor so to perfect your plan, that when 
you have given the necessary time, be it longer or shorter, to 
domestic concerns each morning, you can dismiss them from 
your mind and attend to other things, giving to these no fur- 
ther thought, except that which results from a habit of observing 
whatever passes in the family. 

When a new domestic enters your service, observe whether she 
seems to understand her business ; if not, teach her your meth- 
ods. Nothing can be more unreasonable than to expect a 
stranger to remember, and at once practise, a series of directions 
given all at once, and perhaps in a hurried manner. And yet, 
this is an injustice of which many a girl has to complain. 
What wonder if mutual dissatisfaction and a speedy separation t 
is the result ? * She is in a new situation, unacquainted with 
the various parts of your house, and the arrangements of your 
family. Therefore, duty and self-interest dictate, that you 
cheerfully instruct her, so far as is necessary ; and a few days' 
attention to her manner of doing her work, will probably be 
rewarded by a much more skilful and willing service, than if no 
such care were bestowed. She will discover that you are 

* Probably a lady, known to the writer, who had twenty-three girls in the 
course of six weeks, pursued this inconsiderate course. 



16 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

kindly disposed, ready to appreciate her efforts, and capable of 
judging when her work is well done. Confidence is thus in- 
spired, and she will be far more likely to become a faithful and 
permanent member of your household, than if left in the begin- 
ning to pursue her own course, and to be frowned upon if she 
does not happen to please. 

Refrain from severity and too much frequency in finding 
fault, and be careful not to speak to domestics of their errors at 
a time when they are perplexed or very busy. To choose a 
good time, is as necessary to success as to avoid needless sever- 
ity. If the dinner is not properly done, it is usually best to say 
nothing at the time ; your cook will doubtless be conscious of 
her failure, and your silence will have a much better effect upon 
her than any thing you can then say ; but the next time the 
same articles are to be cooked, remind her of the previous fail- 
ure, point out the defect, and give her minute instructions how 
to avoid its repetition. 

Good temper, decision, and reasonable requisitions will secure 
the confidence and respect of your domestics ; while fretfulness, 
lack of good judgment, and unreasonable demands will alienate 
them from you, and involve you in endless perplexities. Noth- 
ing gives the mistress of a family such power as blended 
decision and gentleness ; they are truly irresistible. You need 
not, you must not, if you regard the best welfare of your house- 
hold, utter one impatient word from the beginning to the end of 
the year. 

Study the dispositions of those whom you employ. If you 
keep several domestics, arrange their work so that there shall 
be as little collision with one another, as possible. Be as con- 
siderate of their comfort, as you could reasonably wish others 
to be of yours in like circumstances. A universal obedience 
to the Golden Rule would make this world a paradise, and 
perhaps it is more liable to be forgotten in this relation than 
in most others. The best management on your part, cannot 
always save those who serve you from weariness and vexation ; 
but a well-timed word of kindness and sympathy does good like 
a medicine. 



COUNSELS AND SUGGESTIONS. 17 

Learn so to systematize your concerns, that each day of the 
week shall have its appropriate work, and every domestic know, 
without being prompted, what she is to do on that day. Ob- 
serve whether all do their appropriate work ; but do not prompt 
them, unless you see that they are likely to forget. They 
should learn to feel the responsibility to be on their own mem- 
ory not yours. 

In the morning, soon after breakfast, give all your directions 
about the dinner, and tea, and specify all the work you wish to 
have done in addition to the regular routine of the day. If you 
think of any thing more afterwards, defer it, if you can, till 
another day ; nothing disturbs the temper of domestics more 
than to have additional work assigned them after the business 
of the day has been laid out. 

The two following modes of arranging the work of a week, 
are designed for families whose pecuniary means allow an 
entirely comfortable, but not a costly mode of living ; yet they 
may contain useful hints for those whose wealth admits of the 
employment of a number of domestics. 

On Monday have the house swept and dusted, the clothes for 
the wash collected, and such articles mended as should be before 
being washed. 

On Tuesday, wash ; and here it should be observed, that 
those persons who have never practised washing, are often un- 
reasonable in their requirements on this day. If there is but 
one domestic, she is of course to do the washing; but, unless 
the family is small, she could be excused from doing the cook- 
ing or other ordinary work of the family. 

Every one acquainted with this part of family labor, knows 
that it is very discouraging to be obliged to leave it and do other 
things ; and the cleaning which must be done after the clothes 
are upon the line, is a sufficient occupation for the remaining 
time and strength, without one's being obliged to do any por- 
tion of the daily housework. In families where the washings 
are large, it is better to delay the ironing until the next day 
but one; this gives time for doing some things necessarily 



18 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

omitted on washing-day ; for baking, if the size of the family 
makes it necessary to bake twice a week, and for folding the 
clothes ; and the girl is better able to do the whole ironing in 
a day, than if she were to perform this labor immediately after 
washing. To most persons, both washing and ironing are 
severe labors, and therefore should not be assigned to suc- 
cessive days, unless the domestic herself prefers it, which is 
sometimes the case. 

Therefore, on Wednesday, bake, and fold the clothes. On 
TJmrsday, iron. On Friday, have all parts of the house that 
are in constant use, swept and dusted again, the brasses rubbed, 
and if there are windows to be washed, closets or sleeping rooms 
to be scoured, let it be done on this day. 

On Saturday, bake, and provide such a supply for the table 
a shall supersede the necessity of cooking on Sunday. 

The chief advantage of this method is, that the mistress of 
the family has not the Monday's sweeping to do, in addition 
to getting the washing-day dinner ; and if she is subject to in- 
cidental company, and has not 'daughters or a friend to help her, 
or has slender health, this is an important relief. 

The other arrangement is to wash on Monday ; bake, and do 
other things necessarily omitted, on Tuesday ; iron on Wednes- 
day ; Thursday, do no extra work. Friday, sweep and clean ; 
Saturday, bake ; distribute clean bed linen, and see that every 
thing is in readiness for the Sabbath. 

The practice of rubbing all the silver in common use every 
week is not necessary, provided it is always washed in clean 
suds, and rinsed in scalding soft water without soap. If it is 
washed in the kitchen with other dishes, it will be necessary to 
rub it once in two or three weeks. 

There are several advantages in washing on Monday. It 
is then easy on Saturday to provide food enough to last until 
after the washing is done, which cannot easily be accomplished 
if it is delayed until Tuesday. Another is, that if Monday is a 
pleasant day, the clothes may be dried, and the ironing and 
mending completed during the first half of the week ; but if 



COUNSELS AND SUGGESTIONS. 19 

Tuesday be the washing-day, and it is rainy, the work of the 
whole week is delayed. Still another reason is, that after the 
entire rest of Sunday the frame is invigorated for labor ; and 
lastly, it gives one day in the week of comparative leisure to 
the domestic. This is a consideration worthy of regard. Some 
ladies are always uneasy, and appear to think themselves 
wronged, when they see their domestics quietly seated at their 
sewing ; as if they could not render faithful service without 
being employed the whole time in household labor. But those 
persons who so arrange their affairs as to secure to their domes- 
tics several hours every week for their own employments, and 
who take an interest in promoting, in every reasonable way, 
their comfort and happiness, will be amply rewarded in their 
faithfulness and attachment. 

The situation of a waiting-maid is, in some families, one of 
hard bondage. It seems as if her employers had forgotten that 
she is made of flesh and blood, and is therefore capable of hav- 
ing an aching head and weary limbs. She must run at the call 
of the various bells throughout the house, and no matter how 
tired she becomes, there is no rest for the sole of her foot. If 
the unfortunate being is a homeless, motherless little girl, or a 
friendless foreigner, so much the worse. By a little considera- 
tion on the part of the lady, or ladies, of a family, such hard 
requisitions might be avoided without any real sacrifice of com- 
fort. Our happiness is promoted by the cultivation of such 
habits that we shall not need the constant attendance of another 
to save us from exertion. 

If your domestics cannot read, offer to teach them, and devote 
several half hours to their instruction during the week, and an 
additional hour on Sunday. It is a religious duty, a part of 
every Christian's mission. Encourage in them a taste for read- 
ing, by keeping useful and entertaining books in the kitchen. 
A love of rational pleasure will thus be promoted, and the effect 
be every way beneficial. 

Let the least possible amount of labor be required from those 
who serve you, on Sunday. This ought to be a needless injunc- 



20 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

tion in this country; but many a professor of religion, living on 
the soil trodden by the puritan pilgrims, provides a better din- 
ner for the Sabbath than for any other day. Religion forbids 
such a practice ; but, aside from this consideration, family com-, 
fort is essentially promoted by quietness and freedom from care 
on the Lord's day. Domestics, whatever be their religious pre- 
dilections, uniformly regard it a great privilege to be exempt 
from cooking on that day. It is easy, by a little good manage- 
ment, to provide a dinner, nice enough for any table in the land, 
without even kindling a fire. ( In the summer this is done in 
many families; and in the winter, when a fire is of course 
always burning, a cup of tea, or a dish of vegetables, can be 
added to the cold articles already provided, without keeping 
any one from church for the purpose. 

In concluding these suggestions, the writer cannot refrain 
from adding a few words of sympathy and encouragement for 
those who, having passed their youth in affluent ease, or in the 
clolights of study, are obliged, by the vicissitudes of life, to 
spend their time and strength in laborious household occupa- 
tions. There are many such instances in this country, particu- 
larly in the great Western Valley. Adversity succeeds pros- 
perity like a sudden inundation, and sweeps away the possessions 
and the hopes of multitudes. The poor and uneducated are 
often rapidly elevated to wealthy independence, while the re- 
fined and highly educated are compelled to taste the bitterness 
of poverty ; and minds capable of any attainment, and that 
would grace any station, are doomed to expend their energies 
in devising methods for the hands to earn a scanty livelihood. 

Let not such persons feel themselves degraded by the per- 
formance of the humblest domestic labor. 

" Some kinds of baseness 
Are nobly undergone, and most poor matters 
Point to rich ends." 

However lowly the common duties of life may be, a faithful 
and cheerful discharge of them is always honorable, and God 
smiles on those who patiently fulfil them. 



OVENS, AND HOW TO HEAT THEM. 21 



OVENS, BREAD, &c. 

Ovens and how to heat them. 

Stoves and cooking-ranges have so generally taken the place 
of brick ovens, that the following directions, which were ap- 
propriate when this book was first published, will seldom be of 
use now. Yet, as they may sometimes be needed, they are suf- 
fered to remain. It is impossible to give minute directions as to 
the management of the various kinds of baking apparatus now 
in use. A few experiments will enable a person of good judg- 
ment to succeed with any of them. 

A few suggestions in regard to the construction of an oven 
may be useful. For a family of medium size, an oven holding 
ten or twelve plates is large enough. There should be two or 
three bushels of ashes, with dead coals in them, poured over the 
top, after the first tier of bricks which forms the arch is laid. 
Then the usual brickwork should be laid over them. The 
advantage is this, when the oven is heated, these ashes and 
coals are heated also, and, being so thick, retain the heat a long 
time. Five successive bakings have been done in such an oven 
with one heating ; the bread first then the puddings after- 
ward pastry then cake and gingerbread and lastly custards, 
which, if made with boiled milk and put into the oven hot, and 
allowed to stand a considerable time, will bake sufficiently with 
a very slight heat. 

The first time an oven is heated, a large fire should be kept 
burning in it six or eight hours. Unless this is done it will 
never bake well. 

The size and structure of ovens is so different, that no precise 
rules for heating them can be given. A lady should attend to 
this herself, until she perfectly understands what is necessary, 
and can give minute directions to those she employs. It is easy 
to find out how many sticks of a given size are necessary for 
baking articles that require a strong heat ; and so for those 



22 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

which are baked with less. To bake brown bread, beans, ap- 
ples, and other things, all at one time, the oven should be heated 
with hard wood, and if rather large, so as to be two hours in 
burning out, it is better. To bake thin cake, and some kinds of 
puddings, pine wood, split small, answers very well. 

After the wood is half burnt, stir the fire equally to all parts 
of the oven. This is necessary to an equal diffusion of the heat. 
Do it several times before the oven is cleared. If the oven is 
to be very full, put in a brick, so that you can have it hot, to set 
upon it any pan or plate for which there may not be room on 
the bottom.* Be careful that no doors or windows are open 
near the oven. Let the coals remain until they are no longer 
red. They should not look dead, but like hot embers. TThen 
you take them out, leave in the back part a few to be put near 
the pans that require most heat, such as beans, Indian pudding, 
or jars of fruit. Before putting in the things to be baked, throw 
in a little flour. If it browns instantly, the oven is too hot, and 
should stand open three or four minutes. If it browns without 
burning in the course of half a minute, it will be safe to set in 
the articles immediately. It is often best not to put in those 
things which require a moderate heat, till those which need a 
strong heat have been baking ten or fifteen minutes. 

A coal scuttle of peat, with less wood, is economical, and 
gives an equal and very prolonged heat. Many persons use it 
with pine wood, for their ordinary baking. It takes a longer 
time to burn out than wood. 

It is well to kindle the fire as far back as possible, because all 
parts of the wood are much sooner on fire than if it is kindled 
near the mouth of the oven ; and if peat is used, it should not 
be thrown in until the wood is well kindled. 

Directions respecting Bread. 

There is no one thing upon which health and comfort in a 



* The pan which is set on this brick may need a paper over it to keep 
the top from burning, and after a while should be set on the oven bottom, 
and another put on the brick. 



ON YEAST. 23 

family so much depend as bread. With good bread the coarsest 
fare is tolerable ; without it, the most luxurious table is not com- 
fortable. 

It is best economy to purchase the lest flour, even at an extra 
cost. Good flour adheres slightly to the hand, and if pressed in 
it, shows the impress of the lines of the skin. Dough made of 
it is a yellowish white, and does not stick to the hands after suf- 
ficient kneading. There is much bad flour in market, which can 
in no way be made into nutritious food. 

When you find good flour, notice the Irand, and afterwards 
purchase the same kind. The writer knows a family that for 
eleven years purchased flour in this way, without once having a 
poor barrel ; then the mills passed to another owner, and though 
the brand was the same, the flour was good no more. 

If you raise wheat, or buy it in the grain, always wash it 
before sending it to the mill. Take two or three bushels at a 
time, pour in water and stir it, and then pour off the water. 
Repeat this till the water is clear. Do not let the grain stand 
in the water, as it will swell and be injured ; spread it on a 
large cloth in the sun, or where it will have warmth and frh 
air, and stir it often, and in a day or two it will be dry. The 
flour is much improved by this process. 

Newly ground flour which has never been packed, is very 
superior to barrel flour, so that the people in Western New 
York, that land of finest wheat, say that New England people 
do not know what good flour is. 

Indian meal, also, is much the best when freshly ground. 
The meal made of Southern corn is often injured by salt water, 
or dampness acquired in the hold of a ship. 

-Rye flour is very apt to be musty or grown. There is no 
way to detect this but by trial. It is well to engage a farmer to 
supply you with the same he provides for his own family. 

On Yeast. 

Good yeast is indispensable to good bread. Many of the 
compounds sold for yeast are unfit for use. 



24 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

The best kinds are dry yeasty soft hop yeast, and potato yeast. 
The hard yeast should be made in the month of May, or early 
in June, for summer use, and in September or October, for the 
winter. This kind sometimes loses its vitality during the damp 
weather of August, but it is not invariably the case. Soft hop, 
or potato yeast, should be made once a week in the summer, and 
once in two weeks in the winter. No soft yeast can be fit for 
use, if kept week after week ; it may be rectified with saleratus, 
but the bread will not be very good. 

Every housekeeper should make sure, by her own personal 
attention, that the yeast is properly made, and the jar well 
scalded. A jar having a close cover is best. Bottles will burst, 
and you cannot be perfectly sure that a jug is cleansed from 
every particle of old yeast. To scald the jar, put it into a ket- 
tle of boiling water. This must be done every time you make 
yeast. Stone ware is liable to be cracked by the pouring of 
boiling water into it. 

Soft Hop Yeast. 

To three pints of water put a small handful of hops, or if 
they are in compact pound papers, as put up by the Shakers, 
half a handful ; boil them about half an hour. If the water 
wastes, add more. Put into the jar six or seven table-spoonfuls 
of flour, and a leaspoonful of salt. Set it near the kettle, and 
dip the hop tea, as it boils, into the jar through a small colander 
or sieve. When you have strained enough of the tea to wet all 
the flour, stir it, and let none remain dry at the bottom or sides 
of the jar ; then strain upon it the remainder of the hop-water, 
and stir it well. This mixture should be about the consistency 
of batter for griddle-cakes. The reason for straining the hop- 
water while boiling is, that if the flour is not scalded, the yeast 
will soon become sour. 

After it becomes cool (but not cold), stir in a gill of good 
yeast ; set it in a slightly warm place, and not closely covered. 
Do not leave an iron spoon in it, as it will turn it a dark color, 
and make it unfit for use. When the yeast is fermented, put it 
m a cool place, covered close. 



DRY YEAST POTATO YEAST. 25 

Yeast which is made in part of Graham flour rises light 
sooner than that which is made of white flour alone, and does 
not affect the color of the bread. 

When yeast has a strong tart smell, and a watery appearance 
on the surface, it is too old for use. 

Dry Yeast. 

I Put four ounces of hops to six quarts of water ; boil it away 
to three quarts. Strain, boiling hot (as directed for the Soft 
yeast) upon three pints of flour, a large spoonful of ginger, and 
another of salt. When it is cool, add a pint of sweet yeast. 
When it is foaming light, knead in sifted Indian meal enough to 
make it very stiff. Mould it into loaves, and cut in thin slices^ 
and lay it upon clean boards. Set it where there is a free cir- 
culation of air, in the sun. After one side has dried so as to be 
a little crisped, turn the slices over ; and when both sides are 
dry, break them up into small pieces. It thus dries sooner than 
if not broken. Set it in the sun two or three days in succes- 
sion. Stir it often with your hand, so that all parts will be 
equally exposed to the air. When perfectly dry, put it into a 
coarse bag, and hang it in a dry and cool place. The greatest 
inconvenience in making this yeast is the danger of cloudy or 
wet weather. If the day after it is made should not be fair, it 
will do to set the jar in a cool place, and wait a day or two be- 
fore putting in the Indian meal. But the best yeast is made 
when the weather continues clear and dry ; and if a little windy, 
so much the better. 

To use it, take, for five loaves of bread, one handful ; soak it 
in a very little water till soft, which will be in a few minutes ; 
stir it into the sponge prepared for the bread. This yeast makes 
less delicate bread than the soft kind, but it is very convenient. 

Maine Potato Yeast. 

Pare, and cut in several pieces, three large Jackson White 
potatoes. Remove all dark specks. Boil in a quart of water. 
Keep a nice porcelain-lined or tin sauce-pan for this purpose. 
When the potatoes are soft, put them into a pitcher that will 



26 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

contain three pints. Then add to the water in which they 
were boiled a small pinch of hops, and boil ten minutes. (If 
you take too many hops, the water will be of a dark color ; 
whereas it should be but slightly colored.) Meanwhile, mash 
the boiled potatoes smooth with a silver spoon. (An iron 
spoon would black them.) Next stir in half a cup of flour, 
and then the same of white sugar, and a tablespoonful of 
salt. Put the pitcher on the stove-hearth, and set a fine 
strainer in the top of it. Dip the hop-water as it boils upon 
the potato. When you have poured in one or two dipperfuls, 
stir till the flour is smooth ; then add the rest of the hop- 
water. It boils away more at some times than at others; 
and, should the mixture seem thick, pour in a few spoonfuls 
of boiling water, enough to make it like a very thin batter. 

Set away to cool ; and when warm to your finger, but not 
hot, add half a cup of lively yeast, and put the pitcher in a 
warm place. The yeast will rise rapidly. When it begins to 
foam, stir once or twice. This will make it still lighter. 

One cup will raise a sponge for five or six loaves. Keep 
the pitcher in a cool place, covered with a saucer. Never put 
it into a bottle or jug. In warm weather, your refrigerator is 
the best place. It will keep sweet two or three weeks. Al- 
ways reserve a half or whole cup to raise your yeast the nexC 
time. Make double the quantity if you have a large family. 

A sponge set early in the morning with this yeast will, in 
warm weather, be ready to knead in two or three hours, and 
the bread light enough to bake before noon. 

This has, for many years, proved a never-failing rule. 

Potato Bread. 

Boil four large, white potatoes (pared) in two quarts of 
water. When soft, take them from the water, and ^ mash 
smooth in a bread-pan ; add salt and a large tablespoonful of 
beef-shortening or butter. Then stir in the water in which 
the potatoes were boiled, a cup of potato-yeast, and flour 



FAMILY BREAD. 27 

enough to make a stiff batter. Let it stand over night. In 
the morning, knead it smooth. It will require more kneading 
than bread made with milk. Mould into rather thin loaves, 
as it rises very light. In warm weather, it will soon be ready 
for the oven. Bread made by this rule is excellent, as well 
as economical. 

Good Family Bread. 

For five common-sized loaves, make a pint and a half of thin 
water gruel. Use half a teacupful of fine Indian meal. Salt 
It a little more than if it were to be eaten as gruel, and boil 
ten or fifteen minutes. This is of importance, as, if the meal is 
only scalded, the bread will be coarse. Add enough milk to 
make two quarts of the whole. If the milk is new, the gruel 
may be poured into it in the pan ; if not, it should be scalded in 
the kettle with the gruel. This is particularly important in the 
summer, as at that season milk which is but a few hours old, and 
is sweet \rhen put into the bread, will sour in the dough in a 
short time. When the mixture is cool, so that you are sure it 
will not scald, add a teacupful of yeast, and then stir in sifted 
flour * enough to make a thick batter. This is called a sponge. 
This being clone in the evening, let it stand, if in summer, in a 
cool place, if in winter, in a moderately warm place, till morn- 
ing. Then add flour enough to make it easy to mould, and 
knead it very thoroughly. 

This process of kneading is very important in making bread, 
and there are but few domestics whom it is not necessary to in- 
struct how to do it. They generally work over the dough with- 
out expending any strength upon it. The hands should be 
closely shut, and the fists pressed hard and quickly upon the 
dough, dipping them into flour whenever the dough sticks to 
them. A half an hour is the least time to be given to kneading 
a baking of bread, unless you prefer, after having done this till 



* All kinds of flour and meal should be sifted for use, except buckwheat 
and Graham flour- 



28 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

it ceases to stick to your hands, to chop it with a chopping-knife 
four or five hundred strokes. An hour's kneading is not too 
much. 

All this looks on paper like a long and troublesome process ; 
but I venture to say that no lady, after having learned the ben- 
efit of it, will be willing to diminish any portion of the labor and 
attention necessary to secure such bread as these directions, ob- 
served, will make. Practice will make it easy, and no woman 
of sense will hesitate in choosing between sour, tough, ill-baked 
bread, with heaps of wasted pieces, a dyspeptic husband, and 
sickly children on the one hand, and comfort, economy, and 
health on the other. 

But to return to the bread. After it is thoroughly kneaded, 
divide it into four or five equal pieces, and mould according to 
the form of the pans in which you bake it. These being 
greased with clean drippings, put in the dough and set it in the 
sun or near the fire (according to the season) to rise. Loaves 
of this size will bake in an hour ; if the oven be rather hot, in a 
few minutes short of an hour. Practice and good judgment 
must direct these things. If the bread rises rather slowly, take 
a dish of warm water and wet the top with your hand. 

When the loaves are baked, do not lay them flat upon the 
table ; good housewives think it makes them heavy. Set them 
on the side, one against another, and put a coarse cloth closely 
over them; this makes the crust tender by keeping in the 
steam. If bread is baked too hard, wring a towel in cold water 
and wrap around it while it is yet hot. Care is necessary that 
bread does not rise too much, and thus become sour, especially 
in warm weather ; and even .if it does not, the freshness is lost, 
and an insipid taste is produced, and it becomes dry sooner by 
long rising. No exact rule can be given ; experience and ob- 
servation must teach. When dough becomes so light as to run 
over after being moulded and put into pans, it is best to mould 
it again, kneading it hard two or three minutes, but using as 
little flour as possible ; then lay it back into the pans, and put it 
immediately into the oven ; this prevents its being tasteless and 



FAMILY BREAD. 29 

dry ; it will be perfectly light, but of a different sort, and much 
preferred by some persons. 

Some people invariably use saleratus in bread, and there are 
tables where the effluvia of this article, and the deep yellow 
color of the bread, offend the senses before it is tasted. If all 
the materials used are good, and the dough has not been per- 
mitted to sour, white bread except that which is made with wa- 
ter, is far better without saleratus. If dough has become sour, a 
teaspoonful of saleratus for every quart of the milk or water 
that was used for wetting the bread, will be sufficient to correct 
it. The tray or pan in which the bread is made, should be 
scalded after being washed, every time it is used, except in cold 
weather. It is not good economy to buy skimmed milk, as 
some persons do, for making bread. It renders it tough and 
indigestible, if used in the ordinary way. In case it is used for 
this purpose, it should be boiled, and thickened with a little 
Indian meal in the same way, and the same proportions as 
directed for making gruel, in the receipt for Good Family Bread. 
Use no water with it. 

Bread made without a Sponge. 

In cool weather the milk should be warmed. A little more 
yeast is necessary than for sponge-bread, and it should be made 
up over night. When it is light, knead and mould it, and raise 
it again in the pans in which it is to be baked. 

If brewer's yeast is used, a table-spoonful is enough for every 
quart of wetting, and it should not stand over night, as it rises 
very quickly. 

Bread made with Milk and Water. 

Boil a quart of milk ; add to it a pint of cold water and a 
little salt, and, when cool enough, stir in a small cup of pota- 
to-yeast, and flour enough to make a light sponge. When' 
light, knead it. 

All these various sponges are very nice baked on a griddle 
like buckwheat-cakes, or poured into iron drop-cake pans, 



30 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEEER'S FRIEND. 

and baked in the cooking-stove ; and, better still, baked in 
inuffin-rings. 

Rice Bread, 

Allow half a pint of ground rice to a quart of milk, or milk 
and water ; put the milk and water over the fire to boil, reserv* 
ing enough to wet the rice. Stir out the lumps, add a large 
teaspoonful of salt, and when the milk and water boil, stir in the 
rice, exactly as when you make gruel. Boil it up two or three 
minutes, stirring it repeatedly ; then pour it out into your 
bread-pan, and immediately stir in as much flour as you can 
with a spoon. After it is cool enough (and of this be very 
sure, as scalding the yeast will make heavy, sour bread, full of 
great holes), add a gill of yeast, and let it stand until morning. 
Then knead in more flour until the dough ceases to stick to the 
hands. It is necessary to make this kind of bread a little stiffer 
than that in which no rice is used, else there will be a heavy 
streak through the loaf. It is elegant bread, keeps moist sev- 
eral days, and is particularly good toasted. 

Third Bread. 

Take equal parts of white flour, rye flour, and Indian meal 
It is good made with water, but made with milk is much better. 
Add salt and a gill of yeast to a quart of water or milk. It 
should not be made so stiff as to mould, but as thick as you 
can stir it with your hand, or a large spoon. Like all other 
bread it should be thoroughly worked together. Bake in deep 
pans. 

Graham Bread. 

Make a sponge at night of one pint of warm water, two 
cups of white flour, half a cup of yeast, and half a teaspoon- 
ful of salt. In the morning, when light, add half a cup of 
Indian meal, the same of nice brown or white sugar, and an 
even teaspoonful of saleratus dissolved in a spoonful or two of 
boiling water. Scatter in gradually as much Graham flour 







C <' 

/ 









J? 



' 



> ' * ^ 



^ ^ 



<<^ ^ 

^ 



BROWN BREAD. 31 

as you can stir, and then put the dough into the pan. Let 
it rise till very light. This rule will make one good-sized 
loaf. It is not best to make much Graham bread at once in 
a small family, as it is not so good when stale, and cannot, 
like white bread, be made into puddings when dry. In mak- 
ing the sponge, you can take part milk, if you prefer, and 
less white flour, so as to have more Graham flour in the 
bread. Some persons prefer molasses to sugar ; but the 
bread is rather more delicate if sugar is used. If you use 
potato-yeast, the rule for which is given in this book, you can 
set the sponge in the morning, in warm weather, and the 
bread will be ready for the oven in a few hours. 

Raised Brown Bread. 

Stir into a pint of warm water one cup of white flour, two 
of rye meal, and two of Indian meal, one of molasses, a 
small cup of good yeast, a teaspoonful of salt, and a small 
teaspoonful of saleratus. Pour it into a tin pudding-pan or 
pail. Let it rise three hours. Then set it into a kettle of 
boiling water, and steam four hours. Some people like to 
add a cup of chopped raisins. 

Boston Brown Bread, to be baked in a Brick Oven. 

Take a quart of rye meal, and the same of fine Indian meal. 
(If this is bitter, scald it before mixing it with the rye. If it is 
sweet and fresh, almost every thing in which it is used is 
lighter without its being scalded.) Mix with warm water, a 
gill of molasses, a teaspoonful of saleratus, a large teaspoonful of 
salt, and half a gill of yeast. Such bread is improved by the 
addition of a gill of boiled pumpkin or winter squash. Make it 
stiff as can easily be stirred. Grease a deep, brown pan, 
thickly, and put the bread in it, and dip your hand in water and 
smooth over the top. This will rise faster than other bread, 
and should not be made over night in the summer. If put into 
the oven in the forenoon, it will be ready for the tea-table. If 
in the afternoon, let it stand in the oven till morning. This 
may be steamed, as directed in the next receipt. 



YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 



Steamed Brown Bread. 

For a very small family, take half a pint of rye meal, not 
sifted, and a pint of sifted Indian meal, a pint of sour milk, a> 
half a gill of molasses, a teaspoonful of salt, and a large tea- 
spoonful of saleratus. Mix all the ingredients except the sal- 
eratus, dissolve that (as it should always be) in a little boiling 
water, and add it, stirring the mixture well. Grease a tin 
pudding pan, or a pail having a close lid, and having put the 
bread in it, set it into a kettle of boiling water. The bread 
should not quite fill the pail, as it must have room to swell. 
See that the water does not boil up to the top of the pail, and 
also take care it does not boil entirely away. The bread should 
be cooked at least four hours. To serve it, remove the lid, and 
set it a few minutes into the stove oven, without the lid, to dry 
the top ; then it will turn out in perfect shape. 

If used as a pudding, those who have cream, can make an 
excellent sauce for it of thick sour cream, by stirring into it 
plenty of sugar, and adding nutmeg. This bread is improved 
by being made, and put into the pan or pail in which it is to be 
boiled, two or three hours before it is set into the kettle. It is 
good toasted the next day. 

Indian Loaf. 

To one quart of sweet milk, put a gill of molasses, a teaspoon- 
ful of saleratus, a heaping pint of Indian meal, a gill of flour, 
and a teaspoonful of salt. Stir it well together, put it into a 
deep brown pan, and bake in a brick oven. It should be 
stirred the last thing before being set into the oven. It must 
be in the oven many hours, at least eight or nine, if it is a brick 
oven, and if set in towards night should stand till morning. If 
it is baked in a range, it will require five or six hours of moder- 
ate heat. 

Rye Bread. 

Take a pint of water, and a large spoonful of fine Indian 
meal, and make it into gruel. Add a pint of milk, and when 



TO MAKE STALE BREAD FRESH. 

cool enough, a small gill of yeast, and then the flour. Fine, 
bolted rye flour is necessary to make this bread good. Knead 
it about as stiff' as white bread. Let it rise over night, and 
then mould and put into three pans to rise again. When light, 
bake it about an hour. Rye is very adhesive, and a young 
cook will be troubled with its sticking to her fingers, but prac- 
tice will make it easy to manage it. 

To make Stale Bread, or Cake, Fresh. 

Plunge the loaf one instant in cold water, and lay it upon a 
tin in the stove ten or fifteen minutes. It will be like new 
bread without its deleterious qualities. Stale cake is thus made 
nice as new cake. But bread or cake heated over thus, should 
be used immediately. 

Various convenient Uses of Bread Dough. 

In the winter, dough may be kept sweet many days in a 
place where it will be cold, without freezing, and it will grow 
better till the last. It should be raised light, then kneaded 
a little, and then covered with a damp cloth, so that a dry crust 
will not form on the top. Fresh bread can thus be furnished 
for the table every day, without extra work. Doughnuts, 
bread-cake, or rusks can be made of it by adding butter, sugar, 
and spice ; tea biscuit also, fried biscuit, crust for apple dump- 
ling, and for pan pie. See the receipts for these articles. 

The dough should be made, at least in part, with milk, when 
it is to be used for these purposes. 

These directions are particularly recommended to persons 
who do their own house-work, and of course wish to save tune 
and labor, as much as possible. 



34 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 



BISCUITS, TEA. C^KES, 
CA.KES, <Sco. 

Raised Biscuit. 

Take a pint bowl full of light dough ; break into it a fresh 
egg, and add a piece of butter the size of ah egg. Knead in 
these until perfectly incorporated with the dough. It will 
require about ten minutes. Boll it out about an inch thick ; 
cut it into biscuit. Lay them upon a tin sheet, or upon a 
roll pan, and let them rise in a moderately warm place. They 
will become very light, and should be baked in a quick stove, 
baker, or oven. They will bake in twelve or fifteen minutes, 
and are injured by being baked very slowly. Very nice eaten 
fresh, but not hot. This measure will make about two dozen. 
They are not so good the next day as biscuit made without an 
egg. 

Butter-Milk or Sour-Milk Biscuit. 

Take a pint of buttermilk or sour milk, and a quart of 
flour. Hub into the flour a piece of butter half the size of an 
egg. Add a little salt, and stir the milk into the flour. Dis- 
solve a teaspoonful of saleratus in a very little hot water, and 
stir into it with a knife, till well mixed. 

Add flour enough barely to mould it smooth ; roll it out upon 
the board, and cut out and bake exactly like the tea biscuit. 
The advantage of putting in the saleratus after the dough is 
partly mixed is, that the foaming process occasioned by com- 
bining the sour milk and alkali raises the whole mass ; where- 
as, if it is stirred first into the milk, much of the efferves- 
cence is lost before it is added to the flour. Bake in a quick 
oven. 

Cream Biscuit. 

These are to be made in the same manner as the butter- 
milk biscuit, except that no butter is required : the cream will 
make them sufficiently short. 



POTATO BISCUIT. CREAM-OF- TARTAR BISCUIT, ETC. 35 

Potato Biscuit. 

Boil four good potatoes (pared) in a quart of water. 
When very soft, mash them in the water, and stir in a little 
salt, a large spoonful of butter, and flour to make a stiff bat- 
ter. Add a small cup of potato yeast. Let it rise over night : 
in the morning knead in flour till it is smooth, and make it 
into biscuit. If you wish them for breakfast, set them where 
they will be a little warm. They will rise very soon. If to 
be kept for tea, set them in the refrigerator (or, if it is winter, 
in a cold place), and, before tea-time, set them for an hour in 
a warm place. An oval biscuit-cutter makes a pretty variety. 
To make the crust tender, wrap a damp cloth around it when 
first baked, with a dry cloth outside. 

Cream-of-Tartar Biscuit. 

Rub a piece of butter the size of an egg into a quart of 
flour till there are no little lumps. Then add a teaspoonful 
of salt, and scatter in two heaping teaspoonfuls of cream-of- 
tartar. Have ready a pint of cold water in which a heaping 
teaspoonful of saleratus or soda has been dissolved : pour it 
into the flour, stirring it quickly with a knife. Do this 
several minutes, that the ingredients may become well mixed ; 
then add flour enough to enable you to mould it smooth. Roll 
it out the same thickness as tea biscuit. If these are made 
right, they are as light as foam. They may be made of un- 
bolted flour, if preferred. Make half the measure for a small 
family. 

Strawberry Short Cake. 

Make cream-of-tartar biscuit dough a little shorter than 
usual ; roll it rather thin, and lay it in the pans in sheets. 
Bake rather quick. Take fresh strawberries or raspberries, 
and stir sugar into them. Open the cake lengthwise while 
Lot, and butter both parts ; then put on a layer of the fruit, 



36 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

and replace the upper half of the short cake. To be set on 
the table uncut, and eaten hot. 

Use butter-milk or rich sour milk for this cake, if conve- 
nient ; but, in that case, omit the cream-of-tartar. 

/ 

Jenny Lind. 

Take one egg, one teacup of sugar, one of sweet milk, two 
and a half of flour, a dessert-spoonful of butter, two teaspoon- 
fuls of cream-of-tartar, one of saleratus, and a very little salt. 
To mix it, stir the cream-of-tartar, sugar, and salt into the 
flour, then the milk ; add the egg without beating ; dissolve the 
saleratus ; and melt the butter in a spoonful of hot water ; 
then stir all together a few minutes. Bake in fifteen min- 
utes, in two pans about the size of a breakfast-plate. If you 
prefer, make it with sour milk, and omit the cream-of-tartar. 

With the addition of one egg, a little more butter, half 
a cup of sugar, and some spice, this is a nice cake for the bas- 
ket, and is convenient because so quickly made. 

Sally Lunn. 

A quart of flour, a piece of butter the size of an egg, three 
table spoonfuls of sugar, two eggs, two teacups of milk, two 
teaspoonfuls of cream-of-tartar, one of saleratus, and a little 
salt. 

Scatter the cream-of-tartar, the salt, "and the sugar into the 
flour ; add the eggs, the butter melted, and one cup of the 
milk; dissolve the saleratus in the remaining cup, and stir 
all together steadily a few minutes. Bake in two round pans. 

Whortleberry Cake. 

Make it like the Sally Lunn ; but add, the last thing be- 
fore putting it into the pans, a cup and a half of berries. 
Bake twenty minutes or half an hour. 

Busk, or Buns. 

To a pint bowl of light dough add a cup of sugar, half as 



NORWICH BUNS. SPANISH FRITTERS. 37 

much butter, and either a little cinnamon, allspice, or lemon. 
Work these ingredients together, and then add flour enough 
to enable you to mould it smooth and roll it out. Let it be 
about an inch thick ; cut it into biscuit, and lay them into a 
baking-pan to rise. They should become very light before 
being baked ; and therefore, in cold weather, it is well to let 
the dough stand, after the ingredients are added, until the 
next day ; then roll out the biscuit, and raise* them in the 
bake-pan. Their appearance is improved by wetting the top 
with a mixture of sugar and milk when they are nearly 
baked ; then return them to the oven for a short time. They 
require fifteen or twenty minutes to bake. 

A double measure may be made in cold weather, and when 
light be set in a cool place, but where it will not freeze ; and 
a pan be baked whenever needed. Each day it will be bet- 
ter than the previous one. 

Norwich Buns. 

To one tumbler of milk put half a gill of yeast, three eggs, 
one coffee-cup of sugar, two ounces of butter, and one small 
nutmeg. Beat the sugar and eggs together ; rub the butter 
into the flour, of which use enough to enable you just to mould 
it. Let it rise over night ; and, when very light, roll out, and 
put it on tins to rise again ; after which, bake as above. Wet 
the top as directed above. If you wish to add currants, put 
them into the sponge when mixed. 

Spanish. Flitters. (Convenient for using stale bread.) 

Cut slices thick as your finger ; divide them, and cut off 
the crust. Prepare the following mixture : beat well three 
eggs ; add a pint of milk, a little salt, and nutmeg or cinna- 
mon. Dip the bread in this ; take out the pieces when a little 
ft, and fry on a buttered griddle. When nicely browned, 
lay them, fast as they are done, in a hot covered dish, and 
pour over each some melted sauce, such as you make for pud- 
dings. This is a nice dish for tea or dessert. 



38 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Sour-Milk Muffins, 

To a pint of sour milk put one egg, without first beating 
it, a little salt, a teaspoonful of saleratus, and one of butter, 
melted with the saleratus, in a spoonful of hot water. Make 
rather a thick batter, and beat it well. Have the griddle of a 
moderate heat, grease it, and also the rings; lay them on, and 
fill them only half full of the batter ; increase the heat a 
little. In about eight minutes, turn them, and let them lie 
two or three minutes more. 

To turn them without spilling requires some dexterity. 

Eye Beach Breakfast-Puns. 

Allow a quart of flour, a pint and a half of milk, and three 
eggs, a little salt. Mix the flour smooth in part of the milk, 
beat the eggs and add them, then the remainder of the milk. 
Stir well together. Have little earthen puff-cups ready but- 
tered j fill them half full, and put them immediately into the 
oven ; bake forty minutes. There are a variety of drop-cake 
irons for baking such cakes. They should be rather deep. 
The earthen cups do perfectly well. 

Raised Muffins. 

| Melt a tablespoonful of butter in a pint of milk ; add a 
little salt, two eggs, and a large half-gill of yeast ; then stir 
in flour enough to make a thick batter. In cold weather, this 
may stand two or three days without becoming sour. 

Top-Overs. 

Two cups of sweet milk, two of flour a little heaped, a bit 
of butter large as a walnut, two eggs, one large spoonful of 
sugar, a little nutmeg, and salt. Melt the butter ; add the 
milk slowly to the flour to avoid lumps. Bake in cups or 
iron drop-cake pans. Twenty minutes in a quick oven will 
be sufficient. 



GEMS. FRENCH TOAST. PARKER ROLLS. 39 

Gems. 

Allow three cups of flour, shaken down in the cup, to one 
cup of cold water and one of sweet niilk. Put in the water 
and milk gradually, so as to smooth out the lumps. Then 



beat steadily just five minutes. Have ready, hot and but- 
jtered, an iron drop-cake or roll-pan. The pan should be 
1 heated very hot on the top of the stove ; then fill the pan 
even full. Bake a nice brown in twenty-five minutes. Can 
be made of Graham flour. Improved by one or two eggs. 

French Toast. 

Beat two or three eggs, and stir into a pint of cold milk, 
with a pinch of salt. Take thin slices of stale bread, and 
dip into it. As you take out the slices, set them up on the 
edges a minute to drain off some of the milk. Then brown 
both sides of them on a buttered griddle. Lay them in a hot 
covered dish. Eat with syrup, or butter and sugar. 

Parker Rolls. 

Boil a pint of milk ; melt in it a tablespoonful of butier 
and two of white sugar. When the milk becomes only warm, 
stir in with a knife half a cup of potato-yeast, a little salt, 
and flour enough to make a thick batter, though not very . 
stiff. Rise over night, and in the morning add flour enou^^r 
to knead it. Do this till it is very smooth, and let it stand 
till the middle of the day ; then make into rolls, cutting with 
a tumbler, and turning over one-half, like a turnover, and 
wetting the edges to make the upper part adhere to the lower. 
If the dough is very light, set the pan of rolls in a cold place 
until an hour before tea. In summer, set the sponge in the 
morning, and, when the rolls are put into the baking-pan, set 
it in the refrigerator until a little while before tea, when they 
will rise quickly in a warm place: Bake in a quick oven. 
Cut like biscuit, if more convenient. 



40 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Koxbnry Pancakes. (For breakfast.) 

One pint of sour milk, one egg, three cups of rye-meal, one 
of Indian, half a cup of molasses, one small teaspoonful of 
saleratus, and also one of salt. Fry like doughnuts. Take 
a tablespoonful of the mixture, and, holding it low over the 
hot fat, scrape out with a knife, in such a way as to give it a 
round shape. Stir and shake them about constantly. Eat 
with sugar. 

GHIDDLE CAKES. 

White Flour. 

To a quart of milk put two eggs, a little salt, a large spoon- 
ful of butter melted into the milk, a small gill of yeast, and 
flour enough to make a batter about as thick as for buckwheat 
cakes. Some persons eat them with a sauce made of butter, 
sugar, water, and nutmeg. Made in the morning, they will 
be light for tea. 

Buttermilk, or Sour Milk. 

Make a thin batter with a small quart of sour or butter 
milk, white flour, a spoonful of fine Indian meal or white 

leal, a teaspoonful of salt, another of saleratus, and an egg. 

ry a spoonful on the griddle before you proceed to bake them, 
so that you may add more flour, if it is too thin to turn easily, 
or more milk if too thick. 

Another (without an Egg). 

Make a batter just like the last receipt, only without the 
egg. Omit the Indian meal if you choose. 

Indian Meal* 

These are made like the sour-milk cakes, only that the 
milk is chiefly thickened with Indian meal. A spoonful or 

* White corn-meal is best for these cakes ; but yellow meal is best for brown 
bread and Indian puddings. 













tat" 



J , 

i 

























GRIDDLE CAKES. 4} 

two of flour should be added ; and it is well to use two eggs 
instead of one, but not necessary. Add a little bit of butter, 
melted. 

NOTE. In all these various kinds of cakes in which sour 
milk is used, it is an improvement to substitute buttermilk ; 
bat that which is sold in cities as buttermilk is often adul- 
terated. 

Various remnants can be economically used in griddle-cakes 
or drop-cakes. Hominy or farina-pudding or boiled rice, win- 
ter squash, or mashed potato left of dinner, need not be wasted. 
Put them into a jar or pitcher kept for the purpose, with a 
pint of milk. When it has become sour, break it up with 
your hand, add an egg, salt, a teaspoonful of saleratus, and 
flour or corn-meal, and bake on the griddle ; or make the bat- 
ter a little thicker, and bake in drop-cake irons. (See Crumb 
Cakes, page 231.) 

Ground Rice. 

Boil a quart of milk. Rub smooth a teacupful of ground 
rice in a gill or two of cold milk, and stir it into the boiling 
milk. Add salt, and, when cool, add half a teacup of yeast, 
four eggs, and flour to make it the right thickness for baking. 
Let it rise light. Bake on the griddle. 

Buckwheat. 

For a family of four or five, take a quart of warm water, a 
spoonful of scalded Indian meal, a heaping teaspoonful of 
salt, and a gill of yeast. Stir in buckwheat flour enough to 
make a thin batter. Let it rise over night. In the morning 
add a quarter of a teaspoonful of saleratus or soda. Do this 
whether the cakes are sour or not. Buckwheat-cakes cannot 
be made in perfection without this addition ; but it should 
never be put in till just before they are baked. Such cakes 
are often made too thick, and fried with too much fat. They 



42 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

should be as thin as they can be, and be easily turned with a 
griddle-shovel, and no more fat should be used than is neces- 
sary to keep them from sticking. To prevent the use of too 
much, tie a soft white rag, tight, round the tines of a large 
fork, and keep it for this purpose. If a gill of the batter is 
left, it will raise the next parcel. All kinds of griddle-cakes 
should be well beaten. 

Fritters, or Pancakes. 

Make a batter of a pint of milk, three eggs, salt, and flour 
to make a rather thick batter. Beat it well, then drop it 
with a spoon into hot fat, and fry like doughnuts. These 
and the snow-fritters are usually eaten with sugar and cider, 
or lemon-juice. 

Snow-Fritters. 

Stir together milk, flour, and a little salt, to make rather a 
thick batter. Add new-fallen snow in the proportion of a 
teacupful to a pint of milk. Have the fat ready hot at the 
time you stir in the snow, and drop the batter into it with a 
spoon. These pancakes are even preferred, by some, to those 
made with eggs. 

Corn-Cake. 

Stir into three cups of sour milk a half a cup of white 
sugar, one cup of white flour, one teaspoonful of salt, and a 
beaten egg. Add a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in about a 
spoonful of boiling water, a teaspoonful of butter, melted, 
and sifted Indian meal enough to make a thick batter; but it 
should not be stiff. Bake in two pans about half an hour. 

White-Meal Cake. 

The white corn-meal makes the most delicate breakfast 
cakes. Use the proportions of sour milk, sugar, butter, salt, 
and saleratus mentioned above, also one or two eggs, but no 
wheat-flour. Stir in enough white meal to make a batter as 
thick as for the preceding cake. Bake in two pans half an 
hour, or in little drop-cake pans a shorter time. 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAKE. 43 

Eaised Johnny-Cake. 

Take a pint of sweet milk, half a gill of yeast, one gill of 
flour, a teaspoonful of salt, and half a teaspoonful of saleratus ; 
stir in Indian meal enough to make it rather stiffer than grid- 
dle-cakes ; let it rise over night, and in the morning bake as 
directed above. 

This kind of cake has the advantage over those made with- 
out yeast, that, if a piece of it is left, it is not heavy when 
cold, but is as palatable a lunch as a slice of good bread. 

Another Johnny-Cake. 

Take a pint of sour milk, or buttermilk, break an egg into 
it, stir in a spoonful or two of flour, and add Indian meal 
enough to make a thick batter; put in a teaspoonful of salt, 
stir it five or six minutes, and then add a heaping teaspoonful 
of saleratus dissolved in hot water. If it is the season for 
berries of any kind, put in a gill or two, but add more meal j 
bake in a pan or on the griddle. 

Graham Drop-Cakes. 

Three teacups of sour milk half a cup of brown sugar, 
one cup of white flour, a teaspoonful of salt, also one of saler- 
atus, and enough Graham meal to make a stiff batter. Bake 
in drop-cake irons. 

NOTE. To prepare new drop-cake pans for use, scour 
them first with soap and sand, then grease them well, and 
heat them, then wash them again. 

NOTE. In the season of whortleberries, add them to all 
these corn-cakes. 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAKE. 



cake or pastry is to be made, take care not to make 
trouble for others by scattering materials, and soiling the table 
or floor, or by the needless use of many dishes. Put on a large 



44 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPERS FRIEND. 

and clean apron, roll your sleeves above the elbows, tie some- 
thing over your head lest hair may fall ; take care that your 
hands are clean, and have a basin of water and a clean towel at 
hand. Place every thing you will need on the table ; butter the 
pans, grate the nutmegs, and squeeze the lemons. Then break 
the eggs, each in a cup by itself, lest adding a bad one to the 
others should spoil the whole. Then weigh or measure flour 
and sugar, and, if not already done, sift them. Make your cake 
in an earthen, and not in a tin pan. 

In warm weather, put your eggs into cold water or in ice 
some time before you are ready to break them. They cut into 
a much finer froth for being cold. For some kinds of cake, 
the whites should be cut to a stiff froth, and the yolks beaten 
and strained^ and then put to the butter and sugar, after these 
have been stirred till they look like cream. Then mix the 
flour gradually. 

When cream or sour milk is to be put in, half of it should be 
added when half the flour is mixed in ; then the remainder of 
the flour, and then the saleratus dissolved in the other half of the 
cream or milk. Lastly, add the spice, wine, lemon-juice, or 
fruit. 

In summer do not stir cake with the hand ; the warmth of it 
makes it less light. A wooden spoon, kept on purpose, is the 
best thing. In winter, soften, but do not melt the butter, before 
using it. Cake not raised with yeast, should be baked as soon 
as it is made, except such as is hard enough to be roiled. Cook- 
ies and sugar gingerbread roll out more smoothly the next day. 

Firkin butter must be cut in small pieces, and washed, to re- 
move some of the salt. Dram it well, or it will make heavy 
cake. Never put strong butter into cake ; it renders it disagree- 
able and unhealthy.* 

Fresh eggs are needed for nice white cake. Those kept in 
lime-water will do for raised cake and cookies. 

New Orleans, or other good brown sugar, is good for raised^ 

* See directions for keeping butter in rose-leaves. Page 261. 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CAKE. 45 

fruit, and wedding-cake, but it should be coarse-grained and 
clean. It will answer also for cup-cake, especially if fruit is 
used. Granulated sugar must be used for sponge and other 
delicate cake. 

The fruit should be added to raised cake when it is ready for 
the oven. Spread it equally over the top, and press it only a 
little below the surface, else it will sink to the bottom. 

Cask raisins should be washed before being stoned, and box 
raisins also, unless fresh. In stoning them, cut them in two or 
three pieces, or chop them. 

Keep currants ready, prepared for use. To do this, wash 
them in warm water, rubbing them between the hands, and then 
pour off the water. Repeat this till the water is clear, then 
drain them in a sieve, spread them on a cloth on a table, and 
rub them dry with the ends of the cloth. Then brush the good 
ones into a dish in your lap, putting aside the bad ones on the 
table. Dry them in a gentle warmth, and set them away for 
use. 

Buttered white paper in the bottom and sides of pans for 
cake requiring long- baking, is needful ; and paper not buttered 
is good for other kinds of cake, as it prevents burning. It will 
readily peel off when the cake is taken from the pans. 

Attention and practice will teach when cake is well baked. 
When it is done enough, it settles a little away from the pan. 
Even well made cake becomes heavy by being taken out of the 
oven before it is perfectly baked. Moving it carelessly while it 
is baking will also make light cake fall. If you have occasion 
to change the position of the pans, do it gently. 

A tin chest or a stone jar is good to keep cake in, and it is a 
good way to let that which is not to be kept long, remain in the 
tins in which it was baked. Attention and practice will 
teach when cake is well baked. To ascertain when cake is 
done, try it with a broom straw doubled. 

The oven should not be so hot as to make cake rise very 
rapidly, because it will be liable to fall when taken from the 
oven. 



46 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Directions for beating- the Whites of Eggs.* 

On breaking eggs, take care that none of the yolk becomes 
mingled with the whites. A single particle will sometimes pre- 
vent their frothing well. Put the whites into a large, flat dish, 
and beat them with an egg-beater made of doubled wire, with a 
tin handle ; or with a cork stuck crosswise upon the prongs of 
a fork. Strike a sharp, quick stroke through the whole length 
of the dish. Beat them in a cool place till they look like snow, 
and you can turn the dish over without their slipping off. Never 
suspend the process nor let them stand; even for one minute, as 
they will begin to return to a liquid state, and cannot be re- 
stored, and thus will make heavy cake. After they are beaten 
to a stiff froth they will not return to a liquid state. 

Frosting. 

A pound of the best of fine white sugar, the whites of three 
fresh eggs, a teaspoonful of nice starch, pounded, and sifted 
through a piece of muslin or a very fine sieve, the juice of half 
a lemon, and a few drops of the essence. 

Beat the whites to a stiff froth, then add them to the sugar, 
and stir it steadily until it will stay where you put it. It will 
take nearly two hours, perhaps more. Dredge a little flour over 
the. cake, and brush it off with a feather. This is to prevent 
the frosting from being discolored by the butter contained in the 
cake. Lay it on smoothly with a knife, when the cake 
is nearly cool, and return the cake to the oven twelve or fif- 
teen minutes. The oven should be very moderate. 

Chocolate Frosting. 

Beat the whites of four eggs very stiff. Add a cup and a 
half of sugar, and six spoonfuls of grated chocolate. Beat 
till thick. Harden in the air, not in the oven. 

Another way, 

A pound of the best granulated sugar, the whites of three 
eggs, the juice of a lemon, and a teaspoonful of finely-powdered 

* Whites that have stood a little while upon ice, will soonest beat up to a 
stiff froth. 



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FRUIT CAKES. 47 

starch. To mix it, put the sugar into a deep bowl, and pour 
npon it just cold water enough to soften the lumps, then beat 
the whites of eggs about half as much as for nice cake not to 
a stiff froth ; add them to the melted sugar, and set the bowl 
into a kettle of boiling water, and stir the mixture steadily. It 
will soon become thin and clear, and afterwards thicken. "When 
it has become quite thick, take it from the fire and stir it till it 
is cold, and thick enough to spread with a knife.. This is 
enough for a large loaf. 



FRUIT CAKES. 

Wedding. 

Five pounds each of flour, butter, and sugar, six of raisins, 
twelve of currants, two of citron, fifty eggs, half a pint of good 
Malaga wine, three ounces of nutmegs, three of cinnamon, one 
and a half of mace. Bake in three large pans four hours. 

Another. 

Three pounds each of flour, butter, and sugar, six of cur- 
rants, six of raisins, an ounce each of nutmegs and cinnamon, 
half an ounce of clove, a pound of citron, the grated peel of two 
lemons, half a gill each of brandy and rose-water, or a small 
teaspoonful of the essence of rose, and thirty eggs. 

To mix either of these two receipts, stir the sugar and butter 
to a cream, beat the yolks and whites of the eggs separately, and 
add them to the butter and sugar, then by degrees put in two 
thirds of the flour, then the spice and brandy or wine, and 
last the fruit, mixed with the remaining third of the flour. 
Have the citron ready cut up, and when you have put a little of 
the cake into the pan, put in a layer of citron, then more cake, 
and again citron and cake alternately. This quantity will bake 
in one cake in five hours, in three cakes, three hours. Each 
of these two kinds will keep years, if frosted. Brown sugar 
is preferred for both of above : if made of white, the cake is 
too light-colored for wedding-cake. 



48 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Maine Plum. 

A pound each of butter, sugar, and flour, ten eggs, a pound 
of raisins, two of currants, half a pound of citron, a teaspoonful 
of powdered clove, half as much mace, a nutmeg, the juice of a 
lemon and the grated peel, and a half a teacup of good molas- 
ses. Before you proceed to mix it, scatter one teaspoonful of 
cream of tartar into the flour ; and the last thing, before you 
put in the fruit, dissolve a half a teaspoonful of saleratus in a 
spoonful of boiling water, and add it, stirring the cake fast two 
or three minutes. Mix this in the same way as directed In. the 
two previous receipts. If baked in a brick oven, bake it three 
hours in one pan ; if in a stove, an hour and a half, in two. 

Although this cake has no wine or brandy, it will keep fresh 
(if frosted) almost any length of time. 

One Loaf (plainer). 

A pound each of flour and sugar, ten ounces of butter, five 
eggs, a pint of milk, two pounds and a half of raisins and cur- 
rants, a gill of wine, a nutmeg, a large spoonful of cinnamon, 
half a teaspoonful of clove. Add the same measure of cream 
of tartar and saleratus as in the last receipt, and in the same 
way, and bake the same length of time. 

To make just frosting enough for either of these two last cakes, 
take the whites of four eggs, if the weather is cold, three if it 
is warm, cut them to a stiff froth, add a pound of finest sugar, 
and beat it two hours. Add lemon, rose, or any essence you 
prefer, and a teaspoonful of sifted starch. When the loaf is 
baked, lay on the icing with a knife, and return it to the oven 
fifteen minutes. 

Washington. 

To one pound of flour, put one pound of sugar, three quarters 
of a pound of butter, eight eggs, two nutmegs, one pound of 
raisins, and one of currants. 



RAISED CAKES. 49 



RAISED CAKES. 

Commencement. 

Four pounds of flour, two and a half of sugar, two of butter, 
a small qjjart of milk, half a pint of wine, eight eggs, two gills 
of yeast, two nutmegs, two teaspoonfuls of cinnamon, one of 
clove, or a little mace. Make up the flour, yeast, and milk, 
exactly like bread, and when fully light, add the other ingre- 
dients, and put it into deep pans. If the weather is cool, let it 
stand till the next day. When it is again very light, add one 
pound of currants and two of raisins ; and bake two hours. 

This is excellent cake, and will keep good many weeks. 

Loaf. 

Three pounds of flour, two of sugar, one and a half of but- 
ter, two of fruit, six eggs, half a pint of yeast, a gill of wine, 
two nutmegs, a teaspoonful each of cinnamon and clove, and a 
little mace. Make up the flour and yeast with milk, just like 
bread ; when it is very light add all the other ingredients, ex- 
cept the fruit. Put in the eggs without beating, warm the 
wine, and mix the whole very thoroughly. Then put it in pans 
and set it to rise till the next day, and when light enough to 
bake, put in the fruit as directed in the general observations 
at the beginning of this chapter. 

Another. 

A pound and a half of flour, one of sugar, three quarters of 
a pound of butter, a pound of raisins and currants, four eggs, a 
nutmeg, a glass of wine, a teaspoonful of cinnamon, half a one 
of clove. Make up the flour like bread, with a gill of yeast 
and new milk warmed. When it is perfectly light, add the 
eggs without beating, and stir all the ingredients together 
thoroughly. Put it into pans, and when it has risen again, add 
the fruit, and bake it. 



50 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Bread Cake. 

Five teacups of very light bread dough, that is wet with 
milk ; three of sugar, two of butter, three or four eggs ; or if 
they are scarce, two. Mix it thoroughly, using both hands. 
Flavor it with such spice, or essence as you prefer, and then 
put it into three pans such as you use for cup cak^ and let it 
stand till perfectly light before you bake it. In winter let it 
stand in a warm closet, or some place where it will not become 
very cold, and remain till the next day. 

By the addition of spice, fruit, more sugar, &c., you can 
make it as rich as you please. 

Ellen's Bread Cake. 

Hub to a cream one cup and a half of sugar, and a large 
half-cup of butter. Then add one beaten egg, some nutmeg, 
half the juice of a lemon, and half the rind, and two cups of 
light bread-sponge, or light dough. Dissolve a small teaspoon- 
ful of saleratus in a little milk, and stir in also enough flour 
to make of the consistency of cup-cake. Put it in two pans 
to rise for an hour or more. 



When these receipts were first written, the use 
of wine in fruit-cake was considered indispensable. The juice 
of lemons is a very good substitute. 



CUP CAKES. 

[The cup used as a measure for the receipts in this book is not the tea- 
table china cup, but the common large earthen teacup, except where a 
small one is specified ; and the teaspoon used is neither the largest or 
smallest, but the medium sized.] 

Howard. 

To ten cups of flour, put six of sugar, three of butter, three 
-of sour milk (a little warm), eight eggs, a glass of wine, a large 
teaspoonful of saleratus, a nutmeg, a pound of currants, a 
of raisins. 



/^h^l^-^-L^t-^^J 




CUP CAKES. 51 

Tollbridge. .A 

Four cups and a half of flour, three of sugar, one of butter, 
one of cream, one teaspoonful of saleratus, six eggs, spice, cur- 
rants, citron, and a little wine. 

Bridgeport. 

To one teacup of butter, put two of sugar, three and a half 
of flour, four eggs, one cup of sour milk, the juice and part of 
^lie rind of a lemon, a small teaspoonful of saleratus and two 
cups of currants. Bake in small pans. 

Superior. 

One very heaping cup of butter, two and a half of sugar, four 
eggs, four cups of flour, and one and a half of ground rice, one 
and a half of sweet milk, a nutmeg, a little grated lemon-rind, 
the juice of a lemon squeezed into the milk, and a teaspoonful 
of saleratus. 

Barnard. 

One cup of butter, three of sugar, four and a half of flour, 
four eggs, a cup of sour milk, the juice, and a little of the rind 
of a lemon, a teaspoonful of saleratus. 

It is a good way to use butter that has been kept a few days 
in a jar of rose leaves, for these cup cakes, and then very little 
spice is necessary. 

All delicate soft cake is improved in appearance by sifting a 
little fine sugar over the top, just as it goes into the oven. 

Mount Pleasant 

Five teacups of flour, one heaping cup of butter, two cups 
and a half of sugar, one cup of sour milk, four eggs, a tea- 
spoonful of saleratus, one nutmeg. 

Provence. 

Four cups of flour, one of sugar, one of butter, one of sour 



52 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

milk, one of molasses, four eggs, one nutmeg, one small tea 
spoonful of saleratus, and a pound and a half of raisins. 

Composition. 

A coffee cup of butter (small measure), two if sugar, threo 
of flour, one and a half of good ground rice, one of sour milk, 
zialf a nutmeg, a little essence of lemon, a large teaspoonful of 
saleratus, and three eggs. If you have sour cream, instead of 
the milk, use half a cup of butter. 

New Orleans. 

Two cups of sugar, three and a half of flour, one of milk, 
four eggs, half a teaspoonful of soda, a teaspoonful of cream of 
tartar in the juice of half a lemon. Beat the eggs and sugar 
together, then add half the milk and flour ; when these are 
mixed, the rest of the milk with the half teaspoonful of soda 
dissolved in it, the remainder of the flour, the lemon-juice and 
cream of tartar ; and last, a little essence of rose. 



SPONGE CAKES. 

The goodness of all delicate cake, but specially of sponge, 
depends very much upon its being made with fresh eggs. There 
are several ways of making this cake which all result well. For 
those who choose not to be cheated of eggs by the use of cream 
of tartar, two excellent receipts, and two different methods of mix- 
ing, are given. 

Two receipts for making it by measure are added, each oi 
them perfect, if made right, and the last one requiring the least 
possible time and labor. 

For the old-fashioned sponge cake, beat the yolks thoroughly, 
and the whites to a very stiff froth, and mix the ingredients 
thus : Stir the sugar and whites together, then add the yolks, 
next the flour, and last, the lemon or spice, or, 

Mix the yolks and whites after they are beaten, and having 





_$.*& 




SPONGE CAKES. 53 

stirred the flour and sugar together, add them, and the spice. 
It should then be stirred fast two minutes, and baked in rather a 
quick oven. It is made sticky, and less light by being stirred 
long. There is no other cake, the goodness of which depends 
so much upon care, and good judgment in baking. 

Lyman. 

'To one pound of flour, put one and a half of sugar, fifteen 
eggs, the rind of two lemons, and juice of one, and a little salt. 

Delaware. 

Take the weight of ten eggs, while unbroken, in sugar, 
and the weight of five in flour. Beat the yolks till very light, 
then add the sugar, and beat five minutes. While one person' 
is doing this, another should be beating the whites to a stiff 
froth. Add them, and then stir in the flour gradually and 
thoroughly. Flavor the cake with essence of lemon. This 
measure makes three good-sized loaves. Bake about half 
an hour in a moderate oven. The oven-door must not be 
opened till the cake is nearly done, as it will be likely to 
fall. This measure is easily altered for a large or small fam- 



Berwick. 

Beat six eggs, yolks and whites together, two minutes ; add 
three cups of sugar, and beat five minutes ; two cups of flour 
with two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, and beat two minutes ; 
one cup of cold water, with one teaspoonful of saleratus dissolved 
in it, arid beat one minute ; the grated rind, and half the juice 
of a lemon, a little salt and two more cups of flour, and beat 
three minutes. Observe the tune exactly, and bake in rather 
deep cup cake pans. 

Drop Sponge Cakes. 

Half a pound of sugar, quarter of a pound of flour, four 
eggs, beaten separately (the whites very stiff), the juice of a 
lemon. Drop on buttered tins. 



54 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 



VARIOUS KINDS OP CAKE. 

Queen's. 

One pound of flour, one of sugar, half a pound of butter 
(that which has lain in a jar of rose-leaves is best), five eggs, 
a gill of wine, a gill of cream, a nutmeg, half a teaspoonful of 
saleratus, two pounds of currants, or chopped raisins. 

Stir the butter and sugar to a cream, beat the whites" and 
yolks of the eggs separately, and after they and the flour are 
also mixed with it, warm the cream and wine together, and add 
them, then the saleratus, and last the fruit. Frost it, or sift 
fine sugar over the top just before it is put into the oven. 

Snow, or Bride's. 

A pound each of flour and sugar, half a pound of butter, and 
the whites of sixteen eggs beaten, to a stiff froth. Flavor it 
with rose. 

Another (plainer). 

The whites of six eggs, two cups and a half of flour, half 
a cup of butter, one cup and a half of sugar, half a cup of 
sweet milk, one teaspoonful of cream-of-tartar, half a tea- 
spoonful of saleratus. Flavor with rose or almond. 

Mix the cream-of-tartar in the flour ; dissolve the soda in 
the milk ; rub the butter and sugar to a cream ; then add the 
milk and half the flour ; beat the whites to a very stiff froth, 
and add them with the remainder of the flour, and stir stead- 
ily a few minutes. This measure makes two pans. 

Gold Cake. 

One cup of butter, two of sugar, four of flour, one cup of 
sweet milk, the yolks of eight eggs, two teaspoonfuls of cream- 
of-tartar, one of saleratus. 

Stir the butter and sugar to a cream; beat the yolks five or 




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VARIOUS KINDS OF CAKE. 



55 



six minutes, and add to the butter and sugar ; scatter the 
cream-of-tartar in the flour ; dissolve the saleratus in the milk. 
Put in half of the flour ; add the milk, and, when mixed, stir 
in the rest of the flour. Flavor with essence of lemon. This 
makes three pans. 

Silver Cake. 

One small cup of hutter, two of sugar, four and a half of 
flour, the whites of eight eggs, one cup of sweet milk, two 
teaspoonfuls of cream-of-tartar, and one of saleratus. Stir 
the butter and sugar to a cream ; beat the whites very stiff, 
and add them before you add the milk. Dissolve the salera- 
tus in the milk. Flavor with two teaspoonfuls of Burnett's 
extract of almond. This makes three pans. 

Jelly-Cake, or Washington Pie. 

Make cup cake, and when the ingredients are well mixed, 
spread it upon round shallow tins, three table-spoonfuls to each 
tin. It will bake in ten or fifteen minutes ; then turn it upon a 
hair sieve, the under surface uppermost. While it is warm 
spread upon it raspberry jam, currant, or other jelly ; then lay 
the second sheet of cake upon it, the under side next to the 
jelly. If you wish to make several alternate layers of cake and 
jelly make the sheets of cake very thin j one large spoonful of 
the batter will be enough for each tin. 

White Mountain. 

Six eggs, six cups of flour, three of sugar, two of butter, one 
of milk, one nutmeg, one teaspoon of saleratus. To^Baix it, 
stir the butter and sugar to a cream, beat the whites and yolks 
of the eggs separately ; add the yolks to the butter and sugar, 
next part of the milk and half of the flour, and the whites, then 
the rest of the milk with the saleratus dissolved in it, and then 
the remainder of the flour, and last the grated nutmeg. 



56 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Chocolate Cake. 

One cup and a half of white sugar, half a cup of butter, 
half a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in half a cup of milk, 
three cups of flour, with one teaspoonful of cream-of-tartar 
stirred into it, and three eggs beaten thoroughly, yolks and 
whites together. Flavor with essence of lemon. Bake in 
three square pans. 

For the filling, use one cup of milk, half a cake of the 
sweet chocolate grated, and two eggs. 

Boil the milk, with the chocolate in it, for two or three 
minutes. Stir it often, and add the beaten eggs. Spread 
the chocolate between the sheets, like jelly-cake, or cut the 
sheets into square pieces of the right size for the table ; split 
each one, and put the chocolate between the two parts. If 
the chocolate runs, add more to make it thicker. 

New-York Chocolate Cake. 

Rub to a cream one cup of sugar and half a cup of butter. 
Add the whites of two eggs beaten stiff, then a cup and a 
half of flour, with one teaspoonful of cream-of-tartar. Dis- 
solve half-a teaspoonful of soda in half a cup of sweet milk, 
and stir in to the cake well. Flavor with essence of 
lemon. Bake in one loaf. When cold, cut in four or five 
layers, with a very sharp knife. They should be about half 
an inch thick. 

For the frosting, beat stiff the whites of two eggs, and stir 
into them one cake of " German sweet chocolate," grated. 
Add powdered sugar, but not enough to make the mixture 
too stiff. It should not be so soft as to run. If it becomes 
too thick, put in two or three teaspoonfuls of cold water. 
Spread the frosting thus prepared between the layers, and 
over the top also, if you wish. 

Orange Cake. 

Two cups of sugar, two cups of flour, half a cup of water, 
the yolks of five eggs, the whites of three, one teaspoonful 
























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a 







VARIOUS KINDS OF CAKE. 57 

of cream-of-tartar, and half a one of saleratus. Add a little 
salt, and the juice and grated rind of one orange. Beat the 
whites to a stiif froth, then add the sugar, and when thor- 
oughly mixed add the yolks, these having been previously 
beaten for five minutes. Bake in five tins like jelly-cake. 

For frosting to put between the layers use the whites of 
two eggs, the juice and grated rind of one orange, and sugar 
enough to make it quite stiff". It is necessary to use consid- 
erable sugar because of the sourness of the orange. 

Marble Cake. 

One cup and a half of white sugar, half a cup of butter, 
half a cup of sweet milk with half a teaspoonful of soda dis- 
solved in it, two cups and a half of flour with one teaspoon- 
ful of cream-of-tartar, and the whites of four eggs cut to a 
stiff froth. Flavor with lemon. 

For the dark cake, take one cup of nice coffee-sugar, one' 
tablespoonful of molasses, half a cup of butter, half a cup of 
sour milk, with half a teaspoonful of soda dissolved in it, 
two cups and a half of flour, and the beaten yolks of the four 
eggs. Add a teaspoonful of clove, a little allspice, cinnamon, 
and nutmeg. Put a layer of the light cake in each pan, and 
mix in some of the dark, then more of the light, and so on, 
till your pans are half full, or a little more. 

Raspberry Roll. 

Beat three eggs, yolks and whites together, for one or two 
minutes. Add a cup of white sugar, and beat a few minutes 
more. Then put in one cup of flour with a teaspoonful of 
cream-of-tartar mixed in it. Dissolve half a teaspoonful of 
soda in as little hot water as possible, and stir in thoroughly. 
Flavor with essence of lemon, and beat well for a few minutes. 
Bake in two rather wide, shallow tins. Turn the sheets upon 
a sieve, and, while warm, spread a little raspberry or strawberry 
jam over them ; roll .up the cake, and sift sugar over. This 
should be done carefully. Cut in slices, when cold, for the 
table. 



58 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Rochester Jelly-Cake. 

Two cups of sugar, three eggs, two-thirds of a cup of but- 
ter, one cup of sweet milk, three cups of flour with one tea- 
spoonful of cream-of-tartar mixed in it, half a teaspoonful 
of saleratus dissolved in the milk. Add a little salt, and fla- 
vor with essence of lemon or almond. 

Put half the above mixture in two square or oblong pans. 
To the remainder add one tablespoonful of molasses, one large 
cup of raisins stoned and chopped, a quarter of a pound of 
citron sliced fine, one teaspoonful of cinnamon, half a tea- 
spoonful of clove and allspice each. Grate in a little nut- 
meg, and add one spoonful of flour. Put into two pans of 
the same size and shape as those above. Put the sheets to- 
gether while warm, alternately, with a little jelly or raspberry 
jam between. Cut in thin slices for the table. It will cut 
most easily the day after it is baked. 

It may be baked in one large pan, without the fruit, pour- 
ing in the dark and light in alternate layers. When baked 
thus, it is a handsome marble cake. 

Avon Snow-Cake. 

One cup of butter, two cups of sugar, three cups of flour, 
one cup of sweet milk, the whites of five eggs, one teaspoon- 
ful of cream-of-tartar, and half a teaspoonful of soda or 
saleratus. Bake in thin layers, like Washington pie. It is 
usually baked for six or seven layers. 

Peel and grate one large cocoanut. Take the whites of 
three eggs for frosting. Put a layer of frosting and one of 
cocoanut between each two cakes, and then frost the top and 
sides. Scatter cocoanut over thickly. 

Sandusky Cake. 

One cup of butter, two of sugar, three and a half of flour, 
one of milk, four eggs, one teaspoonful of soda, two of cream- 
of-tartar. 

Dissolve the soda in the milk. Mix the cream-of-tartar in 



VARIOUS KINDS OF CAKE. 59 

the flour, and separate the whites of the eggs from the yolks. 
Rub the butter and sugar to a cream, then put in the milk, 
and add the yolks, one at a time, beating them well. After- 
wards, add half of the flour and half of the whites, having 
beaten them stiff; then the remainder of the flour and the 
whites. Flavor with essence of lemon, or any other essence 
you prefer. This cake should be stirred very thoroughly. It 
is considered excellent, and resembles pound-cake. 

Portsmouth Cake. 

E-ub to a cream one cup of sugar and two-thirds of a cup 
of butter. Add the yolks of three eggs and the white of 
one, beaten together two or three minutes. Add one cup of 
flour, the grated rind of a lemon, and a little essence of lemon. 
Sour half a cup of milk with half the juice of a lemon, and 
dissolve in it a teaspoonful of soda. Stir this in thoroughly, 
and then add another cup of flour. Beat it briskly a few 
minutes, and bake in one large pan, or two small ones. 

Magic Cake. 

Half a cup of butter, one of .sugar, one and a half of 
flour, three eggs, three tablespoonfuls of milk, one teaspoonful 
of cream-of-tartar, half a one of saleratus. Mix the cream- 
of-tartar in the flour ; stir the butter and sugar together ; 
beat the yolks and whites together thoroughly. Stir all to- 
gether a few minutes. Bake in two pans. Flavor with al- 
mond.* 

One Egg Cake. 

Stir into two heaping cups of flour two teaspoonfuls of 
cream-of-tartar. E-ub two large spoonfuls of butter into a 
heaping cup of white sugar. Add a beaten egg, and a cup 
of sweet milk in which is dissolved a teaspoonful of soda, and 
a pinch of salt. If you wish to make marble cake, take part 

* Burnett's essences are invariably good. 



60 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

of the above mixture, and make it dark with powdered spices, 
and lay it in the pans in streaks with the light cake. 

Pound. 

A pound each of flour, sugar, and butter, ten eggs, half a 
nutmeg, the juice and part of the rind of a lemon. Some per- 
sons use only fourteen ounces of butter, and add a quarter of a 
teaspoonful of saleratus. 

Cream. 

Stir one teacup of cream, and two of sugar till well mixed, 
add two eggs beaten to a froth, and a little salt. Dissolve a 
teaspoonful of saleratus in a spoonful or two of milk, and add it. 
Then, immediately put in a cup or two of flour, and some 
essence of lemon, or other spice, and stir it a little. Then add 
flour enough to make it as thick as cup cake ; stir it well eight 
or ten minutes, and bake in common cup-cake pans. 

Harrison. 

To two cups of molasses, put one of brown sugar, one of 
butter, one of sour cream, or milk, a cup of raisins, and one of 
currants, a teaspoonful of powdered clove, and two (rather 
nmall) of saleratus. 

To mix it, cut the butter in little pieces, and put into a 
saucepan with the molasses, to melt. "When the molasses boils 
up, pour it immediately upon three or four cups of flour, and 
add the sugar, and half the cream. Stir it \vl, then add the 
saleratus, the rest of the cream, the spice, and flour enough to 
make it of the consistence of cup cake, and last, the fruit. Bake 
in cup-cake pans, rather slowly. All cake containing molasses 
is more liable to burn than that which has none. 

Park-Street Cake. 

Two cups of sugar, three and a half of flour, one of milk, 
half a cup of butter, a teaspoonful of soda, two of cream of 
tartar, essence of lemon, add four eggs. 



CREAM CAKES, COOKIES, ETC. 61 



CREAM CAKES, COOKIES, WAFERS, KISSES, JUEE3LES, 
GINGERBREAD, ETC. 

The eggs for these articles, except for the wafers, need not" 
be broken separately, but yolks and whites may be added with- 
out beating, after the sugar and butter have been stirred. When 
all has been well beaten together eight or ten minutes, add part 
of the flour, then the saleratus and spice or ginger ; and then 
place the pan upon a table, and work in flour enough to enable 
you to handle it without its sticking. 

Dough for cookies or gingerbread, is much more easily and 
neatly rolled out and stamped the day after it is made, than on 
the same day. In cold weather, set it when made where it 
will not become hard, or else bring it into a warm room an hour 
or two before it is to be rolled out. Cookies should be about 
as thick as the end of your little finger; gingerbread half 
as thick. These things bake very quickly, and should be care- 
fully attended to. Sugar gingerbread should be cut up as it 
lies in the pan, before it has time to cool, and laid upon a 
sieve. It cannot be cut after it is cold without being very much 
broken. 

Cream Cakes. 

A pint of water, half a pound of butter, three-quarters of a 
pound of flour, and eight eggs. Boil the water, melt the but- 
ter in it, stir in ^ie flour dry while it boils ; when it is cool, 
add the yolks and then the whites, beaten separately. Drop 
the mixture on buttered tins with a table-spoon, and bake 
twenty minutes. 

To make ihe inside, take one cup of flour, two cups of sugar, 
one quart of milk, and two eggs. Beat the flour, sugar, and 
eggs together, and stir into the boiling milk. When the mix- 
ture is sufficiently scalded, season it with lemon or vanilla. 

When the cakes are cool, cut them open and add the cream. 



62 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FEIEND. 

Cookies. 

One tea-cup of butter, three of sugar, half a cup of milk of 
cream, three eggs, one small teaspoonful of saleratus, and flour 
to make it rather stiff. Flavor with nutmeg and cinnamon. 

NOTE. Kice brown sugar is better than granulated in 
cookies. 



Another. 

Two cups of butter, three of sugar, one of sour milk or cream, 
one nutmeg, three eggs, one large teaspoonful of saleratus, and 
flour enough to roll out. These cookies should not be rolled 
thin. 

Soft Cookies. 

One heaping cup of butter, one and a half of sugar, two 
eggs, three tablespoonfuls of sour milk, a small teaspoonful of 
soda, and as little flour as will roll them out. Do not roll 
them thin. Sprinkle sugar over before cutting out, and press 
it in slightly with the rolling-pin; 

English Seed-Cakes. 

Dry three cups of flour in the oven. Add a cup of sugar, 
half a cup of milk, with half a teaspoonful of soda, a large 
spoonful of butter melted, one egg, and a spoonful of caraway- 
seeds. Roll out thin. 

Wafers. 

One cup of butter, two of sugar, half a cup of new milk, threfe 
eggs, hah a nutmeg, the juice of a lemon, one teaspoonful of 
saleratus, and flour enough to roll out. If you prefer, flavoi 
with a few drops of essence of rose and ground cinnamon. Roll 
the dough very thin, sprinkle granulated white sugar over it, 
and slightly press it into the dough with the rolling-pin. Thee 
cut in large rounds, and bake quickly. 



TUNBRIDGE WAFERS. KISSES. MACAROONS, ETC. 63 

Tunbridge Wafers. 

Bub one cup of butter (pressed compactly into the cup) 
into five cups of flour ; then add one heaping cup of granu- 
lated sugar, not quite a cup of sweet rich milk, two beaten 
eggs, one nutmeg, half a teaspoonful of saleratus dissolved 
in the milk. Knead it until smooth, roll it out very thin ; 
sift over it a little fine sugar ; then cut out round cakes, as 
large as the top of a tumbler ; lay them in the pans, and 
prick them with a fork. Bake in a quick oven, but take care 
they do not burn. 

Kisses. 

Beat the whites of three fresh eggs to a stiff froth, then 
mix with it five spoonfuls of finest white sugar, and flavor 
with essence of lemon. Have ready a nice pan buttered, 
in which lay white paper, and drop them on it with a tea- 
spoon, and sift sugar over them. Bake in a slow oven half 
an hour. This measure will make a cake-basket full. 

Macaroons. 

Blanch a half a pound of sweet almonds, and pound them 
fine with a little rose-water or orange-flower water. Beat very 
stiff the whites of three eggs, and stir in half a pound of 
powdered sugar. Mix well, and then add the almonds. 
Drop with a teaspoon upon buttered tin sheets, sift fine sugar 
over, and bake in a slack oven. 

Cocoamit Drops. 

Grate a cocoanut, and weigh it, then add half the weight of 
powdered sugar, and the white of one egg cat to a stiff froth. 
Stir the ingredients together, then drop the mixture with a 
dessert spoon upon buttered white paper, or tin sheets, and sift 
sujnir over them. Bake in a slow oven fifteen minutes. 



64 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Fruit Jumbles. 

To one heaping cup of butter, put two of sugar, three and 
a half of flour, half a cup of milk, three eggs, a cup of cur- 
rants, and half a teaspoonful of saleratus. Grate in half a 
nutmeg. T3ake in broad, shallow pans, and cut the sheets in 
square pieces while warm. 

Hard Sugar Gingerbread. 

Two cups of butter, four of sugar, two eggs, a cup and a 
half of milk, two teaspoonfuls of ginger, and one of saleratus. 
Flour to make rather a stiff dough. 

Another (very plain). 

Ten ounces of butter, twenty ounces of sugar, a cup and a 
half of milk, four teaspoonfuls of ginger, one large teaspoonful 
of saleratus, a few drops of essence of rose, or half a cup of 
rose-water ; in which case omit the half cup of milk. 

Soft Sugar Gingerbread. 

Two pounds of flour, one of butter, one and a half of sugar, 
seven eggs, half a gill of rose-water or wine. To be baked in 
such pans as are used for cup cake. This keeps good a long 
time, and is very nice. 

Another (without eggs). 

One pound of butter, two of sugar, three of flour, a pint of 
milk, a large spoonful of ginger, two teaspoonfuls of cream of 
tartar mixed in the flour, and one teaspoonful of saleratus. 
Stir the butter arid sugar to a cream, then add half of the milk, 
and a large part of the flour ; then the remainder of the milk 
having the saleratus dissolved in it, and the rest of the flour. 
Make half the quantity for a small family. Bake it in cup-cake 
pans. 






& 




GINGER CRACKERS GINGERBREAD. 

Ginger Crackers. 

A pint of molasses, two cups of butter, one and a half of 
sugar, one tcaspoonful of saleratus, and two of ginger ; add flour 
enough to make it easy to roll out. Stir the butter and sugar 
together, boil the molasses and pour it into the pan, and stir 
steadily until the butter and sugar are melted, then put in a few 
handfuls of flour, and add the saleratus. Stir it a few minutes, 
and then work in all the flour. To be rolled very thin, and 
baked but a few minutes. 

New York Ginger Snaps. 

Half a pound each of butter and sugar, two and a half 
pounds of flour, a pint of molasses, a teaspoonful of saleratus, 
caraway seeds, or ginger. Mix it just like the ginger crack- 
ers, and bake them thin. 

Boston Ginger-Snaps. 

Boil together fifteen minutes one cup of molasses, and one 
of brown sugar ; then pour into a dish, and melt in it a cup 
of butter. Add a cup of milk or water (water makes them 
brittle), two even teaspoonfuls of soda, and salt and ginger to 
suit your taste. Flour to roll out. They should be rolled 
very thin. 

Soft Molasses Gingerbread. 

One cup and a half of molasses, one of beef-shortening or 
butter, or half of each, two cups of sour milk, half cup of 
brown sugar, and two teaspoonfuls of saleratus. Have ready 
in a pan two or three cups of flour, with the sugar, a little 
ginger, and cinnamon ; and when you have boiled up the mo- 
lasses, butter, and shortening, pour it upon. the ingredients 
in the pan, and stir well. Then add the sour milk and 
saleratus, and flour enough to make it as thick as cup-cake. 
Gingerbread is as much improved by being thorough- 
ly beaten, as any other cake. You can make it more deli- 



'66 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

cate by using butter only, adding the juice of a lemon to sour 
the milk, and using grated nutmeg instead of ginger. On the 
other hand, very good gingerbread is made by omitting the 
butter, and using shortening instead, and cold water or cider 
in place of the sour milk. A teaspoonful of salt is necessary 
where the butter is omitted. 

Hard Molasses Gingerbread, 

A half a pint of molasses, a gill of butter, half a gill of nice 
drippings, half a gill of sour milk, two teaspoonfuls of saleratus, 
and the same of ginger. Melt the butter, drippings, and mo- 
lasses together, and pour hot upon a quart of flour ; add the 
ginger and saleratus, and when well hiixed add more flour until 
it can be handled without sticking. Then roll it out about as 
thick as the little finger, stamp or mark it, and bake it in shal- 
low iron or tin pans. Bake it in a moderate heat. When 
done, cut it up before you take it out of the pans, as it cannot 
be done after it is cold without crumbling the edges. 

If you prefer to have it thin, and cut into rounds like cookies, 
it is a very good way. 

By omitting the sour milk ana adding a cup of sugar, a rather 
nicer gingerbread is made. 

Another. 

Melt one cup of butter in two of molasses, pour it hot upon 
a quart of flour ; dissolve one teaspoonful of saleratus in a little 
hot water and add it. Put in flour enough to roll it out neatly. 
Make it very thin, cut it in rounds, and bake it quick. These 
cakes are very crisp, and keep so in a tin chest. 



FRIED CAKES. 

On Frying Cakes, 

To have fried cakes good, it is necessary tfiat the fat should 
be of the right heat. When it is hot enough, it will cease to 
bubble, and be perfectly still. It is best to try it with a little 



CRULLERS, ETC. 67 

bit of the cake to be fried. If the heat is right, the dough will 
rise in a few seconds to the top, and occasion a bubbling in the 
fat; it will swell, and the under-side quickly become brown. It 
should then be turned over. Cakes should be turned two or 
three times. The time necessary to fry them, depends on their 
thickness ; if about as thick as the little finger, they will be 
done in seven or eight minutes. It is best to break open one, 
in order to judge. When done, drain them well with a skim- 
mer. If the fat is too hot, the outside will be burned before 
the centre is cooked at all ; if too cool, they will become fat- 
soaked, which makes them very unhealthy and disagreeable. 
The fire must be carefully regulated. A person who fries 
cakes must attend to nothing else ; the cakes, the fat, and the fire 
will occupy every minute. The use of many eggs prevents 
cakes from absorbing much fat. But they can be so made 
without eggs, as not to take up much fat: 

Crullers. 

To two pounds of flour, put three quarters of a pound of 
sugar, half a pound of butter, nine eggs, mace, and rose-water 
unless the butter has been kept in rose leaves. 

Another. 

To six teacups of flour, put two of sugar, half a one of but- 
ter, half a one of cream, eight eggs, one nutmeg; or if more 
convenient, nine eggs, no cream, and a full cup of butter. 

Ellen's Doughnuts. 

Rub a piece of "butter large as an egg, into one cup and a 
half of sugar. Add a beaten egg. Mix in two cups of flour, 
two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, and dissolve in two cups 
of sweet milk, a teaspoonful of soda. Stir in the milk and 
flour gradually. Flavor with cinnamon and extract of lemon. 
Add flour enough to mould and roll out. Fry in nice beef 
drippings, or lard. Half the above measure is sufficient for 
a small family. 



68 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Rochester Doughnuts. 

One cup of sour milk, two oT sugar, a piece of butter large 
as a nut, one teaspooiiful of soda, spice, and flour to roll out. 

Raised Doughnuts. 

Boil a quart of milk, and rub smooth in a little cold milk a 
large gill of ground rice ; when the milk boils up, stir in the 
rice and a little salt. Let it boil till it thickens, stirring it two 
or three times. Pour it, hot, upon a quart of flour ; when cool 
enough, add a gill of yeast, and flour enough to make it stiff as 
bread. Knead it a great deal. Let it rise over night, and 
when very light, work in three quarters of a pound of butter, a 
pound and a half of sugar beaten in five eggs, and add nutmeg 
and lemon, juice and rind. Let it rise again, and then roll out 
and fry it. 

Light bread dough, which is wet with milk, may be made into 
plain, or rich dough-nuts, as preferred, with very little trouble. 
Prepare the dough as directed in the receipt for rusk, and add 
two or three eggs, if convenient. It is not necessary. 

Fried Biscuit. 

Work a piece of butter the size of an egg into a large pint of 
light bread dough. When it has risen again, roll it very thin, 
cut it into circles or squares, and fry them for breakfast. Eat 
them with salt, or with cider and sugar. All crullers and dough- 
nuts are much more healthful fried in clarified drippings of 
roast meat, than in lard ; and it is, besides, good economy. 



ON MAKING- PASTRY. 

The flour, as in making bread or cake, should be sifted. The 
best looking pastry is made with lard, but it is not so healthy or 
good, as that which is made with half or two thirds butter. 
Whichever you use, rub a third of it into the flour, but do not 
try to rub out every lump ; the less the hands are used, the bet- 



_ON MAKING PASTRY. 59 

ter. Add cold water ; in summer, ice water. If your crust is 
shortened wholly with lard, allow a teaspoonful of salt to a 
pound (or quart) of flour, and a small teaspoonful of saleratus 
to every three pounds. Sprinkle the salt into the flour, and 
dissolve the saleratus in the water. If butter only or chiefly is 
used, omit the saleratus. When you have put in the water, stir 
it quickly, rather stiff, with a knife. Do not mould it ; it will 
make it tough ; but when it is barely stirred together, put it on 
the board, roll it out, lay thin shavings of butter on every part, 
sprinkle a little flour over it, and roll it out again then lay on 
butter as before. To avoid much handling of the crust, roll it 
<BO thin that all the butter will be taken up by two or three 
times rolling in. When it is all rolled in, fold up the crust in a 
long roll, and double it, laying the ends together ; then lay it 
aside, and cut from it for each pie. In rolling out for the plates 
press the pin equally, so as to make all parts of the same thick- 
ness, and as nearly circular as possible. Have the plates ready 
buttered, or greased with lard, lay in the crust, and see that all 
parts touch the plate. Take the dish up on the palm of the left 
hand, and with the right trim the edges, holding the knife under 
and aslant, and so cut the crust that the edge of the dish will 
be perfectly covered. People differ in regard to the proper 
thickness of pie-crust. A pie in which the fruit constitutes 
one third of the thickness, and the two crusts the other two 
thirds, although it may look more elegant, is neither so health- 
ful or good as one made with thinner crust and plenty of fruit. 
Some fruit requires thicker crust than others ; for apple, peach, 
and pumpkin it should be thin as a common earthen plate ; for 
juicy fruits, such as berries, cherries, currants, plums, and for 
mince, it should be a little thicker. Lay some of the trimmings 
round the rim of the plate to make the edge of the pie hand- 
some, and put the rest by themselves, and when there are 
enough, roll them out for an under-crust. 

In making cherries, currants, &c., into pies, use deep dishes, 
and be careful not to fill them even full, as the syrup will boil 
over, and thus, much of the richness of the pie be lost. There 
is one way effectually to prevent the loss of syrup. After you 



70 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

have laid in the fruit, or mince, and rolled out the upper-crust, 
wet the rim of the under-crust all around with cold water riot 
omitting a single spot, (if you do the syrup will escape at that 
spot), and sprinkle a very little flour upon it, lay the trimming 
upon the rim, wet and flour that in the same manner, then lay 
the upper-crust immediately over, and press it down gently 
upon the rim. The flour and water act as a paste to fasten 
the crusts together. Trim the edge as before, and prick the 
top eight or ten times with a fork. This is necessary for the 
escape of the steam, and without it, the closing of the edge will 
not avail to keep in the syrup. It is a good way to invert a 
teacup in the centre of a juicy fruit-pie, as in making an oyster- 
pie. 

A clammy lower crust is neither good or digestible. There- 
fore never fill pies made of moist materials until just before 
putting them into the oven. Squash pies, cocoanut, and Marl- 
borough puddings, &c., should not be filled until the last min- 
ute, and mince and stewed apple should only stand long enough 
for the upper crust to be laid on. Pie-crust becomes yellow 
from standing long before being baked ; therefore, delay rolling 
out the upper crust for any kind of pies until the oven is nearly 
ready. Pastry should be baked in a quick oven, to be light, 
and be slightly browned to be healthy. When you bake pump- 
kin and similar kinds of pies, if you have the least doubt whether 
the crust is well done, set the dishes a few minutes on embers, 
or the top of a cooking stove. This sort of pies requires nearly 
an hour to bake ; more, if the dishes are very deep. When 
done enough, the top will be gently swelled all over, and in 
moving, tremble like jelly ; if not done, the middle will look 
like a thick liquid. Most pies require an hour to bake ; those 
made of stewed apple or cranberry, three quarters of an hour. 
Much depends on the kind of oven used. 

It is difficult to make flaky crust in warm weather. But 
cooling the butter and water with ice, and having the pastry- 
table in the cellar, will insure tolerable success. 

There is hardly another article of food in which so much is 



HIGH PUFF PASTE. 71 

sacrificed to appearance as in pastry. Everybody likes a light 
crust, a little brown, and not excessively rich, better than one 
that is hah butter or lard, and baked white. 

Cherries should t not be. stewed or stoned for pies. Apples, 
after they are pared, cut, and cored, should be washed. Steam 
pumpkin and squash, or stew it with very little water. Meat 
for pies must not be chopped till after it is cold. 

After a little practice and observation, it will be just as well 
to omit weighing the materials for pastry. One very heaping 
handful of flour will make a common-sized pie ; not, however, 
allowing for the flour to be used in rolling the paste. 

When all the pies but the last one are ma.de, scrape the re- 
mains of crust from the moulding-board and the rolling-pin, and 
add any parings of edges that you have, work them together, 
and use for the under-crust. 

For almost all kinds of pies, good brown sugar is nice 
enough. The Havana is seldom clean. The Porto-Rico and 
Santa Cruz are considered the best. The New Orleans is very 
sweet. 

The very early apples, when used for pies or sauce, should 
not be pared, as the greatest part of the richness of the fruit, at 
that season, is in the skin. Some kinds are so delicate, that 
when stewed, the skin is entirely absorbed in the pulp, so as 
not to be visible, and the color, if it is red, is beautifully dif- 
fused through the whole mass. 

Rich Puff Paste. 

For three pints of flour allow one pound of butter. Di- 
vide it into three parts ; reserve one-third of the flour for use 
in rolling in two parts. Rub one-third of the butter into the 
two parts, add enough ice-water-to make a stiff dough, stir- 
ring with a knife ; then roll out thin, and put the butter in 
little bits over it ; sprinkle a handful of flour over the butter, 
fold the crust over and over, and repeat this process till all the 
butter is used. If one-third lard is to be used, rub it in be- 
fore the ice-water is added, and put a te.aspoonful of salt into 
the water. 



72 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Good Pie-crust. 

Take two cups light bread-dough, made with milk and wa- 
ter, and well kneaded. Roll it out a quarter of an inch thick, 
lay on bits of butter about half an inch apart, sprinkle with 
flour slightly, and fold it over and over. Roll out again, and 
distribute the butter and flour as before. Fold, press it 
down with the rolling-pin, cut off, and roll out for your pie- 
dishes. 

Potato-crust. 

Boil six good-sized mealy potatoes, and mash them fine ; 
add salt, a spoonful of butter and two of water while they are 
hot. Then work in flour enough for making a paste to roll 
out, or put in two or three spoonfuls of cream, and no butter or 
water. This is a good crust for pot-pies or dumplings. 

PIES. 

Of Stewed Apple. 

Stew the apple with water enough to prevent its burning ; 
sweeten and flavor it to your taste, and, while it is hot, add but- 
ter in the proportion of a dessert spoonful to a quart of apple. 
The spices most appropriate are nutmeg and lemon, cinnamon 
and orange. Two kinds are enough ; one does very well. 
When you have laid the under crust in the plate, roll out the 
upper one, so that it may be laid on the moment the apple is put 
in, as the under crust will be clammy if the pie is not put im- 
mediately into the oven. 

Meringue Pie. 

Pare and quarter fourteen or eighteen fair sour apples; 
weigh them, and make a syrup of the same weight of sugar and 
a little water. Grate off the outside of a lemon and set it 
aside ; take out the seeds, cut up the inside, and put it into the 
syrup. When the syrup is boiled clear, lay in half of the ap- 
ples and boil them, but not till they are very soft. Take them 



PIES. 73 

out carefully, and lay them separately on a dish, so as not to 
break them. Stew the rest of the apples, and when they are 
taken out, boil the syrup a little while longer. Have ready 
two deep dishes, with nice paste, put the apple into them in 
form of a half-sphere or pyramid, the quarters in tiers out- 
side, and the broken apple inside ; then sprinkle the grated 
lumon over the top, and pour on some of the syrup. Bake in 
a quick oven half an hour, then spread over the top the 
whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth with half a cup 
of sugar and a little essence o lemon, and return to the oven 
a few minutes to brown. 

Of uncooked Apples. 

To eat immediately, the following is excellent. Lay the slices 
into the plate upon an under crust ; fill it quite full ; sprinkle 
the rim with a little flour, to prevent the upper crust from ad- 
hering to the under one. Bake forty minutes, or till the apple 
is tender, and then slide off the upper crust and add a small bit 
of butter, some nutmeg or lemon, and sugar to your taste. Mix 
them well with the apple with a silver spoon, and return the 
upper crust to its place. 

Another. 

The other method is to lay the apples into a deep dish with 
an under crust, and for a large family, no matter how large a 
dish is used ; grate a whole or half nutmeg over, according to 
the size of the pie, or if you have a fresh orange, cut small the 
peel of half a one, and sprinkle in with the apple ; add a few sticks 
of cinnamon, a few little bits of butter, and lastly, put on as 
much sugar as your judgment directs. Cover it, and close the 
edge, so that the syrup will not escape. Bake from an hour and 
a half to two hours. 

Another (sweetened with molasses). 

Make a plain crust, and line a deep dish ; fill it with sliced 
apples, grate a good deal of nutmeg over them, and lay on two 
or three thin shavings of butter. Then pour over a teacupful 



74 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

or two of good molasses, according to the size of the pie , lay 
011 the upper crust, and close it so that the syrup cannot escape. 
Bake it two hours and a half. 

For directions how to make a pie of Dried Apples, see the 
receipt for stewing them. 

Whortleberry. 

Fill the dish not quite even full, and to each pie of the size 
of a large soup plate, add four large spoonfuls of sugar (for 
blackberries and blueberries, five). Dredge a very little flour 
over the fruit before you lay on the upper crust. Close the 
edge with special care. 

Cherry. 

The common red cherry makes the best pie. Bake it in a 
deep dish. Use sugar in the proportion directed for blackber- 
ries. All cherries, except the very sweet ones, are good for pies. 

Cranberry. 

Take the sauce as prepared to eat with meat ; grate a little 
nutmeg over it, put three or four thin shavings of butter on it, 
and then lay on the upper crust. If not sweet enough, add 
more sugar. Make it without an upper crust, if you prefer, and 
lay very narrow strips across diagonally. 

Green Currants and Gooseberries. 

These require a great deal of sugar, at least two thirds as 
much in measure as of fruit. Currant pies should be made in 
a deep plate or a pudding dish, and with an upper crust. 

Gooseberries should be stewed like cranberries, sweetened to 
suit the taste, and laid upon the under crust, with strips placed 
diagonally across the top, as directed for the cranberry tarts. 
Currants that are almost ripe make a nice pie, and require the 
same measure of sugar as blackberries. 



PIES LEMON, ETC. 75 

Lemon He (with frosting). 

Allow the grated rind and juice of two lemons, two cups of 
sugar, three eggs, and a piece of butter as large as an egg. 
Rub smooth in some cold water two tablespoonfuls of corn- 
starch or maizena. Have ready two cups of boiling water in 
a saucepan, and stir into it the corn-starch until it looks 
clear. Then pour into a dish, and add the sugar and but- 
ter. When it becomes nearly cool, add the yolks of the three 
eggs and one of the whites, beaten together, the grated rind 
and juice of the lemons, and bake in two squash-pie plates of 
medium size, lined with a delicate crust. Beat up the two 
whites with two spoonfuls of sugar very stiff; spread this 
over the pies after they are baked ; sprinkle with sugar, and 
brown a few moments in the oven. 

Rich Mince. 

To one beef's tongue, allow a pound of suet, a pound of cur- 
rants, another of raisins, a pound and a quarter of sugar, half a 
pound of citron, eight large apples, a quart of wine or boiled 
cider, salt, a nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, the juice and pulp of a 
lemon, and the rind chopped fine. Let the meat be chopped 
very fine, then add the apples and chop them fine also. Put 
the sugar into the cider or wine, and just boil it up so as to skim 
off the top ; let it stand a few minutes, and then pour it off into 
a pan containing all the other ingredients. Be careful, in pour- 
ing it, not to disturb any sediment there may be from the sugar. 
Use loaf sugar if you choose. 

Another (not as rich). 

Chop the meat, apples, and suet separately, and then measure 
the ingredients thus : three bowls of meat, three of apple, one of 
suet, one of citron cut small, two of raisins, four of sugar, one of 
molasses, one of vinegar, one of some kind of syrup (quince or 
peach), or wine instead, if you prefer. Add powdered clove, 
nutmeg and cinnamon to suit the taste. 

* For Custard Pies, see pages 100 and 107. 



76 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Temperance. 

Boil five pounds of meat in water enough to have one quart 
when it is done ; chop the meat very fine when it is cold, and add 
a quarter of a pound of suet, or salt pork, three pounds and a half 
of sugar, three of chopped apple, two and a half of box raisins 
and one of Sultana raisins, one of citron, and a pint of syrup of 
preserved peach, quince, or both ; or any other syrup you may 
have ; add salt, nutmeg, and powdered clove. To mix the in- 
gredients, remove the fat from the juice of the meat and put it 
into a kettle with the apple, sugar, raisins, and citron, and let 
them boil a few minutes ; if froth rises, take it off ; have the 
meat ready in a pan mixed with the spices, pour the mixture 
boiling hot upon it, and stir it together ; add, if you choose, the 
juice and pulp of three lemons. This process cooks the ingre- 
dients so thoroughly that, if you prefer, you can bake the paste 
first and then fill the dishes ; and if you choose to reserve part 
of it, it will keep in a cool place several weeks. 

Very Plain. 

These may be made of almost any cheap pieces of meat, boiled 
till tender ; add suet or salt pork chopped very fine, half or two 
thirds as much apple as meat ; sugar and spices to your taste. 
If mince pies are eaten cold it is better to use salt pork than 
suet. A lemon, and a little syrup of sweetmeats will greatly 
improve them. Clove is the most important spice. Use cider. 

Without Suet 

Boil up a quart of good brown sugar in three pints of cider ; 
set it off, and after a few minutes take off the scum ; then put in 
a pint of chopped meat, a quart of chopped apple, and four large 
crackers pounded and sifted. Add a grated nutmeg, a large 
teaspoonful of powdered clove, and any other spice you prefer? 
Make the mixture more sweet if you choose. Boil it again four 
or five minutes. This will not keep so long as mince which 
contains no cracker. 



PIES PEACH. RHUBAEB, ETC. 77 

Without Meat. 

To twelve apples chopped fine, add six beaten eggs, and a 
half pint of cream. Put in spice, sugar, raisins or currants just 
as you would for meat mince pies. 

Another. 

A cup of molasses, a cup of sugar, half a cup of vinegar, and 
half a cup of butter, boiled up together for a minute. Then 
add three crackers pounded and sifted, a half a pint of chopped 
raisins, two beaten eggs, and spice to suit the taste. 

Peach. 

If the peaches are dried, stew in a little water and 
sweeten ; if fresh, pare them, but do not take out the stones. 
Make the pie in a large deep dish, and close the edge well, to 
prevent the escape of the syrup. Sweeten to taste. The 
free-stones are best, because most tender. 

Ehubarb* 

Peel the stalks, and cut them into pieces about an inch long ; 
lay them in a soft cloth in order to absorb some of the juice, as 
the quantity is very great. Put them in a sauce-pan and stew 
gently ; add sugar to taste, no water ; cover close. Be care- 
ful not to stew it so long as to break the pieces. Lay it into 
dishes for the table, and, having baked your paste of the 
right size, lay it over. Some persons prefer the rhubarb 
without spice. If any is used, it should be the rind of a 
lemon. 

Rhubarb tarts are good made, like the gooseberry, with a 
lower crust, and strips laid across the top. 

Squash or Pumpkin. 

To a quart of boiled milk, put a large pint of strained squash, 

* Some nice cooks prefer to stew the pie-plant without peeling. It is not 
so handsome, but is richer. 



78 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

two cups of sugar, three eggs, two crackers pounded and sifted 
(or four eggs without the crackers), a teaspoonful of salt, a few 
drops of lemon or rose, half a teaspoonful of ginger or pow- 
dered cinnamon, and a dessert-spoonful of butter, nu Aed in the 
Lot milk. To mix it, stir the spice and salt into the strained 
squash first, then add the cracker, and sugar, and when these 
are mixed, pour in hah the milk, and when this is well stirred, 
add the remainder, and lastly the eggs, which should be thor- 
oughly beaten. If you make up two quarts of milk, use four 
eggs, and five pounded crackers, and double the other ingredi- 
ents. Bake with a crust, in rather deep plates, or in dishes 
made for such pies. 

Squash Pie without Eggs. 

Take three pints of strained squash, add three cups of 
white sugar, half a teaspoonful of ginger, the same of cinna- 
mon, salt, and essence of lemon. Boil a pint of milk, and stir 
into it, as it boils, three large spoonfuls of maizena pre- 
viously rubbed smooth in cold milk. Melt in this a piece of 
butter half as large as an egg. Stir the maizena in the 
milk until no lumps remain ; then pour into the squash,, 
and mix thoroughly. This makes three pies. 

Pufis. 

Make a rich paste of a quart of flour ; after you have rubbed 
in part of the butter, cut the white of an egg to a stiff froth ; 
reserve half a spoonful of it, and stir the rest, and the water into 
the flour with a knife ; then proceed to roll in the remainder of 
the butter in the usual way. Cut rounds in the paste of the 
size you wish to have them, and twice as many as you intend to 
have of puffs. Then cut out of half of them, a small round in 
the centre, so as to leave a circular rim of crust. Take up 
these rims with a wide-bladed knife, and lay them upon the 
large rounds so as to form a raised edge, and with the knife lay 
.them, thus prepared, on tin sheets, or a nice sheet-iron pan. 
Take a feather, and lightly brush the edges with a little of the 










S~ 



4fe^ 



^> 




DIRECTIONS ABOUT PUDDINGS. 79 

reserved white of egg. This will make them brown handsomely. 
Bake them in a quick oven. Bake also the small rounds which 
were cut out from the rims. "When all are baked, put rasp- 
berry jam, quince, currant, or lemon jelly in the puffs and lay 
the small rounds over it. Some people like them best, without- 
covering the jelly. 

To make lemon jelly for the purpose, beat one egg and a cup 
of sugar together ; when well mixed, add the juice of a lemon, 
and then two table-spoonfuls of cold water. Put the mixture in 
a shallow dish, set it on the stove, and stir it steadily, until it 
thickens, then take it off immediately. Be careful it does not 
boil. When it is cool, put it into the puffs. 



DIRECTIONS ABOUT PUDDINGS. 

THE eggs for all sorts of puddings in which they are used, 
should be well beaten, and then strained. If hot milk is used, 
the eggs should be added after all the other ingredients. Milk 
for pumpkin, squash, cocoanut, tapioca, ground rice, sago, arrow- 
root, and sweet potato puddings, should be boiled ; for bread 
and plum puddings also, unless the bread is soaked in milk over 
night. When suet is used in puddings, it should be chopped 
fine as possible. 

In making batter puddings, but a small portion of the milk 
should be put to the flour at first, as it will . be difficult to stir 
out the little lumps, if the whole quantity is mixed together at 
once. After the flour is stirred smooth, in a part of the" milk, 
add the eggs not beaten, and beat the mixture well ; then add 
the remainder of the milk, and stir all together till equally 
mixed. A flour pudding is much lighter, when the materials 
are all beaten together, than if the eggs are done separately. 
When berries or cherries are to be used, put them in last. A 
batter pudding, with berries, requires at least a third more flour 
than one without. For cherry pudding but a small addition of 
flour is needed. 



80 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

A buttered earthen bowl, with a cloth tied tip close over it, 
is a very good thing in which to boil a pudding or dumpling ; 
but some persons think they are lighter boiled in a cloth. A 
large square of thick tow or hemp cloth does very well ; but if 
a bag is preferred, it should be so cut that the bottom will be 
several inches narrower than the top, and the corners rounded. 
The seam should be stitched close with a coarse thread on one 
side, and then turned and stitched again on the other, in order 
to secure the pudding from the water. When used, let the 
seam be outside. A strong twine, a yard long, should be sewed 
at the middle to the seam, about three inches from the top of 
the bag. When the bag is to be used, wring it in cold water, 
and sprinkle the inside thick with flour,* and lay it in a dish ; 
pour in the batter and tie up the bag quickly, drawing the string 
as tight as possible. Allow a little room for the pudding to swell. 
(An Indian pudding made .with cold milk, swells more than 
any other.) Lay it immediately into the boiling pot, and after 
ten minutes, turn it over to prevent the flour from settling on 
one side. If there is fruit in the pudding, it should be turned 
three or four times during the first half hour. Keep it covered 
by adding water from the tea-kettle if necessary, and be careful 
that it boils steadily. If it does not, the pudding will be watery. 
When you take it up, plunge it for a moment in a pan of cold 
water ; then pour off the water, untie the twine, and gently lay 
back the top of the bag. Have a dish ready, and turn the pud- 
ding out upon it. A batter pudding without berries cooks very 
nicely in a tin pudding pan, set upright in a kettle of boiling 
water. 

To cut a boiled pudding without making it heavy, lay the 
knife, first one side and then the other, upon it, long enough to 
warm the blade. 



* Some persons prefer to spread the inside with butter and then flour it. 
Perhaps this method excludes the water most effectually. Either way does 
well. Always butter the dish in which a pudding is to be baked. 




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PUDDING SAUCE. gj 

If these directions seem needlessly minute, it should be re- 
membered that those things which seem perfectly obvious to 
the experienced, are often very perplexing to the uninitiated. 

Elegant Pudding Sauce. 

To four large spoonfuls of fine white sugar, put two of butter, 
one of flour, and stir them together to a cream in an earthen 
dish. Cut the white of an egg to a stiff froth, and add it ; then 
pour into the dish a gill of boiling water, stirring the mixture 
very fast. Put it into the sauce tureen and add essence of 
lemon, or rose, or grate nutmeg over the top as you prefer. 

A Plainer Sauce. 

To three large spoonfuls of clean brown sugar, put rather 
more than one spoonful of butter, and half a one of flour ; stir 
all together in an earthen dish until white, then add a gill of 
boiling water, and stir it steadily till it is all melted, then set it 
upon the coals long enough just to boil up. Add rose-water, a 
few drops of lemon juice, or a spoonful of boiled cider. 

Cold Sauce. 

Take the same measure of butter and sugar as given in either 
of the a*bove receipts, and stir them to a cream. Omit the flour ; 
but add the white of egg. 


Sour Cream Sauce. 

Put together a cup of sugar and a cup and a half of thick sour 
cream. Beat the mixture five or six minutes, then put it into 
a sauce tureen and grate nutmeg over it. 

This sauce is specially appropriate for Indian puddings, 
baked or boiled, and for the boiled suet puddings. 

Apple Pudding. 

To a quart of stewed sour apple, put while it is hot, a piece 
of butter the size of an egg, and sugar enough to make it quite 
6 week Beat it several minutes in order to mix it thoroughly, 



82 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Beat four eggs and stir into it, add lemon or any essence you 
choose. Butter a cold dish thick, with cold* butter, and strew 
the bottom and sides with cracker crumbs, or very fine bread 
crumbs ; then pour in the mixture, sift plenty of the cracker 
crumbs on the top, grate a little nutmeg upon it, and sprinkle 
it with sifted sugar. Bake forty or fifty minutes in one dish, 
or half an hour in two. It is an improvement to line the dish 
with a plain paste, rolled thin. 

Another (Maryborough). 

Make a nice paste and lay into your dishes. Take one quart 
of strained apple, one quart of sugar, eigjit eggs, three nutmegs, 
a pint of cream, a quarter of a pound of butter, a fresh lemon, 
pulp and juice, and the rind grated. If you have no cream, 
milk Avill do, but it should be boiled, and half a pound of butter, 
instead of one quarter, melted into it. The apples should be 
very sour. This will fill six deep dishes or soup plates. Bake 
three quarters of an hour. 

Fig. (A Canadian Pudding. J 

Half a pound bread-crumbs, half a pound of figs, six 
ounces suet, six brown sugar, two eggs, a little salt, half a 
nutmeg. Wash figs in hot water, dry in a cloth, mince them 
and suet together. Steam four hours. To be eaten with sauce. 

Almond. 

Blanch (that is, peel off the brown skin) of five bitter, and 
ten sweet almonds ; to do this, easily, pour boiling water on them, 
then pound them fine in a mortar. Set a pail with a quart of 
rich milk into a kettle of hot water ; when it boils, put in the 
almonds. Mix two and a half table-spoonfuls of ground rice 
smooth, with a large tumbler of milk, and stir it in. Boil it 



* In all cases, where the sides of a dish are to be strewed with crumb* 
both the dish and the butter should be cold. 



PUDDTXG BATTER. 83 

half an hour, stirring it often ; then add the yolks of three eggs 
beaten with half a coffee cup of fine sugar, and in about a 
minute take the pail from the kettle, and stir in another half 
cup of sugar. Pour it into a dish and set it away to cool. Cut 
the whites of the eggs, and a large spoonful- of fine sugar to a 
stiff froth, drop them on the top with a large spoon, and set 
the pudding into the oven till the top is brown. To be eaten 
cold. 

Baked Batter. 

Allow a pint of cold milk, four table-spoonfuls of flour, two 
eggs, and a little salt. 

Stir the flour smooth in a part of the milk, then put in the 
eggs without first beating, and beat them well with the mixed 
flour. Then add the remainder of the milk, and the salt, and 
when well stirred together, pour it into a buttered dish, and 
bake it half an hour. When it is done, the whole top will have 
risen up. So long as there is a little sunken spot in the centre, 
it is not baked enough. Make a cold or melted sauce as you 
prefer. This makes an ample pudding for a family of four. 
A flour pudding will not be light unless it is put into the oven 
immediately on being made. 

Boiled Batter. 

Use the very same proportions ; butter a tin pudding-pan 
having a close cover, and put in the mixture ; set it imme- 
diately into a kettle of boiling water. See that the water comes 
up high enough around it to cook the pudding, but so that it 
will not boil quite up to the top. If it boils away, add more 
hot water. Boil an hour and a half. 

Another. 

To a quart of milk put six eggs, eight spoonfuls of flour, and 
a teaspoonful of salt. To be boiled two hours. 

If you wish to make a nice addition to your dinner on short 
notice, prepare this batter, and butter little cups that hold about 
a gill, fill them three quarters full, and bake in the stove. 



84 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

They will bake in twenty minutes. They should be turned out 
upon a dish, and be eaten with sauce. Such a pudding requires 
forty minutes to bake in one dish. 

Eye Batter. 

To a pint of cold milk, put four heaping spoonfuls of sifted 
rye meal, a little salt, and three eggs. Boil it an hour and a 
half in a buttered bowl with the cloth tied very tight over it. 
The bowl should be of a size to allow a very little for swelling. 

Bird's Nest. 

For a pint of cold milk allow three eggs, five spoonfuls of 
flour, six medium sized, fair apples, and a small teaspoonful of 
salt. 

Pare the apples, and take out the cores ; arrange them in a 
buttered dish that will just receive them (one in the centre 
and five around it). Wet the flour smooth in part of the milk, 
then add the eggs and beat all together a few minutes ; then 
put in the salt, and the rest of the milk. Stir it well and pour 
it into the dish of apples. Bake it an hour, and make a melted 
sauce. For a large family make double measure, but bake it in 
two dishes, as the centre apples of a large dish will not cook as 
quickly, as those around the edge. 

Bread. 

Take -nice pieces of light bread, break them up, and put a 
small pint bowl full into a quart of milk ; set it in a tin pail or 
brown dish on the back part of the stove or range, where it will 
heat very gradually, and let it stand an hour or more. When 
the bread is soft enough to be made fine with a spoon, just boil 
it up ; set it off, and stir in a large teaspoonful of butter, a little 
salt, and from two to four beaten eggs. Bake it an hour. 
Make a sauce for it. To be eaten without sauce, put in twice 
the measure of butter, beat the eggs with a cup of nice 
brown sugar, a teaspoonful of cinnamon, and half as much pow- 
dered clove. Add raisons if you like. 



PUDDINGS QUEEN'S, COTTAGE, ETC. 85 

Queen's. 

Put a pint and a half of fine bread-crumbs to a 'quart of 
boiled milk ; add a tablespoonful of butter, and the yolks o'f 
four e*ggs beaten with one cup of white sugar, the grated rind 
of a lemon, and a teaspoonful of salt. Bake in a moderate 
heat, then spread over it a layer of jelly or strained apple 
Stir the juice of the lemon into a cup of sugar; add the 
whites, and beat to a stiff froth, and spread upon the top ; sift 
a little sugar over, and return it to the oven to brown. 

Cottage. 

One teacup of sweet milk, three of flour, one coffee-cup of 
brown sugar, one egg, one table-spoonful of butter, half a tea- 
spoonful of saleratus. Melt the butter. Dissolve the saleratus 
in a little of the milk, and stir it in after the other ingredients 
are mixed. Bake half an hour. To be eaten with sweet 
sauce. 

Another (more rich). 

One teacup of sugar, three table-spoonfuls of melted butter, 
one egg, one teacup of milk, two heaping cups of flour, a tea- 
spoonful of saleratus or soda, and two of cream of tartar. If it 
is made with sour milk, the cream of tartar is to be left out. 

Cocoanut. 

Grate a cocoanut, and save the milk. Boil a quart of milk 
and pour upon it ; add five eggs, with a coffee-cup of sugar beat- 
en in them, an ounce of butter, two table-spoonfuls of rose-water, 
a little salt. If you have cream and plenty of eggs, make it of 
cream instead of milk, and add three more eggs, and any essence 
or spice you choose, and bake in one dish nearly an hour ; or 
make a nice paste, and bake it in three deep plates like squash 
pies, forty minutes. 

.Cracker. 

To a pint of boiled milk, put four crackers, pounded and sift- 



86 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

ed, three eggs, and a small teaspoonful of salt. Add whortle- 
berries if convenient, and in that case, half of another cracker. 
Make a sweet sauce. Bake half an hour, or forty minutes. The 
same mixture made with cold milk is a nice pudding boiled an 
hour and a half. 

A Convenient Rice Pudding. 

Pour upon two cups of cold boiled rice a pint of milk. 
Rub the rice smooth, then boil it up in the milk. Add half a 
cup of sugar, a bit of butter, two beaten eggs, and salt and 
flavor to your taste. Bake about half an hour. 

Farina. 

Two table-spoonfuls of farina, a pint of milk, two eggs, a 
small cup of sugar, and a half teaspoonful of salt ; flavor with 
lemon or nutmeg. To mix it, set the milk in a pail into a kettle 
of hot water. When the top of the milk foams up, stir in the 
farina gradually, and add the salt. Let it remain in the kettle 
ten or fifteen minutes, and stir it repeatedly. Take the pail from 
the kettle, beat the eggs and sugar together, and stir them in ; 
add the essence, and pour the mixture into a buttered dish. 
Bake half an hour or forty minutes. No sauce is necessary. 

White Mountain. 

Line a pudding-dish with thin slices of bread buttered and 
dipped in milk ; spread over them a layer of hot apple-sauce 
nicely flavored, then add another layer of bread and butter 
wet in milk ; and so on, till the dish is full. Beat the whites 
of two or three eggs stiff, with white sugar, and spread over 
the top. Put it in the oven a few minutes to brown. To be 
eaten with sugar and milk, or a boiled custard made of the 
yolks of the eggs. 

Vermicelli. 

Boil gently in one pint of milk two ounces of vermicelli 
until tender. Melt in it a bit of butter, and then add a pint 



MAIZENA. PLUM. 87 

of cold milk with a cup of sugar, and a little salt dissolved in 
it. Beat four eggs and stir in. Flavor to suit your taste. 
Bake about an hour in a moderate oven. A Maccaroni pud- 
ding is made in the same way. 

Maizena. 

One quart of milk, three eggs, five or six spoonfuls of mai- 
zena. Set the milk in a pail into a kettle of hot water. Eub 
the maizena smooth in a little of the milk, then add the yolks, 
and heat with the maizena. Stir this into the boiling milk ; 
add a teaspoonful of salt. Beat the mixture till very smooth, 
then put it into a bowl to shape it. Beat the whites with a 
spoonful of sugar and a few drops of rose or lemon. Turn 
the pudding out into a dish, and spread the whites smoothly 
over ; sprinkle with white sugar, and brown in the oven. Eat 
hot with sauce, or cold with sugar and milk, or cream. 

Plum. 

A pound of bread or six pounded crackers, one quart of milk, 
six eggs, a large spoonful of flour, a teacup of sugar, one nut- 
meg, a teaspoonful of cinnamon, half a one of powdered clove, a 
piece of butter the size of an egg, the same quantity of chopped 
suet, and a pound of raisins. Boil the milk. It is very well to 
soak the bread in the milk over night ; then the entire crust be- 
comes soft, and mixes well with the other ingredients. 

These puddings are served with a rich sauce, if eaten warm, 
but are excellent cold, cut up like cake. People that are subject 
to a great deal of uninvited company, find it convenient in cold 
weather to bake half a dozen at once. They will keep several 
weeks, and when one is to be used, it may be loosened from 
the dish by a knife passed around it, and a little hot water 
be poured in round the edge. It should then be covered close, 
and set for half an hour into the stove or oven. 

It requires one hour and a half to bake the above pudding. 



fcg THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Christmas. 

Soak a pound of soft bread in a quart of boiled milk till it 
can easily be strained through a coarse hair sieve ; then add 
seven eggs, two gills of cream, a quarter of a pound of butter 
(melted), a gill of rose-water, or some extract of rose, a little 
cinnamon or nutmeg, and a pound of raisins. For a small fain' 
ily, bake it in two dishes, an hour ; and reserve one for another 
day. To warm it, see the directions in the last receipt. 

Rice. 

Boil a teacupful of rice in two teacups of water. When it 
has swelled so as to absorb the water, add a quart of milk and 
five or six peach leaves, and boil it until the rice is perfectly 
soft. Take it from the fire, remove the peach leaves, add a 
small piece of butter, a little salt, and three or four eggs, beaten 
with a teacup of sugar. Put it into a buttered dish, grate nut- 
meg over the top, and bake three quarters of an hour. Most 
people prefer this pudding cold. 

Meringue Rice. 

Prepare the same measures of rice and milk, and in the same 
way as in the last receipt. Boil the rice very slowly after the 
milk is added, so that it may become very soft, and not get 
burned. Break six eggs, the yolks and whites separate ; beat 
the yolks with a large cup of white sugar; and stir them, with 
salt, and a small bit of butter into the rice and milk. Then re- 
turn the kettle to the fire two or three minutes, and see that it 
does not burn. Then put the mixture into a buttered dish, 
and bake it. Cut the six whites and two large spoonfuls of 
fine sugar to a stiff froth. Flavor the froth with lemon, lay it 
over the pudding in folds like a turban, and set it into the oven, 
long enough to brown the top. Ten minutes will be sufficient. 

Snow. 

Put half a t)ox of English gelatine, or three sheets of j 
American isinglass, into a pint and a half of cold water. Add 



PUDDINGS SAGO, SQUASH. 89 

z>ne cup of white sugar, the juice and rind of one large lemon, 
or two small ones. Let it stand half an hour ; then boil up 
once, and strain into a bowl previously wet in cold water. 
'When cool, set it into the refrigerator to harden. Make the 
day before it is served, as it hardens slowly'. Make a boiled 
custard of a pint and a half of milk, the yolks of three eggs, 
and a spoonful of maizena. Flavor with almond or vanilla. 
Turn the mould of gelatine into a dish ; pour the custard, 
when cold, over it. Beat the three whites very stiff with 
two spoonfuls of sugar and a little essence of lemon, and 
spread over the jelly and custard. Let it stand on the ice 
a while. 

Sa^o. 

A pint of milk, a table-spoonful and a half of pearl sago, two 
eggs, two large spoonfuls of sugar, and half a teaspoon of salt. 
Wash the sago in warm, but not hot water, twice ; then put it 
with the milk into a pail and set it" into a kettle of hot water. 
Stir it very often, as it swells fast, and will else lie in a compact 
mass at the bottom. When it has boiled two or three minutes, 
take the pail from the kettle, add the salt, and the eggs beateri 
with the sugar. Flavor it with vanilla or a few drops of essence 
of lemon, put it into a dish, and grate nutmeg over it. Set it 
immediately into the oven, and bake it about three quarters of 
an hour. If you make a quart of milk, three eggs answer very 
well. It should then bake an hour. With this number of eggs, 
the sago settles a little. To have it equally diffused take five 
eggs. 

Squash, or Pumpkin. 

A pint of milk, a large coffee-cup of strained pumpkin or 
squash, two eggs, three large spoonfuls of sugar, a teaspoonful 
of butter, a little salt, a small teaspoonful of cinnamon, half as 
much ginger, and some nutmeg. 

To prepare it first, stir the cinnamon and ginger into the 
squash, as, if they are added after the milk, they will float dry 
on the top ; add salt, then the eggs beaten with the sugar ; boil 



90 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

the milk and melt the butter in it, and add it slowly to the other 
ingredients, stirring fast meantime. Butter a cold dish with 
cold butter, and sprinkle the bottom and sides with sifted cracker, 
pour in the mixture, grate nutmeg over the top and then sprin- 
kle it with pounded cracker, sift white sugar over, and bake it 
forty minutes. 

To make a more economical pudding, use the same measure 
of milk, squash, sugar, ginger, and cinnamon, with but one egg. 
Stir a pounded and sifted cracker into the squash, before the 
boiled milk is added ; simply butter a dish in the usual way ; 
omit the nutmeg and also the sugar and cracker on the top. 

The receipt for squash pies (see page 78) is a very nice rule 
for a pudding ; omit the paste, and substitute the cracker 
crumbs in the- dish. Such puddings, when made with a quart 
of milk, should be baked in two dishes, because if baked in one, 
the edges become too dry, before the centre is cooked. 

Tapioca. 

To a quart of milk, put two thirds of a cup of tapioca, five or 
six eggs, a dessert spoonful of butter, a cup of sugar, a teaspoon- 
ful of salt, and flavor with lemon, nutmeg, or extract of rose. Do 
not wash the tapioca, as the fine powder is the nicest part ; but 
pick it over carefully, and soak it over night in half of the milk. 
If you have not done this, and need the pudding for dinner, it 
will soak in cold water (twice as much water as tapioca) in two 
or three hours. Boil it in the milk, set into a kettle of hot 
water; stir it often, beat the eggs and sugar thoroughly, 
together ; stir them and all the other ingredients into the milk 
while it is yet hot. If the pudding is put immediately in the 
oven, it will bake in three quarters of an hour, or a little less. 
Three eggs to a quart of milk will make a very good tapioca 
pudding. 

Pearl tapioca, a new article, will soak in a short time. 

Tapioca and sago puddings are improved by using the 
whites of the eggs, as directed in Meringue Rice Pudding 
(see page 88). The juice of a lemon may be added to the 
whites, but they should be made quite sweet. 



DELMONICO'S PUDDING. BATTER BREAD, ETC. 91 

Delmonico's. 

Boil one quart of milk in a tin pail in a kettle of boiling 
water. Rub smooth in a little cold milk three tablespoonfuls 
of corn-starch. Add this to the beaten yolks of five eggs, 
and beat together with two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Put 
the eggs and corn-starch into the milk when it boils ; let 
it boil for a few minutes, stirring until smooth. Pour into 
a buttered dish, and. set it in the oven while you beat the 
whites to a stiff froth. Then gradually stir into these, four 
spoonfuls of white sugar, and flavor with lemon or almond. 
Lay the froth smoothly over the pudding, sprinkle with sugar, 
and set it in the oven until of a light brown. To be eaten 
cold, with sugar and cream. 

Batter Bread. 

Cut the crust from two or three slices of stale bread. Pour 
on the slices a pint and a half of milk. Let the dish containing 
the bread and milk stand where it will heat gradually. When 
the bread becomes soft, rub it smooth in the milk. There 
should not be bread enough to make the mixture thick. 
After it has stood an hour, add three beaten eggs, a piece of 
butter large as half an egg, a little salt, and two tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar. Flavor with essence of lemon, and bake about 
one hour. Serve with sauce, or eat with sugar. 

Gelatine. 

Half a box of Cox's English gelatine dissolved in half a 
pint of cold water. Let it stand for half an hour. Beat the 
yolks of four eggs with three tablespoonfuls of sugar, and 
add to the gelatine and water. Have ready a quart of boiling 
milk in a tin pail, set in a kettle of boiling water. Pour the 
mixture into the milk, and stir till it boils. After taking it 
from the fire, stir in the whites of the four eggs, having pre- 
viously beaten them to a froth. Flavor the pudding with 
vanilla, lemon, or almond. Pour into a mould. To be eaten 
the next day without sauce. 



92 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Strawberry or Raspberry. 

Cut a small baker's loaf of bread in thin slices, and butter 
them. Lay them in a pudding-dish alternately with straw- 
berries or raspberries stewed quite sweet, and while warm 
enough to melt the butter, but not hot. Have the last layer 
of fruit. Lot the pudding stand two or three hours, and then 
eat with sugar and cream. If you use raspberries, it is an 
improvement to stew a few currants with them. If you wish 
to ornament the pudding, beat whites of two eggs stiff, with 
two spoonfuls of sugar, and add enough juice of the fruit to 
color the whites, and spread over the pudding before serving. 

German Puffs. 

For a pint of milk allow six yolks and three whites of eggs, 
four large spoonfuls of flour, one of melted butter, a little salt, 
and half a nutmeg. Mix the flour smooth in a little of the 
milk, then add the remainder, the eggs well beaten, and the 
other ingredients. Bake in cups half filled. When done, 
turn them out in a dish, and pour over them a sauce made as 
follows: 

Beat the reserved whites to a stiff froth, mix with them 
three large spoonfuls of fine sugar, half a cup of hot water, 
and the juice of half a lemon. 

An English Berry. 

Mix one quart of flour with two quarts of whortleberries. 
Add a pint of molasses and two teaspoonfuls of salt. Boil in 
a tin pudding-pan, buttered, and set in a kettle of hot water 
for five hours. Eat with sauce, or sugar and cream. Make 
half the quantity for a very small family. 

German Plum. 

Put to a quart of boiled milk twelve medium sized crack- 
ers, a quarter of a pound of suet chopped fine, a pound of 
stoned and chopped raisins, a pound of currants, two tea- 
spoonfuls of salt, and a cup of molasses. Steam it in a tin 
pudding-pan, or boil in a buttered bowl, a cloth tied close over 
it. Cook three hours and a half. Eaten with sauce. 




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PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS. 



PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS. 

Berry. 

To a quart of washed whortleberries, put a pint of flour in 
which you have put a small teaspoonful of salt. Add a very lit- 
tle water. That which is upon the berries will be nearly 
enough. Boil it two hours in a cloth tied close, allowing no 
room to swell. To be eaten with melted sauce. 

Another. 

A pint of berries, a pint of flour, a pint of sour milk, a tea- 
spoonful of salt, and one of saleratus. Boil it two hours. All 
boiled fruit puddings should be turned often in the pot, to pre- 
vent the fruit from settling on one side. Make a sweet sauce. 

Baked Indian. 

Two quarts of milk, a large teacup of meal, half a teacup of 
white flour, two eggs, half a cup of molasses, a large teaspoonful 
of salt, half a teaspoonful of ginger, and the same of. cinnamon. 

To mix it, boil three pints of the milk and set it off from the 
fire. Have ready, beaten together, all the other ingredients in 
part of the remaining pint of milk. Stir them into the hot milk. 
Grease a stone pan, shaped like a common gallon pan of potter's 
ware. Let the mixture cool a little before putting it into the 
pan. Bake it in a moderate heat. When the top begins to 
brown, pour a little of the cold milk over it, and cover it with a 
plate. Bake from four to five hours. Put cold milk on the top 
two or three times while it is baking. If most convenient, a 
little finely-chopped suet can be substituted for the eggs. 

Another 'with Sweet Apples). 

Pare twelve sweet apples, and slice them, or take out the 
cores with a tap-borer. Stir up a pudding of a quart of milk, and 
almost a quart of Indian-meal : the measure may be filled quite 
full by using a spoonful or two of wheat-flour. Add some salt, a 



04 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

teacup of molasses, and a little chopped suet. The milk should 
be boiled, and after it is taken from the fire, the meal and other 
ingredients stirred in. Then pour the whole over the apples. 
Bake three hours. 

Boiled Indian. 

One teacup of molasses, one of chopped suet, two cups 
and a half of Indian meal, one cup of boiled milk, half cup of 
cold milk, a teaspoonful of salt. Good without eggs, though 
two or three can be used if preferred. Steam three hours in 
a pudding-pan. 

Railroad. 

One cup of molasses, one of sweet milk, one of suet or of salt 
pork chopped fine ; four cups of flour, one teaspoonful of salera- 
tus, and if suet is used, one of salt, one cup of chopped raisins, 
one of currants. Warm the molasses and stir the saleratus into 
it ; mix the suet or pork with the flour, then stir all together, 
and steam it four hours, according to the directions for Steamed 
Brown Bread (see page 32). Make a melted sauce, or the sour 
cream sauce. 

Rice. 

Wash a small coffee-cup of rice and put it into three pints of 
milk over night. In the morning add a piece of butter half as 
large as an egg, a teacup of sugar, a little salt, cinnamon, or nut- 
meg. Bake very slowly two hours and a half in a stove or 
brick oven. After it has become hot enough to melt the butter, 
but not to brown the top, stir it (without moving the dish, if you 
can) from the bottom. If raisins are to be used, put them in 
now. They add much to the richness of the pudding. It is a 
very good pudding for so plain a kind, and is very little trouble. 
For a Sunday dinner, where a cooking stove is used, it is very 
convenient, as it employs but a few minutes to prepare it in the 
morning. 



PUDDINGS SAGO, SALEM, APPLE. 95 



Wash six fable-spoonfuls of pearl sago and put it to soak in a 
large pint of warm water. Pare six good-sized, mellow, sour 
apples, and remove the cores with a tap-borer. Wash them, 
butter a deep pudding dish, and lay them in, with the open end 
up. Measure a teacup of sugar, fill the holes with it, and then 
grate half a nutmeg over the apples. Dissolve a little salt and 
the rest of the sugar, in the water with the sago ; pour two 
thirds of the mixture over the apples, and set the dish in the 
oven or stove. After one hour take it out, pour the remainder 
of the sago and water into the dish, and press the apples 
down gently without breaking them. See- that none of the 
sago lies above the water. Return the dish to the oven and 
bake it another hour. It is to be eaten with sugar and milk, or 
cream, and is a very delicate and healthful pudding. 

Salem. 

Three coffee-cups of flour, one of milk, one of chopped rai- 
sins, one of suet or salt pork chopped very fine, two thirds of a 
cup of molasses, a small teaspoonful of powdered cloves, half a 
nutmeg, a teaspoonful of saleratus, and if suet is used instead of 
pork, a little salt. Warm the molasses and dissolve the .salera- 
tus in it, mix the suet, flour, and raisins, then put all the ingre- 
dients together. Boil or steam it four hours. Make a melted 
sauce. 

A Plain Apple. 

Allow a pint and a half of milk ; heat it, and crumb into it' 
enough pieces of bread to make it rather thick. 

Mash the bread, add a piece of butter half as large as an 
egg, a little salt, and a large spoonful of sugar. Spread a 
layer of this in a pudding-dish ; then a layer of sliced sour 
apple, sprinkled with cinnamon, nutmeg, and clove ; and then 
another layer of the bread. Add another layer of apple, on 
which put here and there small bits of butter, a little more t 
spice, and sprinkle with sugar. Bake moderately two hours. 
Cover with a plate the last half-hour. Serve with sauce. 



96 



THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 



DUMPLINGS, AND OTHER INEXPENSIVE 
ARTICLES FOR DESSERT. 

Apple Dumplings (boiled). 

THE best and most healthful crust for them is made like 
cream tartar biscuit, or with potatoes, according to the direc- 
tions under the head of Pastry. It is better to make one or two 
large dumplings, than many small ones ; because in drawing up 
the crust, there must necessarily be folds which, when boiled, 
are thick ; and thus, in small dumplings, the proportion of crust 
to apple, is too great. Make a large crust and let the middle 
be nearly a third of an inch thick ; but roll the edges thin, for 
the reason above mentioned. Wring a thick, square cloth in 
wa^.r, sprinkle it with flour, and lay it into a deep dish ; lay 
the crust into it, and fill it with sliced apples ; put the crust 
together and draw up the cloth around it. Tie it tight with a 
strong twine or tape, allowing no room for it to swell, and be 
sure to draw the string so close that the water cannot soak in. 
Boil a dumpling holding three pints of cut apple, two hours. 
When taken out of the pot, plunge it for a moment into cold 
water, then untie it and turn it out into a dish. Eat with cold 
sauce, or butter and sugar. 

Newburyport Dumpling. 

Nearly fill a quart pudding-dish with apples sliced very 
thin. Set it into a close-fitting steamer over a kettle of boil- 
ing water. Make a crust according to rule for cream-of-tar- 
tar biscuit ; make half the measure. When the apple is 
nearly cooked, grate nutmeg over it, sprinkle in half a tea- 
spoonful essence lemon, cover the apple with the crust, and 
shut the steamer close. Cook half-hour. Eat with cold sauce. 

Steamed. 

Butter a tin pudding pan or pail that will hold two quarts, 
and lay a thin crust in the bottom, then half fill it with sliced 



BAKED DUMPLINGS. 97 

apples, and lay in another thin cruet. Nearly fill the paii 
with apples, and lay a crust on the top. Use light bread 
dough with a little butter rolled in, or cream tartar biscuit. 
Half the measure of this last makes crust enough. Shut 
the lid close, and set the pail into a kettle of boiling water. 
Boil two hours. 

Baked. 

Pare large, fair apples, and take out the cores, lay each one 
into a piece of plain pie crust, just large enough to cover it. 
Fill the centre of the apple with brown sugar, and add a little 
cinnamon, or small strips of fresh orange peel. Close the crust 
over the apple, and lay them, with the smooth side up, into a 
deep, buttered dish, in which they can be set on the table. 
Bake them in a stove an hour and a half. If, after an hour, 
you find that the syrup begins to harden in the bottom of the 
dish, put in half a gill of hot water. Make a cold, or melted 
sauce as you choose. 

Blackberry (baked or steamed). 

Put a small cup of berries and two teaspoonfuls of sugar into 
a crust large enough to contain them. To close the crust well, 
dip your fingers in water and then in flour, and thus paste the 
folds together. Lay as many dumplings as you wish to have into 
a deep pudding-dish, because blackberries are a very juicy 
fruit. Bake them an hour and a quarter in a moderate heat. 
Make a cold sauce for them. 

To steam them, put the fruit and crust into a tin pudding pan, 
exactly like steamed apple dumpling. 

Holey Poley. 

Make a potato crust, or a paste of light bread, with butter 
rolled in, or one of cream tartar biscuit, as you prefer ; roll it 
narrow and long, about a third of an inch thick ; spread it with 
raspberry jam or apple sauce j take care that this does not come 



08 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

too near the edge of the crust ; roll it up and close the ends and 
side as tight as possible, to keep the sauce from coming out and 
the water from soaking it. Sew it up in a thick cloth, put 
into boiling water, and boil it an hour and a half or two hours, 
according to its size. Make a sauce. 

A Charlotte. 

Butter a deep dish or pudding-pan very thick. Cut smooth 
slices of bread, and spread them with butter, and line the bot- 
tom and sides of the dish. Fill it with sliced sour apples. 
Sprinkle each layer of apples with brown sugar, and any 
spice you prefer, also a few small bits of butter. Soak some 
slices of bread for a minute in milk or water ; lay them on 
the top, and cover with a plate that will fit close, and lay a 
weight upon that. Bake two hours and half in a moderate 
stove-oven ; in a brick oven three hours. It should turn out 
whole into another dish. Serve with cold sauce. Peaches 
instead of apples make a nice Charlotte, and need no spice ; 
leave a few of the peach-stones in it. 



Ground Rice. 

Measure a quart of milk, and then take out two cupfuls. Set 
the remainder into a kettle of hot water ; then wet a teacupful 
of ground rice, and a teaspoonful of salt, with the reserved cold 
milk. When that which is in the kettle boils, add the ground 
rice mixture gradually, and continue to stir it, until it is well 
scalded, else it will be lumpy, or lie compactly at the bottom. 
Let it remain in the kettle eight or ten minutes, and stir it now 
and then. Just before you take it up, stir in a large table- 
spoonful of dry ground rice, and as soon as that is well mixed 
take the pail from the water-kettle, and put the mixture into a 
bowl, or blanc-mange mould, wet in cold water. If it is of the 
right consistency, it will turn out in good shape in fifteen or 
twenty minutes. To be eaten like blanc-mange with sugar and 



FARINA, TAPIOCA, SAGO. 99 

milk or cream. It is nice cold, and if it is made for the next 
day, a half a spoonful less of dry rice will be enough. It should 
be only stiff enough to retain the shape. For this and all sim- 
ilar milk preparations, peach leaves are better than any spice. 
Boil in the milk three or four fresh leaves from the tree. Re- 
member to take them out before you stir in the rice. If you 
put in too many, they will give a strong flavor to the article. 
Experience will teach how many to use* 

Farina. 

Set a pail containing a quart of milk into a kettle of boiling 
water. Put in a few pieces of stick-cinnamon. When the 
milk boils, take out the cinnamon and add a teaspoonful of salt, 
and stir in, very gradually, four table-spoonfuls of dry farina ; 
beat out the lumps, and stir it often during the first ten minutes, 
then leave it to boil half an hour or more, remembering to stir 
it repeatedly during that time. Put it in a mould till the next 
day. Serve it as blanc-mange. 

Made thin, like gruel, it is excellent food for young children. 

Tapioca. 

Soak a cup of tapioca in a pint of cold water over night ; then 
boil it in a pint of milk with a little salt. Add any essence you 
choose. It is very good without. Serve it warm, and use 
sugar and cream. 

Sago Apple. 

Wash a table-spoonful and a half of pearl sago, and put it 
into a teacup of cold water to soak. Pare and slice very thin 
two fair sour apples, and boil them very soft in a teacup of 
water ; then add the sago and water with half a teaspoonful of 
salt, and stir it every minute or two. Boil it till the sago and 
apple are perfectly mixed, then add a large spoonful of white 
sugar, and boil it a minute more. Set it off and add lemon 
(the essence or juice as you prefer). 'Put it in a mould, and 
serve it like blunc-mange. 



100 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

This is a very good article for an invalid, leaving out the 
essence. 

The same preparation of sago, and two or three table-spoon- 
"uls of currant jelly dissolved in it instead of the apple, is very 
pretty, and good. 



SWEET DISHES. 

IN making blanc-mange, custards, ice-creams, &c., do not boil 
\he milk in a sauce-pan, but set it, in a tin pail, into a kettle of 
boiling water. The milk does not rise, when boiled thus, as it 
does in a sauce-pan, but when the top is covered with foam, it 
boils enough. 

In making ice cream, it is an improvement to stir the 
cream until it becomes frothy, before adding the other ingredi- 
ents. 

Apple Island. 

Stew apple enough to make a quart, strain it through a 
sieve, sweeten it with fine white sugar, and flavor it with lemon 
or rose. Beat the whites of six eggs to a hard froth, and stir 
into the apple slowly ; but do not do this till just before it is to 
be served. The apples should be stewed with as little water as 
possible. Put it into a glass dish. Serve a nice boiled custard, 
made of the yolks of the eggs, to eat with it. 

Apple Snow, 

Put twelve large apples, without paring, into cold water 
enough to stew them. Boil them slowly ; when they are very 
soft strain them through a sieve ; beat the whites of twelve eggs 
to a stiff froth, then add to them half a pound of fine white 
sugar, and when these are well mixed, add the apple, and beat 
all together, until white as snow. Then lay it in the centre of a 
deep dish, heap it high as you can, and pour around it u nice 



SWEET DISHES FLOATING ISLAND. 101 

boiled custard made of a quart of milk, and eight of the yolks of 
the eggs. 

Floating Island. . 

Put the juice of two lemons, the whites of two eggs, three 
spoonfuls of currant jelly, and a gill and a half of fine sugar 
together and beat to a stiff froth ; then put it into the middle of 
the dish, dress it with sweetmeats, and just before it is served, 
pour into the dish, cream enough to float it. 

Lemon Jelly. 

Take three sheets of American isinglass, break it up 
small, and soak half an hour in a pint of cold water. Dis- 
solve in the water one cup of white sugar, and add the juice 
and rind of a good-sized lemon. Boil a pint of water with 
two or three cloves for a few minutes ; stir into it the water 
containing the isinglass, and strain into a mould. Let it 
stand till next day. 

Isinglass Blanc-mange. 

Wash an ounce and a half of calf 's-foot isinglass, and put it 
into a quart of milk over night. In the morning add three 
peach leaves, and boil it, slowly, twenty minutes or half an 
hour. Strain it into a dish upon a small teacupful of fine 
sugar. If it is to be served soon, add two or three beaten eggs 
while it is hot. Put it into the mould and set in a cool place. 
In hot weather this should be made over night, if wanted at din- 
ner the next day, as it hardens slowly. 

Calf's Foot Blanc-mange. 

Put four calf s feet into four quarts of water ; boil it away to 
one quart, strain it, and set it aside. When cool, remove all the 
fat, and in cutting the jelly out of the pan, take care to avoid 
the sediment. Put to it a quart of new milk, and sweeten it 
with fine sugar. If you season it with cinnamon or lemon peel, 
put it in before boiling ; if with rose or peach-water, afterwards ; 
or, if you choose, boil peach leaves in it. Boil it ten minutes, 



102 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 1 

strain it through a fine sieve into a pitcher, and stir it till nearly 
cold. Then put it into moulds. 

Gelatine Blanc-mange. 

Allow a quart of milk. Take a quarter of a paper of Eng- 
lish gelatine, and put it intq a gill of the milk to soften. In a 
quarter of an hour, set the remainder of the milk in a tin pail 
into a kettle of hot water, with a few sticks of cinnamon in it. 
When the milk boils (or foams up) add a small teaspoon of salt, 
and stir in the cold milk and gelatine. Stir it steadily a few 
minutes, till the particles of gelatine are dissolved, then put it 
into moulds. If lemon or some other essence is preferred to 
the cinnamon, add it after the pail is taken out of the hot water. 
A beaten egg is an improvement. 



Moss Blanc-mange. 

In making this blanc-mange as little moss should be used as 
will suffice to harden the milk. If the moss is old, more is 
necessary than if it is fresh. Allow half a teacupful for a 
quart of milk. Wash it, and put it in soak over night ; in the 
morning, tie it up in a piece of muslin, and boil it in the milk, 
with sticks of cinnamon, the rind of a lemon, or poach leaves. 
Boil it gently twenty minutes or half an hour. Then put 
in half a salt-spoonful of salt, strain it upon a large spoon- 
ful of crushed sugar, and put it into a mould immediately, 
as it soon begins to harden. Eat it with sugar and milk or 
cream. 

Charlotte Eusse. 

Make a boiled custard of a pint of milk and four eggs ; sea- 
son it with vanilla, or any essence you prefer ; make it very 
sweet, and set it away to cool. Put a half an ounce of isinglass 
or English gelatine into a gill of milk where it will become 
warm. When the gelatine is dissolved, pour it into a pint of 
rich cream, and whip it to complete froth. When the custard is 
told, stir it gently into the whip. Line a mould that holds a 



SWEET DISHES CALF'S-FOOT JELLY. 103 

quart with thin slices of sponge cake, or with .sponge fingers, 
pour the mixture into it, and set it in a cold place. 

Calf 's-foot Jelly. 

Scald four calf's feet only enough to take off the hair, 
(more will extract the juices). Clean them nicely. When this 
is done, put them into five quarts of water and boil them until 
the water is half wasted ; strain and set it away till the next 
day, then take off the fat and remove the jelly, being careful 
not to disturb the sediment ; put the jelly into a sauce-pan with 
sugar, wine, and lemon juice and rind to your taste. Beat the 
whites and shells of five eggs, stir them in, and set it on the 
coals, but do not stir it after it begins to warm. Boil it twenty 
minutes, then add one teacupful of cold water and boil five 
minutes longer ; set off the saucepan, and let it stand covered 
close half an hour. It will thus become so clear that it will 
ne'ed to run through the jelly bag but once. 

Another (made of English Gelatine). 

To one of the papers of gelatine containing an ounce and a 
half, put a pint of cold water ; after fifteen minutes, add a quart 
of boiling water, and stir till the gelatine is dissolved. Then add 
a coffee-cup of sugar, the juice of a lemon, and the grated rind, 
or any other spice or essence you prefer, and just boil it up a 
minute. If the jelly is for an invalid, and wine is a part of the 
appropriate regimen, omit the lemon and spices, and add two 
gills of wine, after it is boiled. The gelatine is so pure, that 
the jelly need not be passed through a jelly-bag. This will keep 
several weeks in winter, and is convenient for persons who are 
in the habit of providing little delicacies for the sick. 

Almond Custards. 

Blanch and beat in a marble mortar, with two spoonfuls of 
rose-water, a quarter of a pound of almonds ; beat the yolks of 
four eggs with two table-spoonfuls of sugar, mix the almonds 
with the eggs and sugar, and then add the whole to a pint of 



104 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

cream, set into a kettle of hot water in a pail. Stir it steadily 
till it boils. Serve in little cups. 

Boiled Custards. 

Put a quart of milk into a tin pail or a pitcher that holds two 
quarts ; set it into a kettle of hot water. Tin is better than 
earthen, because it heats so much quicker. Put in a few sticks 
of cinnamon, or three peach leaves. When the milk foams up 
as if nearly boiling, stir in six eggs which have been beaten, 
with two spoonfuls of white sugar ; stir it every instant, until it 
appears to thicken a little. Then take out the pail, and pour the 
custard immediately into a cold pitcher, because the heat of the 
pail will cook the part of the custard that touches it, too much, 
so that it will curdle. This is a very easy way of making cus- 
tards, and none can be better. But in order to have them good, 
you must attend to nothing else until they are finished. You 
may make them as rich as you choose. A pint of milk, a pint 
of cream, and eight eggs will make them rich enough for any 
epicure. So, on the other hand, they are very good with three 
or four eggs only to a quart of milk, and no cream. 

Another (good, and very simple). 

Boil a quart of milk in the way directed in the preceding 
receipt, excepting one gill ; beat two or three eggs with three 
spoonfuls of fine sugar ; wet three teaspoonfuls of corn-starch in 
the reserved gill of milk, then mix the beaten eggs and corn 
starch together, and add a little salt. When the milk in the 
pail boils, stir them in, and continue to stir a minute or two, 
till the custard thickens. Then take the pail to the table and 
pour the custard into china cups (as glass will crack), or else 
into a cold pitcher. Use what seasoning you please. The old 
fashion of using cinnamon is economical and very good. Boil 
some pieces of cinnamon a few minutes only, in two or three 
epoonfuls of water. Put some of this into the custard, and put 
what is left into a vial for another time, 



APPLE MERINGUE. RASPBERRY TRIFLE, ETC. 1Q5 

Apple Meringue. 

Make a syrup of one pint and a half of water, two cups 
of sugar, a bit of stick-cinnamon, and half a lemon. Let 
this boil in a porcelain saucepan while you are paring and 
quartering ten medium sized apples. Boil" these in the syrup, 
without stirring, until the syrup has nearly boiled awa}^. 
Lay the apple in a dish that will hold a quart. Make a 
boiled custard of one pint of milk, the yolks of three eggs, 
half a cup of sugar, and two teaspoonfuls of corn-starch 
rubbed smooth in a very little cold milk. Flavor with lemon. 
Let the custard and apple stand till cold, then pour the 
custard over the apple. Beat the whites of the three eggs 
stiff with two spoonfuls of sugar, and flavor with rose or 
lemon. Spread this over the custard, and let it stand in a 
moderate oven until of a light brown. To be eaten cold. 
Make the meringue without the custard, if you wish, using 
only the beaten whites of three eggs spread over the apple, 
and browned. 

Raspberry Trifle. 

Lay in a deep glass dish slices of sponge-cake or any deli- 
cate cup-cake. Pour over some cream, or juice of preserved 
fruit; then add a layer of raspberry or strawberry jam, as 
thick as your finger. Pour upon this a pint of boiled cus- 
tard, and beat the whites of three eggs very stiff, and spread 
over the custard. 

Apple Custard. 

Boil with a pint of water one pint and a half of white 
sugar, and two oranges cut in slices. Pick out the seeds. 
Take one lemon, if you prefer. Boil this syrup ten minutes, 
slowly, then put in two pounds of russet or other sour apples, 
pared, and sliced thin. Stew them moderately, stirring fre- 
quently, until they are a thick smooth pulp, and look clear. 
Take out the pieces of orange, and put this jam into a large bowl 
wet with cold water. The next day, turn it into a deep dish, 
and serve with a nice boiled custard poured over. 



106 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Coffee Custard. 

Boil one pint of milk with five spoonfuls of sugar. Add 
a cup of very strong hot coffee, then three beaten eggs, and 
-a spoonful of corn-starch or maizena rubbed in cold milk. 
Stir constantly until it is smooth. Pour into cups or glasses, 
and ornament with the beaten white of an egg just before 
serving. 

Chocolate Custard. 

Put a pint and a half of milk, with a cup of sugar in it, 
into a tin pail, and set into a kettle of boiling water. Then 
put half a pint of milk into a sauce-pan, and add a heaping 
tablespoonful of Baker's chocolate, shaved fine. Boil this 
slowly a few minutes. Wet a tablespoonful of maizena or 
corn-starch in two of cold milk, and, when smooth, stir into 
the boiling milk in the pail; add, also, the chocolate after 
straining it, and, lastly, the beaten yolks of three eggs. Stir 
till smooth. Flavor with vanilla. Use more chocolate, eggs, 
and sugar, if you like the custard richer. 

Pour into a dish, or glass cups. Before serving, beat three 
whites stiff, with a spoonful of sugar, and lay on the top. 
Steamed Custard. 

Make a boiled custard with three eggs to a quart of milk, 
and a tablespoonful of corn-starch or maizena wet with cold 
milk, a pinch of salt, and half a cup of white sugar. Fla- 
vor with rose or lemon. Fill the custard-cups, and set them 
into a dripping-pan ; fill the pan with boiling water, and set 
it into the stove-oven. Bake slowly, until they do not seem 
liquid when moved. 

Eice Custard Pie. 

Put a quart of milk (excepting a teacupful) into a tin 
pail, and set it in a kettle of boiling water ; add a cup of white 
sugar, a pinch of salt, and a teaspoonful of butter. Rub 
smooth in the cold milk you have reserved four large spoon- 
fuls of ground rice, beat with it two eggs, then stir it into the 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING ICES. 107 

boiling milk. When partly cool, flavor with lemon or rose. 
Bake in two squash-pie plates lined with a paste. 

Custard Pie. 

Boil a pint and a half of milk. Add a cup of sugar, the 
grated rind of a lemon, three beaten eggs, and a spoonful of 
corn-starch rubbed smooth in milk. Stir well. Bake mod- 
erately, in two small dishes, lined with paste. You can omit 
the corn-starch, if you wish, and use another egg. 

Baked Custards. 

Boil the milk with a stick of cinnamon in it, then set it off 
from the fire, and while it cools a very little, beat (for a quart 
of milk) five or six eggs, with three large spoonfuls of fine 
sugar; then stir the milk and eggs together, and pour into 
custard-cups, or into a single dish that is large enough. If you 
bake in a brick oven, it is a good way to set custard, in cups, 
into it, after the bread ^nd other things have been baked. 
They will become hard in a few hours, and be very delicate. 
If you bake in a stove, or range oven, it is best to use a dish, 
and bake it in a very moderate heat, else it will turn, in part, to 
whey. 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKINQ ICES.* 

Mix equal quantities of coarse salt and ice chopped small ; 
set the freezer containing the cream into a firkin, and put 
in the ice and salt ; let it come up well around the freezer. 
Turn and shake the freezer steadily at first, and nearly ah 1 the 
time until the cream is entirely frozen. Scrape the cream down 
often from the sides with a knife. When the ice and salt melt, 
do not pour off any of it, unless there is danger of its getting 
into the freezer ; it takes half an hour to freeze a quart of 
cream ; and sometimes longer. A tin pail which wil] hold twice 

* The process of freezing is very much simplified by the patent freezers, which 
hare recently come hi use. 



108 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

the measure of the cream, answers a good purpose, if you do 
not own a freezer. In winter, use snow instead of ice. 

Several nice receipts for ice-creams will be given under this 
head, but a custard made of one quart of rich milk, one or two 
eggs, two teaspoonfuls of corn-starch, a teacup of sugar, a very 
little salt, and seasoned with vanilla, makes a delicious ice-cream 

A rich Ice-creain. 

Squeeze a dozen lemons, and strain the juice upon as much 
fine sugar as it will absorb ; pour three quarts of cream into it 
very slowly, stirring very fast all the time. 

Chocolate Ice-Cream. 

Boil two quarts of milk with one quarter of a pound of 
Baker's vanilla chocolate. Dissolve in the milk a pint and 
a half of white sugar. Rub smooth in a little of the milk, 
cold, a tablespoonful of corn-starch ; stir this into two 
well-beaten eggs, and add to the milk after it has boiled 
several minutes. Take up, and let it stand till entirely cold; 
then stir in one quart of cream, and freeze. Heduce'the 
proportions for a small family. 

Apricot. 

Pare, stone, and scald twelve ripe apricots ; then bruise them 
in a marble mortar. Then stir half a pound of fine sugar into 
a pint of cream ; add the apricots and strain through a hair 
sieve. Freeze and put it into moulds. 

Peaches would be a good substitute for the apricots, using, if 
they are large, nine, instead of twelve. 

Strawberry or Raspberry. 

Bruise a pint of raspberries, or strawberries, with two large 
spoonfuls of fine sugar ; add a quart of cream, and strain 
through a sieve, and freeze it. If you have no cream, boil a 
spoonful of arrow-root in a quart of milk, and, if you like, beat 
up one egg and stir into it. 



PHILADELPHIA ICE CREAM, ETC. 

Philadelphia Ice Cream. 

Dissolve in one quart of cream six ounces of pulverized 
sugar. Flavor with essence of vanilla, or a piece of a vanilla- 
bean. No boiling of the cream is necessary. It should be 
about as thick as cream for coffee. Use a patent freezer. 
For those who keep good cows, this is a convenient receipt. 

Ice Cream. 

One quart of rich milk, three eggs, a coffee-cup of granu- 
lated sugar, one large spoonful of maizena or corn-starch. 
Set the milk in a tin pail in a kettle of hot water to boil ; rub 
the maizena smooth in a little cold milk ; add to it the sugar, a 
pinch of salt, and the eggs. Beat these well together, and stir 
jnto the boiling milk. Remove it from the fire in a minute 
or two, and set it to cool. When perfectly cold, add vanilla, 
or lemon, and put it into the freezer. Stir it often till it 
becomes frozen. 



Meringues. 

Cut the whites of six eggs very stiff. Stir. in gradually a 
pound of powdered sugar ; beat till thick. Flavor with any 
essence you like. Butter, slightly, sheets of white paper, and 
lay upon pieces of hard wood boards. Drop the mixture on 
the paper, a spoonful at a time, in oval form, rounded, and 
thick at the top. Bake in a slack oven till the outside is 
crisp, and of a light brown. Then remove from the paper, 
and join them by the under side, two by two. The inside 
will be soft and creamy. Before joining the meringues thus, 
you can, if you prefer, remove a part of the inside with a tea- 
spoon, and put a little jelly, or rich cream, whipped, in place 
of it ; then join them as above. Prepared in this way, they 
should be served soon. 

Placed singly upon cream in a glass dish, they are a hand- 
some dessert. 



110 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Strawberry Sherbet, 

Crush one box of strawberries ; add three pints of watej 
and the juice of a. lemon. Let it stand for a few hours, then 
strain through a bag or cloth upon two cups of white sugar. 
Squeeze out all the juice possible, and stir till the sugar is 
entirely 'dissolved. Make it sweeter, if desired. Put it in 
the freezer for an hour. 

Lemon Sherbet. 

Having squeezed your lemons, add sugar enough to the juice 
to make it quite sweet, and about a third as much water as to 
make lemonade ; strain it, and then freeze it. 

Imperial Cream. 

Boil a quart of cream with the thin rind of a lemon ; then 
stir it till nearly cold ; have ready, in the dish in which it is to 
be served, the juice of three lemons, strained, with as much 
eugar as will sweeten the cream ; pour the cream into the dish, 
from a teapot or pitcher, holding it high and moving it about 
BO as to mix thoroughly with the juice. It should be made six 
hours before being served. Eat with sweetmeats, apple island, 
or apple-pie. 

Snow Cream. 

To a quart of cream add the whites of three eggs, cut to a 
stiff froth, four spoonfuls of sweet wine, sugar to your taste, 
and a little essence of lemon, or the grated rind ; whip it to a 
froth, and serve in a glass dish. 

If you have not a whisk such as is made expressly to whip 
cream, it can be easily, though not as quickly done, with a spoon. 
After the materials are mixed, beat them, not over and over 
like the yolks of eggs, but back and forth, keeping the spoon 
below the surface ; and as fast as the froth forms, take it off 
and lay it into the dish, or glasses, for the table. It will not 
return to the liquid state. If it were to stand several days it 
would become crisped in the form in which it was left. 



WINE CUSTARD - STAINED FROTH. 



Pine-apple Ice-cream 

Boil together a pint of pure cream and a pint of rich milk ; 
then add a cup of white sugar and the whites of three eggs, 
beaten. Cut a ripe pine-apple in small pieces, lay them in a 
bowl, and sprinkle them with white sugar. Let them stand 
an hour or two, and the syrup will then be ready to add to 
the ice-cream. 

Rennet Custard. 

Beat the yolks of three eggs with two spoonfuls of crushed 
sugar, and cut the whites to a stiff froth ; put them into the 
dish which is to go to the table, and add a quart of milk, and a 
few drops of peach or rose-water, and when these are well 
mixed, stir in a spoonful and a half of rennet wine. In cold 
weather, the milk should be warmed a little ; in warm weather 
it is not necessary. It should be immediately set where it will 
not be disturbed. It will harden soon, perhaps in five minutes. 
This depends somewhat on the strength of the rennet, and the 
measure of wine necessary to harden a quart of milk will de- 
pend on this. Sometimes a spoonful will prove enough. There 
is no way to judge but by trying, as in using rennet for making 
cheese. The strength of this article varies exceedingly. 

It is a very good and more economical way to warm the milk 
a little, sweeten it, and add nothing but the rennet and 
vanilla, and grate nutmeg over the top. Soda-biscuit or but- 
ter-crackers are good with this custard- 

Stained Froth. 

Take the whites of three or four eggs, and cut them to a stiff 
froth, then beat into them the syrup of damsons, blood-peaches, 
or any highly colored preserve. This makes an elegant addi- 
tion to a dish of soft custard. Some persons, when making cus- 
t.'irds, lay the white of eggs, cut in this way, upon the top of .the 
boiling milk for a minute or two. This hardens it, and it is 

taken off upon a dish, and when the custard glasses are filled, a 

piece of it is laid upon the top of each. 



112 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 



TO PRESERVE FRUIT AND MAKE 
JELLIES. 

A KETTLE should be kept on purpose. Brass, if very bright, 
will do. If acid fruit is preserved in a brass kettle which is not 
brigfet, it becomes poisonous. Bell-metal is better than brass, 
and the iron ware lined with porcelain, best of all. 

The chief art in making nice preserves, and such as will keep, 
consists in the proper preparation of the syrup, and in boiling 
them just long enough. English housekeepers think it necessary 
to do them very slowly, and they boil their sweetmeats almost 
all day, in a jar set into a kettle of water. Brown sugar should 
be clarified. The crushed and granulated sugars are usually so 
pure as not to require being clarified. Loaf sugar is the best of 
any. Clean brown sugar makes very good sweatmeats for fam- 
ily use ; but the best of sugar is, for most fruits, necessary, to 
make such as will be elegant, and keep long. 

Sweetmeats should be boiled veiy gently lest the syrup should 
burn, and also that the fruit may become thoroughly penetrated 
with the sugar. Furious boiling breaks small and tender fruits. 
Too long boiling makes sweetmeats dark, and some kinds are 
rendered hard and tough. 

Preserves keep best in glass jars, which have also this advan- 
tage, that you can see whether or not fermentation has com- 
menced, without opening them. If stone jars are used, those 
with narrow mouths are best, as the air is most easily excluded 
from them; and small sized ones, containing only enough for 
once or twice, are best, as the frequent opening of a large jar, 
injures its entire contents, by the repeated. admission of the air. 
When sweetmeats are cold, cover them close, and if not to be 
used soon, paste a paper over the top, and with a feather, brush 
over the paper with white of egg. When you have occa- 
sion to open them, if a thick, leather-looking mould covers them, 
they are in a good state, as nothing so effectually shuts out the 
air ; but if they are specked here and there with mould, taste 




j ' 



PRESERVES AND JELLIES. 113 

them, and if they are injured, it should be carefully removed, 
and the jar set into a kettle of water (not hot at first, lest the 
it should crack) and boiled. If the taste shows them to be un- 
injured, this mould may be the beginning of a leather-mould ; 
therefore wait a few days, and look at them again, and scald 
them if necessary. A very good way of scalding them, and 
perhaps the easiest, is to put the jar (if it is of stone ware) into 
a brick oven as soon as the bread is drawn, and let it stand three 
or four hours. If the oven is quite warm a shorter time will do. 
This, or setting the jar into a kettle of water, as mentioned 
above, is much better than to scald them in the ordinary way, 
as they are exposed to the air w r hen poured into the preserving 
kettle, and also when returned to the jar. 

In making jellies, the sugar should be heated and should not 
be added, until the fruit-juice boils ; and for this reason, that 
the process is completed in much less time than if they are put 
together cold. Thus the diminution of the quantity, which long 
boiling occasions, is avoided, and the color of the jelly is much 
finer. Sometimes ladies complain that, for some inexplicable 
reason, they cannot make their currant jelly harden. The true 
reason was doubtless this, that while making it, it was suf- 
fered to stop boiling for a few minutes. Let it boil gently but 
steadily, until by taking a little of it into a cold silver spoon, 
you perceive that it quickly hardens around the edges. A prac- 
tised eye will readily judge by the movement of the liquicf*$s ifc 
boils. Put jelly in little jars, cups, or tumblers ; when it is 
cold, paste paper over the top and brush it over with white of 
egg. When this is used, the old method of putting brandy 
papers upon jelly is unnecessary. Particular attention is re- 
quested to these suggestions in regard to making jellies. 

To make Syrup for Preserves. 

Put a large teacup of water for every pound of sugar. As it 
begins to heat, stir it often. When it rises towards the top of 
the kettle, put in a cup of water ; repeat this process two or 
three times, then set the kettle aside. If the sugar is perfectly 



114 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

pure, there will be no scum on the top. If there is scum, after 
it has stood a few minutes, take it off carefully. If the syrup 
then looks clear, it is not necessary to strain it. 

To clarify sugar, put into every two pounds a beaten white of 
an egg. Five whites will do for a dozen pounds. Proportion 
the sugar and water as directed above, and after it has boiled 
enough take it from the fire, and let it stand ten minutes, then 
take the scum very carefully from the top, and pour off the 
syrup so gently as not to disturb the sediment. Have the kettle 
washed, return the syrup, and add the fruit. Some persons 
always strain the syrup through a flannel bag, but if the above 
directions are observed, it is not necessary. To use a flannel 
bag, always wring it very dry in hot water. This prevents a 
waste of the article strained. The bag should be soft, and not 
fulled up. 

To preserve Apples. 

Weigh equal quantities of Newtown pippins, and the best of 
sugar ; allow one sliced lemon for every pound. Make a syrup, 
and then put in the apples. Boil them until they are tender ; 
then lay them into the jars and boil the syrup until it will be- 
come a jelly. No other apple can be preserved without break- 
ing. This keeps its shape, and is very beautiful. Quarter the 
apples, or take out the core and leave them whole, as you prefer. 
Other sour hard apples are very good preserved, but none keep 
as well, or are as handsome as the Newtown pippins. 

Crab Apples. 

Weigh them, and put them into water enough to almost, but 
not quite, cover them. Take them out when they have boiled 
till a little tender, and put into the water as many pounds 
of sugar as you have of fruit, and boil it till clear, then set it 
aside till it is cold; skim it, and return the fruit to the kettle, and 
put it again on the fire. The moment, it actually boils take it 
off; lay the fruit into the jar with care, so as not to break it. 



/** 



PRESERVES AND JELLIES. 115 

Pine-apples. 

Take equal quantities of pine-apple and the best of loaf sugar. 
Slice the pine-apple, put nearly or all the sugar over it. Put it 
in a deep pan, and let it stand all night. In the morning take 
the apple out and boil the syrup. When it begins to simmer, 
put the apple in and boil fifteen or twenty minutes. Tie a 
piece of white ginger in a bit of muslin, and boil it in the syrup 
before adding the apple. After boiling the whole ten or fifteen 
minutes, take out the apple and boil the syrup ten minutes 
longer ; then pour it over the pine-apple. The apples should 
be ripe, and yet perfectly sound. If the syrup does not taste 
enough of ginger, boil it with the ginger till it suits the taste. 

Pine-apples (without boiling). 

Select large, fresh pine-apples. Pare them with a very sharp 
knife, having a thin blade. Carefully remove the little prickly 
eyes. Slice the fruit round and round about half an inch thick. 
Weigh a pound and a quarter of best granulated sugar, to a 
pound of fruit ; and put into a glass jar a layer of sugar, and 
then a layer of fruit till it is filled. Make the layers of sugar 
very thick, else you will have a quantity left when the fruit is 
all laid in. Cover the jar close, and set it in a very cold place. 
This will keep perfectly, and have the taste of freshly sugared 
pine-apples a year afterward. 

Blackberries. 

To a pound of the low, running blackberries, allow p, pound of 
fine sugar. Put them together in the preserving kettle, the 
fruit first, and the sugar on the top. These berries are so juicy 
that no water will be necessary ; but they must begin very 
slowly to stew, and boil gently an hour. If blackberries are 
well done at first, they will not need scalding afterwards. 

The high blackberries are not good preserved, but make an 
excellent syrup for medicinal purposes. 



' 



116 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Currants. 

Weigh equal quantities of sugar, and fruit stripped from the 
stems. Boil the fruit ten minutes, stirring it often, and crushing 
it. Add the sugar, and boil another ten minutes. Measure the 
time from the minute boiling commences. This keeps till cur- 
rants come again. Clean brown sugar does very well. If it is 
to be used up in the course of the autumn, ten or twelve ounces 
of sugar to a pound of fruit is enough. 

Cranberry Sauce. 

Pour very hot water upon the fruit, as it will thus be easy 
to pick out the bad ones. Measure them, and put them into 
the preserving-kettle with water enough nearly to cover them. 
Stir them very often ; see that they do not boil too fast. 
' Crush the fruit as it boils with a wooden ladle or spoon. 
When the berries are crushed, add a pint of fine sugar 
for every quart of berries, and allow them to boil gently fif- 
teen minutes, stirring them almost all the time. Wet in 
cold water moulds or bowls of a size to hold sauce enough 
for use at one dinner. 

Cranberries keep very well in a firkin of water in the cellar, 
and if so kept, can be stewed fresh at any time during the win- 
ter. 

Damsons. 

Wash, drain, and weigh them, put them into the kettle, and 
add the same weight of sugar and (to six or eight pounds) a. 
pint of water. Boil them gently but steadily an hour ; press 
the top ones down carefully, several times. They will break 
some, and the pricking each one with a needle before stewing 
them, makes little, if any difference. But they break less than 
other small plums, and are more solid. The syrup gives an 
elegant color to a beaten white of egg, for ornamenting custards 
or delicate puddings. 

Other small sized blue plums are preserved in the same way. 



PRESERVES EGG PLUMS, PEACHES. 117 

Egg Plums. 

To make the most elegant of all plum sweetmeats, take the 
5)uane, or the Egg plums, ripe, but not very ripe. The skin 
can usually be pulled off. If you cannot remove it without 
tearing the fruit, pour on boiling water, and instantly pour it off, 
or lay them into a cullender, and dip boiling water over them 
once. Allow equal quantities of fruit and sugar, and make the 
syrup in the usual way. Then lay in a few plums at a time, 
and boil gently five minutes ; lay them into a jar as you take 
them from the kettle, and when all are done, pour the boiling 
syrup over them. After two days, drain off the syrup, boil it, 
and pour it upon them again. Do this every two or three days 
till they look clear. Then, if you wish the syrup to be very 
thick, boil it half an hour, and when cold, pour it upon the 
plums. 

Peaches. 

Select peaches that are ripe, but not soft. Pour boiling 
water upon them, and let it stand five or six minutes ; then pour 
it off, and pull off the skins. This is the easiest way, and the 
most economical, as none of the peach is wasted with the skin. 
In a lot of peaches for preserving, there ma'y be a few that you 
will have to pare ; but most of them will part with the skin 
when scalded, except the cling-stones. 

Weigh equal quantities of fruit (with the stones in), and fino 
sugar, and put them together in an earthen pan over night. 
The next day pour off the syrup, and boil it a few minutes ; 
then set off the kettle and remove the scum. Return the kettle 
to the fire, and when it boils lay the peaches into it. Boil them 
very slowly three quarters of an hour, then lay them into the 
jars ; boil the syrup fifteen minutes more, and pour over them. 

The blood peaches are a beautiful fruit when preserved. The 
yellow ding-stone is handsome, but very inconvenient as the 
fruit adheres so closely to the stone. Almost any kind of peach 
is good, stewed in half a pound of clean brown sugar to a 
pound of stoned fruit, and will keep several weeks in the 
autumn. 



118 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Pears. 

Weigh three quarters of a pound of sugar for a pound of 
pears. Boil the fruit whole, with the stems on, in barely water 
enough to cover them, till they are tender, but not very soft. 
Then take them from the kettle, and put in the sugar, boil it ten 
or fifteen minutes, then set it off, and after removing the scum, 
put in the pears, and boil them till they begin to have a clear 
look. The difference in the size, and in the solidity of this 
fruit is so great that exact directions as to time cannot be given. 
When you have laid the pears into jars, boil the syrup another 
half hour, skim it if necessary, and then pour it upon the fruit. 
If you wish to give a more decided flavor to preserved pears, 
add peach water, or sliced lemons, when the syrup is boiling. 
Clean brown sugar does very well for preserving this fruit. 

In selecting pears to preserve, choose such as are rather acid. 
The sweet ones are best baked. The Iron pears, if you will 
have patience to boil them long enough, make an excellent pre- 
serve. Divide them into halves or quarters if you choose. But 
they are often done whole. Boil them in just water enough, 
covered close, two or three hours. Make a syrup as directed 
above, and boil them in it an hour and a half. 

Quinces. 

Procure the apple, or orange quince. It is much less apt to 
be hard, when preserved, than the pear quince. Pare and core 
the fruit, and allow equal weights of fruit and fine sugar. Boil 
quinces in water enough to cover them, till they are tender ; 
then take them out one by .one with a silver spoon and lay them 
separately on a flat dish. Make a syrup and save all the water 
not used for it. When it is ready, return the fruit to the kettle, 
and boil it slowly three quarters of an hour, then lay it in jars, 
and pour the syrup over it. It is a good way to cut part of the 
quinces in halves, and preserve a part of them whole. Remove 
the cores with a fruit-corer, or if you have not this, use a com- 
mon tap-borer ; it answers the purpose very well. 



PRESERVES QUINCES. 

Quinces with Sweet Apples. 

To increase the quantity, without an addition of sugar, have 
as many large fair sweet apples pared, quartered, and cored, as 
will weigh one third as much as the quince. When the quince 
is boiled enough take it out, and put the sweet apples into the 
syrup, and boil them till they begin to look red and clear ; an 
hour and a half will not be too long. Then put the quince and 
apple into the jars in alternate layers. The flavor of the quince 
will so entirely penetrate the apple, that the one cannot be dis- 
tinguished from the other, and the sugar necessary to preserve 
the quince, will be sufficient for the apple. 

Quinces (without boiling the Syrup). 

TVeigh twelve ounces of sugar for every pound of fruit. Boil 
the quinces in water enough to cover them, until they are so 
soft that care is necessary not to break them, in taking them 
out. Drain the pieces a little as you take them from the water, 
and put them into a jar in alternate layers with the sugar. 
Cover the jar close as soon as it is filled, and paste a paper over 
the top. Quinces done in this way are very elegant, about the 
color of oranges, and probably will not need scalding to keep 
them as long as you wish. If any tendency to fermentation 
appears, as may be the case by the following April or May, set 
the jar (if it is stone) into a brick oven after bread has been 
baked, and the quince will become a beautiful light red, and will 
keep almost any length of time, and never become hard. 

It may be well to mention that in damp houses, none of the 
fruits preserved without boiling keep as well as those which are 
boiled. I have known a very few instances in which persons 
who were skilful in all these things did not succeed in preserv- 
ing fruits in this way. 

The water in which quinces are boiled should be saved. Boil 
the parings in it for a short time, if you intend to make a jelly, 
as long boiling them will make the water less clear. If "you do 
not make jelly, boil the parings a good while, then strain off the 
water, and when it is cold bottle it. It will keep without the 



120 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

addition of sugar two or three weeks, and will give a fine flavor 
to apple-pies or sauce. There is so much richness in the par- 
ings of quinces that they should never be thrown away without 
being boiled. The fruit should therefore be washed and wiped 
before it is pared, and all defective parts removed. 

[The pear quince, though it becomes hard when preserved, 
and therefore is not as good for that purpose as the orange 
quince, is very rich, and makes fine marmalade.] 

Marmalade. 

Wash and wipe the quinces, and take out any dark spots 
there may be on the skins. Cut them up without paring, cores 
and all ; cover them with water in the preserving kettle, and 
boil them until they are soft enough to be rubbed through a 
coarse hair sieve. Then weigh equal quantities of pulp and 
refined sugar, and boil the mixture an hour, stirring it steadily. 

The pear quinces are much the best for marmalade ; and 
a quarter of the weight of sweet apples may be added, with- 
out any more sugar. 

Put it into moulds or deep plates, and when it is cold put a 
paper over it, pasted at the edges, and brushed with white of 
egg. Marmalade can be kept for almost any length of time. 

Strawberries. 

Take large strawberries not extremely ripe ; weigh equal 
quantities of fruit and best sugar ; lay the fruit in a dish, and 
sprinkle half the sugar over it ; shake the dish a little, that the 
sugar may touch all the fruit. Next day make a syrup of the 
remainder of the sugar and the juice which you can pour off 
from the fruit in the pan, and as it boils lay in the strawberries, 
and boil them gently twenty minutes or half an hour. 

Another, 

Weigh 'equal quantities of fruit and sugar, and put them to- 
gether over night. The next day boil the strawberries long 
enough to scald without shrinking them, six or eight minutes 



PRESERVES APPLE JAM, ETC. 121 

after they commence boiling. Then skim them out, and boil 
away the syrup half an hour ; then pour it, hot, upon the straw- 
berries. 

Apple Jam (which will keep for years). 

Weigh equal quantities of brown sugar and good sour apples. 
Pare and core them, and chop them fine. Make a syrup of the 
sugar, and clarify it very thoroughly ; then add the apples, the 
grated peel of two or three lemons, and a few pieces of white 
ginger. Boil it till the apple looks clear and yellow. This re- 
sembles foreign sweetmeats. The ginger is essential to its 
peculiar excellence. 

Pine-Apple Jam. 

Grate sound but ripe pine-apples, and to a pound put three 
quarters of a pound of loaf sagar. Make a syrup and boil the 
grated pine-apple in it fifteen minutes. 

Grape Jam. 

Boil grapes very soft, and strain them through a sieve. 
Weigh the pulp thus obtained, and put a pound of crushed 
sugar to a pound of pulp. Boil it forty minutes, stirring it 
often. The common wild grape is much the best for this use. 

Quince Jam. 

Weigh twelve ounces of brown sugar to one pound of quince. 
Boil the fruit in as little water as will do, until it is sufficiently 
soft to break easily ; then pour off all the water and mash it 
with a spoon until entirely broken ; put in the sugar, and boil 
twenty minutes, stirring it very often. 

Another. 

Chop a pound of quince (not boiled) in a pound of best sugar. 
When chopped fine, boil it twenty minutes. If you have some 
of the water in which quinces have been boiled, put in a gill; 



122 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPERS FRIES L>. 

if you have not this, use pure water. This is very goody but 
not as easily digested as the other. 

Raspberry Jam. 

Pick the fruit over very carefully, as it is more apt than any 
other to be infested with worms. Weigh equal quantities of 
fruit and sugar ; put the fruit into the kettle, or preserving pan, 
break it with a ladle, and stir continually. Let it boil quickly 
four or five minutes, then add the sugar, and simmer slowly a 
little while. The fruit, preserved in this way, retains its fresh 
taste much better than if the sugar is added at first. It is 
scarcely inferior to raspberries gathered from the vines. Some 
persons prefer to add currants or currant juice. A quart of 
currant juice to four quarts of raspberries is a good proportion. 
Boil it up, and put the fruit into it. If you wish to add cur- 
rants, take fresh, ripe ones, a quart to three quarts of raspber- 
ries. 

Cherry Jam. 

For one pound of cherries allow three-quarters of a pound 
of sugar. Stone them, and add the sugar gradually while 
yon are stoning them. Let them stand all night. The next 
day boil them gently, until the cherries and sugar have be- 
come a thick smooth mass. 

Crab-Apple Marmalade. 

Stew the apples in just enough water to prevent them 
from burning. R-ub them through a sieve as soon as they 
are soft, and to each pound of +he pulp put a pound of white 
sugar. Return them to the kettle, and stew slowly, stirring 
all the time until thick. Put a spoonful of the marmalade 
upon the ice. If it cuts smooth when perfectly cold, it is 
ready to take up. Put into deep dishes, as you do quince 
marmalade. 

Crab-apples may be stewed to use occasionally for a few 
weeks, with less sugar than when preserved. Stew them till 
slightly tender, then add the sugar. The red crab-apples are 
handsomest. 



t 



JELLIES CRAB- APPLE, BARBERRY, ETC. 123 

Apple Jelly. 

Take good sour apples, wash and wipe them, cut out any 
black spots upon the skin, and cut them up without paring or 
coring. Much of the richness of the apple is in the skin and 
core. Boil them in water enough to cover them, and when they 
become very soft, put the whole into a coarse linen bag, and 
suspend it between two chairs, with a pan under it, and leave it 
until it ceases to drip. Then press it. Allow a pound of 
fine sugar to a pint of apple-syrup. Boil up the syrup, and 
skim it ; heat the sugar in a dish in the stove-oven, and add 
it as the syrup boils up, after being skimmed. Boil gently 
an hour. A short time before taking it up, add two tea- 
spoonfuls of essence of lemon for every three quarts of apple- 
syrup. To make it a very rich color, like guava, boil it two 
hours. 

Crab- Apple Jelly. 

Boil the fruit in water enough to cover it, until it is perfectly 
soft ; then proceed just as directed in the last receipt. 

Barberry Jelly. 

This is made by boiling the fruit until the water is very 
strongly flavored with it ; then put a pound ofl best sugar to a 
pint of juice. It should boil a little longer than currant or 
quince jelly. 

Cranberry Jelly. 

Wash and pick over the fruit carefully, and boil it till very 
soft in water enough to cover it. Then strain it through a hair 
sieve, and weigh equal quantities of the pulp and fine sugar. 
Boil it gently, and with care that it does not burn, fifteen or 
twenty minutes. 

Currant Jelly. 

Pick over the fruit, but leave it on the stems. Put it into 
the preserving kettle, and break it with a ladle or spoon, and 
when it is hot, squeeze it in a coarse linen bag until you can 



124 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

press out no more juice. Then weigh a pound of sugar to a 
pint of juice. Sift the sugar, and heat it as hot as possible 
without dissolving or burning ; boil the juice five minutes very 
fast, and while boiling add the hot sugar, stir it well, and when 
it has boiled again five minutes, set it off. The time must be 
strictly observed. Jelly to eat with meat does very well made 
with brown sugar, but must boil longer. 

Quince Jelly. 

Take the water in which quinces have been boiled for pre- 
serving and for marmalade, and boil the clean parings until 
they are soft. (See directions in the receipt for preserving 
quinces without boiling the syrup). Then strain the water 
while very hot through a flannel bag, and allow a pound of best 
sugar for every pint. Put the sugar on a dish into the stove 
oven to heat ; boil up the quince water ; if any scum rises, take 
it off, and then stir in the hot sugar, and boil it slowly, but 
steadily, twenty minutes, or half an hour. The time necessary 
will depend somewhat on the water being more or less strongly 
flavored with the fruit. 

Directions for canning Fruit. 

Tomatoes should be taken fresh, ripe, but not soft. Scald 
them ten minutes in their own liquor ; add nothing, not even 
salt. Put them into cans the moment they are scalded. Tin 
cans will keep them good longest because they do not admit 
the light. 

Gilmore's cans are made of best tin, are most easily closed - 
and experience proves them to be perfectly adapted for keep- 
ing fruit. Put them into hot water ; drain them quickly one 
at a time ; set it by the side of the preserving-kettle ; fill it, 
and instantly put on the cover, and turn down the screw. 
These directions apply to all the various kinds of cans. 

Peaches should be ripe 'enough to eat, but not soft. Pare, 
stone, and weigh them, For two pounds of peaches make a 



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JELLIES PIXE-APPLE, ETC. 125 

syrup of two heaping cups of sugar and three of water. Then 
add the peaches, and boil them ten or twelve minutes ; then 
lay them with a silver spoon into a quart can or glass jar ; fill 
it with' the syrup, and screw down the cover; then add to the 
remaining syrup two pounds more of peaches, boil as before, 
and these will fill another jar. "Mason's improved jar " is 
highly recommended. 

Before using glass cans, fill them with quite warm water, 
and then with boiling water. Drain it out quickly, set the 
can by the kettle, fill it full, put on the rubber ring, then 
press the cover on. Care is necessary to avoid breaking glass 
cans. 

Allow for preserving strawberries, raspberries, and 
blackberries, a heaping cup of fine sugar to a pound of 
fruit. Spread it over them a little while before you are ready 
to stew them. Boil them gently till cooked. 

For cherries and. plums, quinces andpears, a sryup should 
be made. Allow a full cup of sugar with half a cup of 
water for every pound of fruit. Cherries and plums will re- 
quire twenty minutes 7 boiling ; quinces and pears should be 
boiled till beginning to be tender. 

Pine-apple should be sliced, pared, and the prickly eyes tak- 
en out ; then weighed, and put into a tray, and chopped with a 
chopping-knife. Drain the juice which flows out into the 
preserving-kettle, and put to it sugar, half the weight of the 
fruit. When the syrup boils up, put in the chopped pine-apple. 
Scald it eight minutes, then put it into cans. 

Apple stewed and canned without sugar will keep good a 
long time ; the spice and sugar to be added when made into 
pies. 

Whortleberries stewed and canned make as nice pies, 
months afterward, as fresh berries. Allow a half a cup of sugar 
to a quart of berries. When made into pies, more sugar can be 
added if they are not sweet enough. 



126 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

If you use cans which are closed with rosin, proceed in the 
same way. Have the rosin ready hot, and dip it into the groove 
with a small tin ladle made for the purpose. Avoid getting any 
of the rosin into the fruit, as a single drop will make the whole 
contents of the can bitter. To open a can closed in this way, 
set it where the rosin will become a little warm, so that the 
lid can be easily removed. If it is melted, it will be difficult 
to prevent some of it from falling into the open place. The 
essentials to success are, to have the can hot, to fill it full, 
and to close it immediately. 



BAKED AND STEWED FRUITS. 

THESE are economical, excellent, and healthy ; and it is well 
worth while for every family possessing only a plot of ground 
large enough for two trees, to set out a pear and sweet apple 
tree. 

Apple Sauce. 

Put a quart of water in a porcelain saucepan, with two 
cups of white sugar, and half a lemon sliced, or a stick of 
cinnamon. When it has boiled about five minutes, add as 
many apples, pared and quartered, as the syrup will receive. 
Stew gently until they are tender, and look clear, but do not 
stir them. Take up carefully with a skimmer. Spitzenberg 
apples are especially nice for this sauce ; but russets, or any 
solid sour apple, are very good. 

Boiled Quinces. 

People who raise quinces can have a nice dish for the tea- 
table with very little expense. Pare and quarter them, and 
boil them with but little water in a covered saucepan, until 
they are tender. Eat them with cream and powdered sugar. 

Steamed Sweet Apples. 

Wash and wipe a pailful of sweet apples ; put them into a 
porcelain kettle, with cold water enough to come half-way to- 
ward the top, cover them and boil them slowly as possible an 



BAKED AND STEWED FRUITS. 127 

hour. Then try them with a fork, and turn down the upper 
side of those which lie on the top. If they are considerably 
softened, scatter a coffee-cup of brown sugar over them, cover 
them close, and let them remain boiling another hour. Very 
large apples need half an hour more. 

Baked Sweet Apples, 

If they are of a good kind, they are very nice baked in an 
earthen dish, which is better than tin. If you cook them in a 
stove, there should be a little water in the pan, else the juice 
will burn and be lost. They are best done in a brick oven. 
Put them into a jar with no water or sugar, but cover them 
close, and bake five or six hours. A rich syrup will be found 
in the bottom of the jar, and the appearance and flavor of the 
apples will be very fine. 

Baked Sour Apples. 

These are best baked in a stove. They require only an hour. 
There should b> a little water in the dish. Just before they 
are done, sprinkle a little brown sugar upon them, dip the syrup 
over them, and cover them close till wanted for the table. They 
are good done in this way to eat at breakfast or tea ; and also at 
dinner, with any meat requiring apple sauce. Take out the 
cores before baking them if you choose. 

Baked Pears. 

The common early pears are very good put into a jar with- 
out paring, and with a teacup of molasses to every two quarts 
of pears. But little water is necessary. Bake them five or six 
hours in a brick oven ; two in a range or stove. If you wish 
them more delicate, pare them, and put a teacup of sugar in- 
stead of molasses. The later and larger fall pears are very 
nice baked in a dish ; but most kinds of heavy winter pears can- 
not be baked so as to be tender. 

Boiled Cider Apple-Sauce. 

Take apples, sweet and sour together, that will not keep 



128 THE' YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

long, and pare a large quantity. When finished, wash and put 
them into a bright brass kettle, in which you have turned down 
an old dish or large plate, that will nearly cover the bottom ; 
this is to prevent the apple from burning. After you have put 
in all the apples, pour in a quart of cider (boiled as directed in 
the receipt for boiled cider) to every pailful of apples. After it 
has boiled an hour or two, add molasses in the proportion of 
two quarts to every four pails of apples. If you have refuse 
quinces, a peck of them gives a fine flavor to a large kettle of 
apple-sauce. The best way to boil apple-sauce is to put the ket- 
tle over the fire at night, and let the apple become partly done 
before bed-time. When you leave it for the night, see that the 
fire lies in such a way, that all parts of the apple boil equally, 
and that no brands can fall.* Burn charcoal or peat if you 
have it; as either of these will make a steady fire, and may be 
left without danger from snapping. The chief things to be 
observed, are, that there is not too much fire, that it lies safely, 
and that it will afford a moderate heat several hours. In the 
morning the apple-sauce will be of a fine red color, and must 
then be put away in firkins or stone jars. Never use potter's 
ware for this purpose. 

Sweet Apple Marmalade. 

This is made by boiling sweet apples alone, in cider made of 
sweet apples, and boiled down so as to be very rich. The sauce 
is in this case strained warm through a very coarse sieve or 
riddle, and boiled again a little while ; or it may be put into 
deep dishes and set into the oven after the bread is drawn. 

Coddled Apples. 

Take fair early apples, wipe them, lay them in a preserving 
kettle, and put to half a peck a coffee-cup of brown sugar, and 

* As the open fire-place is now seldom in use, these directions will not 
often be apropos. But where a range or coal stove is used, a large kettle 
of apple-sauce can, with care, be done well, on the top with the cover 
under it. 



BAKED AND STEWED FRUITS. 129 

half a pint of water. Cover them and boil them gently, until 
they are tender and penetrated with the sugar. 

They may be done quite as well in a jar in the oven, but 
care must be taken that they are not cooked too much. Early 
apples will bake with a very moderate heat. 

Common Family Apple-Sauce. 

Let your stock of apples be picked over several times in the 
course of the winter, and all the defective ones taken out. Let 
the good parts of these be pared, and if not used for pies, be 
made into apple-sauce. Boil it in a preserving kettle. After 
it is tender, add sugar to your taste, and boil it gently fifteen 
minutes longer. Towards spring, when apples somewhat lose 
their taste, the flavor will be improved by adding the juice 
and rind of lemon. 

Boiled Pears. 

These are eaten with roast meat instead of apple or cranberry 
sauce. Choose fair, smooth ones ; put them into cold water and 
boil them whole, without paring and without sugar. It will 
take an hour, or an hour and a half, according to the size of the 
fruit. 

To Stew Dried Apples or Peaches. 

Wash them in two or three waters, and put them to soak in 
rather more water than will cover them, as they absorb a great 
deal. After soaking two hours, put them into a preserving 
kettle in the same water, and with a lemon or orange cut up ; 
boil them till very tender ; when they rise up in the kettle press 
them down with a skimmer or spoon, but do not stir them. 
When they are tender, add clean brown sugar, and boil fifteen 
or twenty minutes longer. 

Dried apples are rendered tasteless by being strained or 
stirred so as to break them up ; and they are also injured by 
soaking over night. 

If they are to be used for pies, there should be more sugar 



THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

added than for sauce, and a small piece of butter stirred in 
while they are hot. Nutmeg and clove are good spices for 
dried apple-pies. 

Dried peaches are done in the same way, only the lemon and 
spice are omitted ; and they should be soaked a longer time 
before boiling. 



HOW TO SELECT AND TAKE CARE OF 

BEEF, MUTTON, LAMB, VEAL, AND 

PORK. 

Ox beef is the best ; next to this the flesh of an heifer ; and 
both are in perfection during the first three months of the year. 
Choose that, the lean of which is red and of a fine grain, and 
the fat of which is white.* In cold weather, if YOU have a 
large family, it is good economy to buy a quarter. The hind 
quarter is considered best. Have the butcher cut it up. Pack 
the roasting pieces, which you do not want soon, in a barrel of 
snow, and set it where it will not melt. It is not necessary to 
freeze the meat first. The leg will furnish, besides a piece to 
cook alamode, two or three to smoke. The thin pieces at the 
end of the ribs are good corned, and the flank also ; or it may 
be used for mince pies. The shank, although it has but little 
meat, is very good for some purposes. It should be cut up into 
several pieces and boiled four or five hours, no matter how long. 
There is a great deal of marrow and fat in it which, when cold, 
should be taken off and clarified for various- uses. The meat is 
good used as is directed in the receipt for brawn, and the liquor 
makes excellent soup and gravies. 

The best roasting pieces of beef are the sirloin, the second 

* The flesh of diseased cattle is sometimes sold in citr markets. There- 
fore never buy beef the fat of which is very yellow, nor mutton and lamb 
unless the fat is white. Yellow fat indicates that the meat is of an un- 
aeahhy kind. 



DIRECTIONS RESPECTING MEAT. 131 

cut in the fore quarter, and the rump. If you buy a sirloin for 
a family of six or eight, get eight or ten pounds. Cut off the 
thin end in which there is no bone. It is very good corned, and 
not very good roasted. The roasting piece will still be large 
enough for the family dinner, and the corned piece will do for 
another day, with a pudding or another small dish of meat. The 
back part of the rump is a convenient and economical piece, 
especially for a small family. It is a long and rather narrow 
piece, weighing about ten pounds, and contains less fat and bone 
than any other, equally good, in the ox. The thickest end 
affords nice steaks, and next to them is a good roasting piece, 
and the thinnest end which contains the bone, is very good 
corned, or for a soup. The whole is an excellent piece for 
roasting, in case so large a one is needed. 

The spring is the best season for mutton. That which is not 
very large is to be preferred. It should be of a good red and 
white, and fine grained. There is a great difference between 
mutton and lamb killed from a pasture, and that which has been 
driven a distance to market. 

Lamb is best in July and August. 

Veal is best in the spring. It should look white and be fat. 
The breast is particularly nice stuffed; the loin should be 
roasted. The leg is an economical piece, as you can take off 
cutlets from the large end, make broth of the shank, and stuff 
and roast the centre. 

Roasting pieces of all kinds of ribbed meat, except beef, 
should be jointed by the butcher, else the carving will be ex- 
tremely difficult. 

Always provide a sharp knife for carving. The juices of 
meat are extracted by its being haggled. An invalid, speaking 
of the kindness of a neighbor in sending him some slices of 
corned beef, said, " They were cut with a sharp knife." For 
the sake of economy, if for no other reason, carve smoothly, and 
only as much as is wanted at first. It is easy to cut more for 
replenishing plates ; and meat is far better not to lie sliced in 
the dish. If no more is cut than is used, a handsome piece 



132 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

may often be reserved for the next day ; whereas if all is cut 
up it cannot be so good, and some of it will certainly be wasted. 

Ham and tongue should be sliced very thin. 

Pork, to be the best, should not be more than a year old. 
The chine is the best roasting piece ; the spare-ribs are very 
sweet food, but too rich to be healthy. The shoulder is good 
roasted, stuffed with bread and sage. If too large, half of it 
can be laid a week or two in brine, and will be good boiled, to . 
eat cold. It is well for a small family, in November to buy half 
of a spring pig ; this will furnish several nice pieces, to roast, 
strips for salting, a ham and shoulder for smoking, and leaf 
enough for a pot or two of lard, besides remnants for sausage 
meat. 

In winter, all meat may be kept a long time ; and, with the 
exception of pork, is much better for it ; therefore it is easier to 
furnish a table without waste in winter than in summer. Meat 
will keep in an ice-house or a good refrigerator several days in 
hot weather ; if you have neither, take your meat the moment 
it is brought in, wipe it dry if at all damp, and hang it in the 
cellar, sprinkling first a little pepper and salt over it, especially 
over the parts which flies are most apt to visit. In mutton and 
lamb, these are the tenderloin and the large end of the leg. The 
pepper and salt will also tend to preserve the meat from taint. 

If you wish to keep it longer than two days, wrap it in a 
piece of cloth (no matter if it is very thin), and lay it in a 
charcoal bin, and throw a shovel of coal over it. A leg of mut- 
ton will keep several days wrapped in a cloth which has been 
dipped in vinegar, laid upon the ground of a dry cellar. 

Meat that is to be salted for immediate use, should, if the 
weather is cool, be hung up a day or two first.* Where a large 
quantity of beef is to be salted, a different method is pursued. 
In winter, unless you wish to keep meat several weeks, place it 
where it will be cold without freezing. Mutton never looks as 
nice after being frozen hard ; it has a dark, uninviting appear- 

* See directions for salting meat, page 190. 



STOCK FOB GRAVIES AND SOUPS. 133 

ance. To thaw frozen meat, bring it over night into a warm 
room. If this has been forgotten, lay it, early in the morning, 
into cold water. If meat is put to roast, boil, or broil, before 
being entirely thawed, it will be tough. It is best to preserve 
fowls without freezing. They will keep very well packed in 
snow ; the liver, &c., being taken out and laid by themselves in 
the snow, and the body filled with it. 

Meat that has been kept perfectly clean, or a beef steak just 
cut off, should not be washed ; but, generally, it is necessary to 
wash a roasting piece. Pork having the rind on, needs great 
care in washing and scraping, to make it fit to cook. 

Trim off the superfluous fat from beef, mutton, and fresh pork 
before cooking it. 

Tough steak is made more tender by being pounded with A ' 
rolling-pin ; but some of the juice of the meat is lost by the 
operation. 



STOCK FOR GRAVIES AND SOUPS. 



a leg or shin of beef very clean, crack the bone in two 
or three places, put with it any trimmings you may have of 
meat or fowls, such as gizzards, necks, &c. ; cover them with cold 
water in a stew-pan that shuts close. The moment it begins to 
simmer, skim it carefully till it boils up. Then add half a pint 
of cold water, which will make the remaining scum rise, and 
skim it again and again, till no more appears, and the broth 
looks perfectly clear. Then put in a moderate sized carrot, 
cut up small, two turnips, a head of celery, and one large or 
two small onions. Stir it several times that it may not burn, or 
stick at the bottom. Herbs and spices are not to be added 
until the broth is used for gravies for particular dishes. After 
these vegetables are added, set the pan where the broth will 
boil very slowly for four or five hours. Then strain it through 
a sieve into a stone pan or jar, and when cold, cover it, and set 



134 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

it in an ice-house or some other very cool place. The meat 
thus stewed may be used as directed for minced meat in the 
chapter on Common Dishes, &c., p. 222. 



ON ROASTINQ MEAT. 

IF meat is to be roasted before the fire, allow a quarter of an 
hour for the cooking of every pound in warm weather, and in 
winter twenty minutes. Flour it well, and put two or three 
gills of water in the roaster. Put the bony side to the fire first, 
and do not place it very near. If meat is scorched in the 
beginning, it cannot be roasted through afterwards, without 
burning. Turn it often, and when all parts are slightly cooked, 
place it nearer the fire. When about half done, flour it again. 
Baste it very often. Salt it half an hour before serving it. 

It is not well to salt meat at first, as salt extracts the juices. 
In roasting all meats, the art depends chiefly on flouring 
thoroughly, basting frequently, and turning so often as not to 
allow any part to burn. 

To roast in a cooking stove, it is necessay to attend carefully 
to the fire, lest the meat should burn. Lay it into the pan with 
three or four gills of water in it. Turn the pan around often, 
that all the parts may roast equally. When it is about half done, 
flour it again, turn it over that the lower side may become 
brown. If the water wastes so that the pan becomes nearly 
dry, add a little hot water. 

Among the little things which are worthy the attention of a 
housekeeper, is that of having a dinner served hot. It is often 
the case, that a well-cooked dinner loses much of its excellence, 
by a want of care in this particular. All the meat and veg- 
etable dishes should be heated, and in winter the plates should 
also be warmed. 



ON BOILING MEAT. 



135 



ON BOILING MEAT. 

IT is a common impression that boiled meat requires very 
little attention ; and probably one reason why many persons dis- 
like it, may be, that it is seldom so carefully cooked as roast 
meat. 

If proper attention can be secured, meat should not be boiled 
in a cloth. But if the pot is not likely to be thoroughly skim- 
med, it is best to use one. All kinds of meat are best put over 
the fire in cold water, in the proportion of a quart to every 
pound of meat. The fibres are thus gradually dilated, and the 
meat is more tender. The fire should be moderate, and the 
water should heat gradually. If it boils in thirty or forty min- 
utes it is soon enough. 

All kinds of meat, poultry, and fish should boil very slowly. 
Fast boiling makes meat tough and hard. Allow twenty min- 
utes to a pound of fresh meat ; but a little more time is required 
to cook a hind than a* fore quarter. Salt meat should boil 
longer than fresh ; allow forty minutes for every pound. 

A tongue that has been cured with saltpetre and smoked, 
should soak over night, and be boiled at least four hours ; it is 
not easy to boil it too much, and nothing is more disagreeable 
or indigestible than a tongue not well boiled. A ham, if very 
salt, should also be soaked over night, and should be boiled from 
three to five hours, according to the size, unless you prefer to 
cook it the last half of the time in the oven, as is directed in the 
receipt for cooking a ham or shoulder. This is the better way. 
Calf's head should lie in a great deal of water several hours ; 
and if large, will require two hours and a half to boil. 

The two things most important in boiling meat, are, to boil 
it gently ; and to skim it until no more froth rises. To do this, 
have a skimmer or a spoon and dish, and the moment the froth 
begins to rise, which will be when the water becomes very hot, 



136 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

skim it off. Put in a pint of cold water, which will cause it to 
rise more freely, and continue to skim it every minute or two, 
till all is taken off.* If the water boils fast before you begin to 
take off the froth, it will all return into the water, and will 
adhere to the meat, and make it look badly. Some nice house- 
keepers throw a handful of flour into the kettle to prevent scum 
from adhering to meat. Calf's head, and veal need more skim- 
ming than any other meat ; but all kinds need to be skimmed 
several times. If the water boils away so that the meat is not 
covered, add more, as the part which lies above the water will 
have a dark appearance. Kemember to put salt in the water 
for boiling fresh meat or fish. 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING GRAVIES AND SAUCES 
FOB MEAT, POULTBY, AND FISH. 

MANY young housekeepers who succeed well in most kinds 
of cooking, are a long time in finding out how to make good 
gravy. To have it free from fat is the most important thing. 
For a small family it is not necessary to prepare stock. The 
water in which fresh meat, a tongue, or piece of beef slightly 
salted, has been boiled, should be saved for this purpose, and 
for use in various economical dishes. In cold weather it will 
keep a good while, and in warm weather, several days in a 
refrigerator. 

The way to use meat liquor, or the stock for which a receipt 
is given, is this : In case you are roasting beef, mutton, lamb, or 
pork, pour off entirely, into a dish, half an hour before the din- 
ner hour, all the contents of the dripping pan or roaster, and 
set it away in a cold place ; then put into the roaster two or 
three gills of the meat liquor or stock ; if you have cold gravy, 
or drippings of a previous day, remove all the fat from the top, 
and put the liquid that remains at the bottom into the pan. 

* Froth from fat meat should be put into the soap-grease. 



DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING GRAVIES. 137 

Wet some browned flour smooth, and when you take up the 
meat, set the pan on the top of the stove. The gravy will im- 
mediately boil, and the wet flour must then be stirred in. It will 
boil away fast, therefore see that it does not stand too long. 

For veal and venison, gravy is made differently because there 
is but little fat on these meats, and what there is, is not gross. 
Put into the roaster, or dripping pan, some of the meat liquor 
or stock, when you first put the meat to roast, and if it is done 
in a stove or range, add a little more in case it boils away. 
When it is done, set the dripping pan on the stove, and having 
stirred in the wet flour, add a piece of butter half the size of an 
egg, and stir until it is all melted, else it will make the gravy 
oily. 

Gravy for poultry is made by boiling the giblets (necks, giz- 
zards, hearts, and livers) by themselves in five or six gills of 
water. Skim them carefully, as a great deal of scum will rise. 
After an hour, or hour and a half, take them out, and pour the 
water into the dripping-pan. Mash, or chop the liver fine, and 
when you make the gravy, add this, and a bit of butter, some 
pepper, the wet flour, and, if you choose, a little sweet mar- 
joram. 

The fat that roasts out of a turkey should be dipped off with 
a spoon before these ingredients are added. It is too gross to 
be palatable or healthy. 

In making gravy for a goose, pour off all the drippings as in 
roasting beef or pork, and put in some of the stock or meat 
liquor. 

It is best to brown a quart of flour at once. Put it into 
a spider, and set it in the stove oven, or on the top ; stir it often 
lest it should burn. When it is a light brown, put it into a jar 
or wide-mouthed bottle. 

Drawn Butter. 

Take a small cupful of butter, and rub into it half a table~ 
spoonful of flour, then pour upon it about a gill of boiling 
water, stirring it fast. Set it upon the coals, and let it boil up 



138 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

once. If it is suffered to remain boiling it will become oily. 
Some persons prefer to use boiling milk instead of water. Pars- 
ley is an improvement. Tie a few sprigs together with a thread 
and throw them for a minute into boiling water, then cut them 
fine, and add them to the butter. Parsley is a nice addition 
to all the sauces for boiled poultry or fish ; and sprigs of it 
make a pretty garnish for such dishes. 

Egg 8a.UCe (to serve with, boiled fish). 

Make drawn butter as above directed, and, when you take 
it up, pour it over two eggs boiled hard and cut fine in a sauce- 
boat. Dip a little of it over the fish. 

Lemon Sauce (for boiled chickens). 

Make drawn butter, as above, but omitting the milk, and 
adding a few slices of lemon cut in small bits. Boil up once, 
then pour over the fowls, or serve in a sauce-boat. 

Caper Sauce (for boiled mutton or lamb). 

Boil half a pint of milk, and stir in a teaspoonful of corn- 
starch or flour rubbed smooth in cold milk, and a teaspoonful 
of butter. Last of all add two tablespoonfuls of capers, and 
let it boil up. 

Mushroom Sauce. 

Make drawn butter as has been directed, and, instead of 
the milk, add two tablespoonfuls of mushroom catsup. 

English Onion Sauce (to serve with roast mutton, rabbit, partridges, 
or poultry). 

Boil three or four onions in a plenty of water until soft. 
Skim them from the water, and cut up fine. Boil half a pint 
of milk, and stir in a teaspoonful of flour or corn-starch rubbed 
in cold milk, and a teaspoonful of butter, also a little pepper 

X 



OYSTER-SAUCE, CELERY-SAUCE, ETC. 139 

and salt. Then add the onions, 'and boil for two or three 

minutes. Be careful it does not burn. 

If you use cream instead of milk, omit the butter and 
flour. 

Oyster Sauce (for boiled poultry). 

Cut small a pint of oysters. Boil two cups of milk, and 
add a tablespoonful of butter rubbed into a teaspoonful of 
flour. Then put in the oysters, some salt and pepper, and 
boil but two or three minutes. 

Another. 

Boil for a few minutes with two or three blades of mace, 
the liquor of a quart of oysters. Add a little water, if there 
is not much of the liquor, and, when it has boiled about five- 
minutes, pour in a cup of milk. As it again boils up, stir in 
a tablespoonful of butter rubbed into half a spoonful of flour, 
add salt and pepper, and the oysters. After boiling two or 
three minutes, it is ready to serve. 

Celery Sauce (to serve with boiled turkey). 

Put a pint of milk to boil in a tin pail set in a kettle of 
boiling water. Cut fine six stalks of celery, and add to the 
milk, with a little salt. When the celery is soft, which will 
be in about an hour, stir in a spoonful of butter rubbed into 
half a spoonful of flour. If the sauce seems too thick, add 
enough milk to make it of the consistency of good cream. 
Let it remain a few moments, stirring constantly, and then 

serve. 

/ 

Mint Sauce (for roast lamb, and other meats). 

Mix three tablespoonfuls of fresh mint, cut very fine, with 
one of nice brown sugar. Put it in a sauce-boat, and pour 
on it a teacup of vinegar. When the sauce has stood ten 
minutes, it will be ready for the table. 



140 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Anchovy Sauce. 

Pound three anchovies, and rub through a sieve. Stir 
them into half a pint of drawn butter. Add, also, lemon- 
juice, and a pinch of Cayenne pepper, if you choose. 

Currant-Jelly Sauce (for roast mutton, venison, or rabbit). 

Put into a saucepan half a cup of boiling water, and melt 
in it a tumbler of currant-jelly. 



STUFFINQ OR DRESSINGS OF VARIOUS 
KINDS. 

FOR a fillet of veal, a turkey, chickens, partridges, and 
pigeons, take light bread enough to make three gills of fine 
crumbs. Cut off the crust and lay by itself in just enough boil- 
ing water to soften it. Rub the soft part into fine crumbs be- 
tween your hands ; put in a teaspoonful of salt, one or two of 
powdered sweet marjoram, a little pepper, and a piece of butter 
half -as large as an egg ; add the softened crusts, and mix the 
whole together very thoroughly. If it is not moi.st enough, add 
a spoonful or two of milk. Taste it, and if there is not season- 
ing enough, add more. 

To put it into the fowl neatly, and without waste, use a tea- 
spoon. 

If stuffing is made of pounded crackers, the seasoning is the 
same, but crackers swell so much that two gills will be plenty 
for a turkey. Milk will be necessary to mix it, and also a 
beaten egg to make it cohere. Some people prefer dressing 
made of crackers, but it is hard and not as healthy as that which 
is made of good bread, without an egg. 

Stuffing for ducks is usually made with a little finely chop- 
ped onion in it. For a goose, sage should be used instead of 
sweet-marjoram. 

For a pig, or a shoulder of fresh pork, make a dressing with- 
out butter, moistened with milk, and seasoned with pepper, 



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DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING MEATS. 141 

salt, and a good deal of powdered sage. This tends to prevent 
the deleterious effects of such rich meat upon the stomach. 

For a dressing for alamode beef, and stewed lamb, salt pork, 
chopped fine, is substituted for butter, and for a fillet of veal it 
is very well to make it in the same way. 



VEGETABLES AND SAUCES APPROPRIATE 
TO DIFFERENT MEATS. 

POTATOES are good with all meats. With poultry they are 
nicest mashed. Sweet potatoes are most appropriate with roast 
meat, as also are onions, winter squash, cucumbers, and aspara- 
gus. 

Carrots, parsnips, turnips, greens, and cabbage are eaten with 
boiled meat ; and corn, beets, peas, and beans are appropriate 
to either boiled or roasted meat. Mashed turnip is good with 
roasted pork, and with boiled meats. 

Tomatoes are good with every kind of meat, but specially so 
with roasts. Apple-sauce with roast pork; cranberry-sauce 
with beef, fowls, veal, and ham. Currant jelly is most appro:- 
priate with roast mutton. Pickles are good with all roast 
meats, and capers or nasturtiums with boiled lamb or mutton. 
Horseradish and lemons are excellent with veal. 



DIRECTIONS FOR COOKING MEATS. 

To Roast Beef. 

SEE the directions for roasting meat. 

Beef Steak. 

The best slices are cut from the rump, or through the sirloin. 



142' THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

The found is seldom tender enough, and is very good cooked in 
other ways. Do not cut your slices very thick. Have the grid- 
iron perfectly clean. Set it over moderately hot coals at first, 
and turn the steaks in less than a minute. Turn them repeat- 
edly. If the fat makes a blaze under the gridiron, put it out 
by sprinkling fine salt on it. Steaks will broil in about seven 
minutes. Have ready a hot dish, and sprinkle each piece with 
salt, and a little pepper; lay on small pieces of butter, and 
cover close. This is a much better way than to melt the butter 
in the dish before taking up the meat. Some persons keep a 
small pair of tongs on purpose to turn beef-steaks, as using a 
fork wastes the juice. Steaks should be served hot as possible. 

Stuffed Beef Steak. 

Take a thick and tender slice of rump, of about two pounds 
weight ; make two gills of stuffing, of crumbs of bread, pepper, 
salt, and powdered clove, or sweet marjoram, as you choose ; 
roll the dressing up in the steak, wind a piece of twine around 
it, taking care to secure the ends. Have ready a kettle or deep 
stew-pan, with a slice or two of pork fried crisp. Take out the 
pork and lay in the steak, and turn it on every side, until it is 
brown. Then put in two gills of the stock, or of water in 
which meat has been boiled ; sprinkle in a little salt, cover 
close, and stew slowly an hour and a half. Add more water 
after a while, if it becomes too dry. Some persons like the 
addition of chopped onion. There should, however, be very 
little ; half of a small one is enough. When nearly done, add 
half a gill of catsup. When you take up the meat, unwind the 
string carefully, so as not to unroll it. Lay it in a fricassee dish, 
thicken the gravy, if not thick enough" already, and pour it over 
the meat. Cut the meat in slices through the roll. 



o 



Tomato Steak. 

Take two pounds of beef; cut it in small strips, and put it 
into a porcelain kettle with seven medium tomatoes. Stew it 
slowly. Add a dessert-spoonful of sugar, salt, a little clove, and, 



A LA MODE BEEF. 143 

just before you take it up, a dessert spoonful of butter. If you 
have tomato catsup, add a little, and if you like chopped onion, 
that also. Very tender beef is, of course, to be preferred ; but 
that which is tough becomes more palatable in this than in al- 
most any other way. This dish is quite as good, if not better, 
heated over the next day. 

Beef a la Mode (in a plain way). 

Take a thick piece of flank, or,, if most convenient, the thick- 
est part of the round, weighing six or eight pounds, for a small 
family of four or five persons. Cut off the strips of coarse fat 
upon the edge, make incisions in all parts, and fill them with a 
stuffing made of bread, salt pork chopped, pepper, and sweet 
marjoram. Push whole cloves here and there into the meat ; 
roll it up, fasten it with skewers, and wind a strong twine or 
tape about it. Have ready a pot in which you have fried to a 
crisp three or four slices of salt pork ; take out the pork, lay in 
the beef, and brown every side. When well browned, add 
hardly water enough to cover it, chop a large onion fine, add 
eighteen or twenty cloves, and boil it gently, but steadily, three 
or four hours, according to the size. The water should boil 
away so as to make a rich gravy, but be careful it does not 
burn. When you take up the beef, add browned flour to the 
gravy, if it needs to be thickened. 

Another (more rich). 

Take seven or eight pounds of the upper part of the round, 
cut off the coarse fat upon the side, and make deep incisions in 
every part. To a pint bowl of bread crumbs, put pepper, pow- 
dered clove, a small nutmeg, a teaspoonful of salt, some whole 
allspice, a large spoonful of butter, and, if you choose, a very 
little chopped salt pork, and two beaten eggs. Mix these ingre- 
dients well together, and fill the incisions, but reserve a part of 
the stuffing. Put in two or three skewers horizontally, near 
the edges, and tie twine across to keep in the stuffing. Push 
whole cloves into the meat here and there. Lay it, when thus 



144 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

prepared, into a bake-pan or stew-pan, having a lid which may 
be heated ; put in water enough just to cover it, and set it where 
it will simmer, but not quite boil. Have the lid heated, and a 
few embers laid over it. After two hours, pour upon the top 
the stuffing which you reserved, heat the lid again, and cover 
the meat. Let it stew two hours more. If the gravy is too 
thin, add browned flour and boil it up again. Some persons 
use red wine, but it is very good without. Half the quantity of 
meat and stuffing for a small family. 

Beef Bouille'. 

Put three or four pounds of brisket into a kettle, and cover 
it with water. Take off the scum as it rises. Let it boil stead- 
ily two hours. Then take it from the pot and brown it with 
butter in a spider. When it is browned on every side, return it 
to the kettle, and stew it gently five hours more. Add more 
water if it boils away. Put in a carrot and a turnip or two, cut 
small, an onion also ; a few cloves, and salt and pepper as you 
think necessary. Half an hour before dinner add tomato or 
mushroom catsup. To serve it, lay the beef upon a dish, and 
strew capers over it. The water in which it was stewed is a 
nice soup. Same weight rump-beef will cook in half the time. 

Stewed Beef (plain). 

Take a square piece of beef from the best part of the round 
weighing four or nve pounds, and put it into water enough to 
cover it. When the water has been well skimmed, put in salt, 
two turnips, two carrots, and two onions, chopped small, and, if 
you choose, add half a dozen cloves. Boil very gently four or 
five hours. A short time before dinner, add a teaspoonful of 
sweet marjoram, hah a cup of tomato ketchup, and a table- 
spoonful of flour wet smooth hi cold water. Serve in a deen 
platter. This is a very economical dish. The beef is very 
good cold, and the soup excellent. Yellow turnips are best. 
If they are large, use one or half of one. Instead of vegeta- 
bles, you can add spice to the boiled meat, then press it, and 
slice when cold. 



CORNED BEEF, ROAST MUTTON, ETC. 145 

To Boil Corned Beef. 

Wash it thoroughly, and put it into a pot that will hold 
plenty of water. The water should be cold ; the same care is 
necessary in skimming it as for fresh meat. It is not too much 
to allow forty minutes for every pound, after it has begun to 
boil. The goodness of corned beef depends much on its being 
boiled gently and long. If it is to be eaten cold, lay it into a 
coarse earthen dish or pan, and over it a piece of board the 
size of the meat. Upon this put a clean stone or some other 
heavy weight. Salt meat is very much improved by being 
pressed. 

To Roast Mutton. 

Any part may be roasted, but the leg is the best. Allow 
twenty minutes for a pound, and do according to the direc- 
tions for roasting meat. Remember .to flour it well, and baste 
often. 

To Boil a Leg of Mutton or Lamb. 

Cut off the shank bone. Have water enough to cover the 
meat. If the pot is well skimmed, the water will make excel- 
lent broth for another day. 

A leg of lamb is a very nice dish if boiled well. It requires 
a little more time in proportion to the size than mutton, as 
mutton is good done rare, while lamb is neither good or healthy, 
unless well done. 

Most people like capers, and drawn butter with mutton and 
lamb, and cut parsley added is an improvement. 

Mutton or Lamb Chops. 

Have the leg cut into steaks at the market, or by the butcher. 
If this has not been done, you can do it yourself with a sharp 
knife. Cut through the largest part first ; have the slices about 
the thickness of your finger ; separate them from the bone 
neatly. Broil exactly like beef steak. The bone and frag- 
ments which are left will make a good broth. 



146 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

To Fry Mutton Chops. 

Put two small slices of pork into the spider with them. 
When they are cooked, lay them into a hot dish, pour a cupful 
of stock or hot water into the spider, and as it boils, stir in 
half a spoonful of browned flour wet in cold water. Boil up 
again, and pour over the steaks. 

Another Way. 

Dip them in a beaten egg ; strew over them crumbs of 
cracker or bread ; sprinkle them with salt and cut parsley, 
and fry them in a little butter, salt pork, or lard. When the 
chops are done, lay them in a hot dish, pour a teacupful 
of hot water into the frying-pan, dredge in some flour, 
and, as it boils up, stir thoroughly ; then pour it over the 
chops. 

Mutton Steaks with Tomato. 

Take steaks cut from the leg, dip in egg and crumbs, and 
fry as directed. Have ready tomato-sauce, and pour over be- 
fore sending to the table. 

Or place baked tomatoes in the centre of a platter, and 
arrange the steaks, or chops, fried, around them. 

Beefsteak Smothered with Onions. 

Stew five or six onions, cut small, in a pint of water, till 
soft. Then sprinkle in a little flour, salt, and pepper, and 
add a spoonful of butter. Broil steaks as directed, lay them 
in a saucepan with the stewed onions, cover closely, and sim- 
mer a few minutes. 

Another way is to stew the onions, cut fine, in a pint of 
water. When very soft, add flour, salt, pepper, and butter, as 
above. Let it boil a minute, then turn it over the broiled 
steaks, and serve at once. 

Haricot of Mutton or Lamb. 

Take a leg of lamb, or a small leg^of mutton ; trim oif the 
fat very clean ; put it into a kettle or saucepan with just 






iU^'C 




BOILED TOXGUE, TONGUE BOUILLE. 147 

enough water to cover it ; add salt. When the water is well 
skimmed, add one each, of onions, carrots, and turnips, cut or 
chopped small. Cover closely, and simmer gently four hours. 
When nearly done, skim off all the fat ; let the water waste 
away, leaving enough for a gravy, and add half a cup of to- 
mato ketchup. Have ready a spoonful of browned flour 
rubbed smooth ; lay the leg into a deep platter ; stir the flour 
into the gravy, and, when boiled up once, pour over the mut- 
ton. It takes more of browned flour to thicken gravy than 
that not browned. 

To boil a Tongue, 

A corned tongue may be put to boil as soon as washed ; but 
one that has been long salted should be soaked over night. 

A smoked tongue should be well washed, then soaked in 
a plenty of water over night. All tongues should be boiled 
until so tender that a fork will go in very easily. This will re- 
quire several hours, from three to five, according to the size. 
When they begin to boil, the water should be carefully 
skimmed. When you take up the tongue, while it is yet hot, 
remove the skin, which will easily pull off with the aid of a 
sharp knife. When it is cold, before sending to the table, 
trim off the roots. . 

The fat on the water in which a corned tongue is boiled is 
nice for shortening ; that from smoked tongue must be put 
into the soap-grease. 

Tongue Bouille. 

Carefully wash a fresh tongue, and boil it until the skin 
comes off .easily. Strain the water in which it was boiled, 
wash the pot clean, lay in the tongue with enough of the 
liquor to cover it. Cut up fine one turnip, one carrot, and 
one onion, and pu-t into the kettle, with a little salt. 

Tie up in a muslin bag a tablespoonful each of ground 
clove and pepper, and put into the kettle. Boil gently two 
hours and a half more. Fifteen minutes before it is taken up, 
toast two slices of white bread without the crust; cut into 
small bits, and put into the pot. When you dish the tongue, 
put about a pint of the liquor and vegetables round it. 



148 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Roast Lainb. 

If it is a hind quarter, and very fat, take off the thickest from 
the kidneys ; place it on the spit, or in the dripping-pan as it 
should lie on the dish, slightly drawn up. Do exactly as in 
roasting beef. Two hours will suffice to roast a quarter 
weighing five or six pounds. Flour it well. 

The breast of lamb is very sweet and requires about as much 
roasting as the hind quarter. 

Lamb a la Mode. 

Pick off all the fat from a nice leg of lamb, or small leg of 
mutton. Cut off the shank, make deep incisions in various 
parts of the inside ; fill them with stuffing made of crumbs of 
bread, salt pork, sweet marjoram, and pepper ; stuff it very full. 
Fry two or three slices of pork crisp in the pot, then take them 
out, and lay in the leg ; brown it on every side, then put hardly 
water enough into the pot to cover it. Throw in a dozen or 
two of cloves, half an onion sliced or chopped very fine, and a 
little salt. A half a teacup of catsup or a few tomatoes added 
half an hour before it is served, improve it very much. Let it 
simmer, steadily, three hours. 

When you take up the leg, thicken the gravy, if it is not 
thick enough. Put a few spoonfuls over ftie meat, and the rest 
in a gravy tureen. 

To Roast a Fillet of Veal. 

Veal requires more time than any other meat except pork. 
It is scarcely ever done too much. A leg weighing eight or 
nine pounds should roast three hours. If your family is large, 
so that most of it will be eaten the first day, it is best to take 
out the bone, which is easily done with a sharp knife, the 
knuckle having been cut off by the butcher. Put this bone 
aside with the knuckle for a broth. If you design to use what 
is left cold for dinner the next day, let the bone remain in, as 
it keeps the leg in better shape. Prepare a stuffing of bread, 
pepper, salt pork, and sweet marjoram ; make deep incisions in 



LOIN OF VEAL, VEAL POT-PIE. 149 

the meat and fill them with it. Fasten the fold of fat which is 
usually upon the fillet over the stuffed incisions with a skewer. 
Roast it slowly at first. Put into the dripping-pan some hot 
water with a little salt in it, or some of the stock. When the 
meat has roasted about an hour, flour it thickly, and skewer 
upon it four or five slices of salt pork. After the flour has 
become brown, baste the veal every fifteen minutes. If it is 
very good veal, the pork will flavor it without the addition of 
any butter ; but if not, or if you wish it to be particularly nice, 
add a small piece of butter to the gravy in the roaster, before 
you begin to baste the meat. In cutting the incisions, endeavor 
to make them wider inside than at the surface, so that the 
stuffing may not fall out. See the directions (page 123) for mak- 
ing the gravy. 

A Loin of Veal. 

A breast or a loin of veal should be basted a great many 
times and roasted thoroughly. It is an improvement to put on 
slices of pork as in cooking the leg. Allow two hours for roast- 
ing ; more, if it is large. Flour it well. 

Veal Pot Pie. 

Take the neck, the shank, and almost any pieces you have. 
Boil them long enough to skim off all the froth. Make a paste 
and roll it about half an inch thick. Butter the pot and lay in 
the crust, cutting out a piece on each side of the circle in such 
a way as to prevent its having thick folds. Put in a layer of 
meat, then flour, salt and pepper it, and add a little butter or a 
slice or two of salt pork, as you choose. Do this until you have 
laid in all your meat ; pour in enough of the water in which 
the veal was boiled to half fill the kettle, then lay on the top- 
crust and make an incision in it to allow the escape of the 
steam. Watch that it does, not burn, and pour in more of the 
water through the hole in Jie crust if necessary. Boil an hour 
and a half. The objection to this dish is, that boiled crust is 
apt to be heavy, and therefore unhealthy ; but if it is made after 



150 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

the receipt for cream tartar biscuit, or of potato crust, it will be 

light. 

Baked Veal Pie. 

This is made in the same way as the boiled. The dish should 
be very deep, and when you are ready to lay on the upper 
crust, wet the edge of the under crust all around and flour it: 
then lay on the upper crust and press your hand upon the edge, 
so that the flour and water will make it adhere, and thus pre 
vent the gravy from escaping. Prick the top several times 
with a large fork. If you have pieces of crust left, cut them 
into leaves and ornament the pie. Bake it an hour and a 
half. 

Stewed Breast of Veal. 

Cut it into handsome pieces and fry. it brown, either in drip- 
pings, or the fat fried out of salt pork. Brown all parts 
thoroughly ; then pour in hot water enough barely to cover it. 
Add lemon peel cut fine and sweet marjoram Cover it close 
as possible, and stew it gently two hours ; then pour off the 
liquor into a sauce-pan, and thicken it with browned flour. 
Take up the veal into a hot fricassee dish, and pour the gravy 
over it. 

Always allow half an hour for frying veal brown. No other 
meat requires as much time. 

Veal Cutlets. 

Take slices from the broad end of the leg. Fry three or four 
slices of salt pork crisp, then take them out, lay in the veal half 
an hour at least before dinner time. When it has become 
brown, take it out and dip the slices, one by one, into a plate of 
fine bread crumbs, then fry them a few minutes longer. When 
done through, take them up on a hot dish, pour hot water into 
the spider or frying pan, and instantly when it boils up dredge 
in a little flour ; pour it over the meat. Lay the slices of pork 
around the edge of the dish. 



BROILED VEAL, CALF'S HEAD, RAGOUT OF VEAL. 151 

The best veal is to be had at the time when winter vegetables 
are not very good, and fresh ones have not come into market. 
Horseradish, spring cranberries, or fresh lemons are therefore 
the more acceptable with it. 

Broiled Veal. 

It must not be done too fast, and will take longer than beef. 
It is a great improvement to broil pork and lay between the 
slices of veal. Lay them upon the meat while it is broiling, 
and if they are not brown when the veal is done, put them a 
few minutes longer on the gridiron. If pork is not used, season 
with butter. In either case, add pepper and salt. 

Calf's Head (with Brain Sauce). 

Let the head, liver, and lights soak in cold water an hour 
or two. Wash them clean. Take out the brains. Boil the 
head, &c., in four or five quarts of water, three hours, till 
very tender. Throw some salt into the water, skim very thor- 
oughly. Boil the brains twenty minutes, tied up in a piece 
of muslin. Tie up a few sprigs of parsley with a thread, 
and hold them in boiling water a minute. Have ready two 
eggs boiled hard. Chop the brains, cut the parsley fine, cut 
up the eggs, then rub a tablespoonful of flour into one of 
butter; put the eggs, the brains, and the parsley into it in a 
saucepan ; pour on about a cupful of boiling water ; stir all to- 
gether, let it boil up once, and serve. Calf's head is good 
hashed. To make it into a soup, see mock turtle. 

Ragout of Veal. 

Take the bones from a breast of veal, and lay it in a stew- 
pan, and the bones with it ; boil gently an hour and a half in 
barely enough water to cover it. Skim it well ; add salt and 
pepper. Make force-meat balls of cold veal, bread-crumbs, 
sweet marjoram, a tablespoonful of butter, and an egg. Take 
out the bones. Turn the meat over, and baste it with butter ; 
flour it thickly ; lay the force-meat balls upon it, pour a small 



152 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

half cup of ketchup into the pan ; set it into the oven fifteen 
or twenty minutes to brown. Lay the meat into a deep plat- 
ter, and pour the gravy over it. 

Ragout of Cold Veal. 

Cut handsome slices from any part of cold veal, flour them 
well. Have the spider hot, with a spoonful of butter melted 
in it, and fry the veal a handsome brown. Take out the 
meat, and put a pint of stock into the spider ; and, as it boils 
up, stir in a spoonful of browned flour rubbed smooth in but- 
ter ; add salt and pepper, and two or three spoonfuls of ketch- 
up, and half a grated nutmeg, or a blade of mace, return the 
veal to the spider, and boil up once. 

Rabbits and Squirrels. 

Clean and wash them well, scald them fifteen or twenty 
minutes in just water enough to cover them. Skim the wa- 
ter, cut them up, and dip the pieces in beaten egg, and roll 
in bread-crumbs or pounded cracker, with salt and a litfle 
pepper. Fry them brown in butter ; lay them in a fricassee- 
dish. Put a little of the water in which they were boiled 
into the spider; rub two spoonfuls of browned flour smooth 
in some of the water, and stir into the spider, and pour over 
the pieces. If the gravy does not seem rich enough, stir into 
it a small spoonful of butter. Rabbits and squirrels are nice 
fricasseed like chickens. Rabbits are also stuffed and roasted. 

Melton Veal, or Veal Cake. 

Cut three or four pounds of raw veal, and half as much ham, 
into small pieces. If you have the remains of cooked veal or 
ham, add them. Boil six eggs hard, cut them in slices, and lay 
some of them in the bottom of a deep brown pan ; shake in a 
little minced parsley ; lay in some of the pieces of veal and 
ham, then add more egg, parsley, pepper, and salt ; then more 
meat, and again parsley, pepper, and salt, till all the meat is laid 
in. Lastly add water enough just to cover it, and lay on about 
an ounce of butter shaved thin ; tie over it a double paper, bake 
it an hour, then remove the paper, press it down with a spoon, 



VENISON ROAST PIG. 153 

and lay a small plate with a weight upon it, and let it remain 
another hour in the oven. When cold, it will cut in slices. 

Venison. 

Roast a haunch like a loin or leg of veal, and about as long, 
Flour it thickly. Put some of the stock for gravies, or water 
in which beef has been boiled, into the pan, and baste it often. 
Half an hour before serving it add a table-spoonful of butter 
to the gravy, and baste it again and again. 

If you use Hazes at the table, roast it but an hour. Most per- 
sons like venison cooked simply, without spices. But if you 
choose to have a dressing, make it as for veal, with the addition 
of powdered clove. 

Venison steaks are cooked like beef steaks. 

To Roast a Pig. 

It should not be more than a month old. It is better a little 
less, and it should be killed on the morning of the day it is to 
be cooked. Sprinkle fine salt over it an hour before it is put 
to the fire. Cut off the feet at the first joint. Make stuffing 
enough to fill it very full, of bread crumbs moistened with a 
little milk, a small piece of butter, sweet marjoram, sage, pep- 
per, and salt. When placed on the spit, confine the legs in such 
a manner as to give it a good shape. Rub it all over with but- 
ter or sweet oil, to keep it from blistering. Flour it at first 
a little. As soon as it begins to brown, dredge on a very 
thick covering of flour. Turn the spit every three or four min-. 
utes. If the flour falls off, instantly renew it. When it has all 
become of a dark brown color, scrape it off into a plate and set 
it aside. Put a piece of butter into the gravy in the roaster, 
and baste the pig very often, till it is done, which it is when the 
eyes fall out. The feet and liver should be boiled an hour or 
two, and the gravy from the roaster be poured into the water 
in which they were boiled. The liver should be cut or mashed 
fine, and the feet cut open and returned to ,the sauce-pan, the 
brains taken out and added, and the gravy thickened with the 



154 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

browned flour reserved in the plate. A pig of a month old will 
roast in two hours and a half. 

A Shoulder of Pork. 

One weighing ten pounds will require full three hours and a 
half to roast it. For a small family divide it, and roast one 
half and corn the other. With a sharp knife score the skin in 
diamonds, or in strips about an inch wide. Make a dressing, as 
directed under the head of Stuffing of Various Kinds. Put 
this into . deep incisions made in the thick part of the meat. 
Hub a little fine powdered sage into the skin where it is scored ; 
and then rub the whole surface with sweet oil, or drippings, to 
prevent its blistering. Observe the directions respecting the 
basting and frequent turning of meat. Pork burns very easily, 
and both the taste and appearance are much injured by its 
being burnt. While cooking, flour it often. 

Spare-rib or Chine. 

A spare-rib requires an hour and a half or two hours, accord- 
ing to the thickness. A very thin one will roast in an hour 
and a half. Flour it well, and take care it does not burn. 
Baste it often. The chine requires a longer time, being a 
thicker piece. It is more healthy, because less fat than the 
spare-rib, and having more meat in proportion to the bone, is a 
more economical piece. Before roasting either, trim off neatly, 
with a sharp knife, all the fat which can be removed without 
disfiguring the piece, and set it aside to be tried and used as 
lard. 

Pork Steaks. 

Cut slices from the loin or neck. 

To fry pork steaks requires twenty-five or thirty minutes. 
Turn them often. If they are quite fat, pour off all that fries 
out when they are half done, and reserve it for some other use. 
Then dip the steaks in crumbs of bread with a little powdered 
sage, and lay them back into the frying-pan. When done 



SAUSAGES HAM OK SHOULDER. 155 

through, take them up, dredge a little browned flour into the 
gravy, put in salt, pour in a gill of boiling water, and turn it 
instantly, as it boils up, upon the dish of steaks. 

To Fry Sausages. 

Sausages may be kept for some time, but fresh ones are con- 
sidered best. Separate them, prick them to prevent their burst- 
ing, and lay them in a spider. If they are properly made, 
they will need no fat to fry them. Cook them slowly, at first, 
but brown every side of them before taking them up. They 
cook very well laid in a pan and set in a cooking-stove, but 
must be turned often, and care taken that they do not burn. 
Some persons fry bread in the fat which remains, in this way. 
Dip slices of bread, or crusts which have been cut and become 
dry, in salt and water, and lay them in the spider as soon as 
you take out the sausages. When brown one side, turn them. 
Serve them with the sausages. It takes twenty minutes to fry 
sausages in a spider, and half an hour to cook them in a stove. 
For those persons whose health is injured by eating them, it is 
best to lay them into a little water, and cook them thus, as long 
as they are usually fried, then pour off the water and brown 
.them. This renders them comparatively harmless. The bread, 
fried as directed, does not absorb much fat. 

To Boil a Ham or Shoulder. 

A ham, weighing twelve pounds, should be cooked four or five 
hours. Boil it slowly in a plenty of water half the time it 
should be cooked ; then take off the skin and any excrescences 
that were not removed by washing. Cover the fat side with 
pounded cracker, and lay it in a dripping pan, or iron basin, 
and put it into the stove. Let it remain the other half of the time. 

The baking roasts out a great quantity of fat, and leaves the 
meat much more delicate. In warm weather it will keep in a 
dry, cool place, a long time. If after ten days you perceive a 
tendency to mould, set it a little while into the oven again. It 
is often a more agreeable dinner in hot weather than fresh 
meat. 



156 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

If a ham is very salt, it should lie in water over night. In 
baking it, care should be taken that it is not done too much, and 
thus made dry. If the oven is a brick one and holds the heat 
a long time, it will do to put it in when the bread is taken out. 

The fat which bakes out is good to fry eggs or potatoes, and 
if not strong, will do to use on the griddle. 

To Fry Ham and Eggs. 

Cut thin slices, and take off the rind ; if very salt, pour hot 
water upon them, but do not suffer them to lie long in it, as the 
juices of the meat will be lost. Wipe them in a cloth ; have the 
spider ready hot, lay in the pieces and turn them in a minute 
or two. They will cook in a very short time. The secret of 
having good fried ham is in cooking it quick, and not too much. 
The practice of cutting thick slices, laying them into a cold 
spider and frying a long time, makes ham black and hard. It 
needs nothing added, but to be laid upon a hot covered dish. 
For directions about the eggs, see p. 173. 

To Broil Ham. 

Cut the slices very thin, for which you must have a sharp 
knife ; pare off the rind ; lay them on the gridiron over hot 
coals. Do not leave them a moment, as they must be almost 
immediately turned, and will need attention to keep the edges 
from burning. Two minutes will broil them. 

To Fry Salt Pork. 

Cut slices and lay them in cold water in the spider ; boil 
them up two or three minutes, then pour off the water and set 
the spider again on the coals and brown the slices on each side. 
Fried pork, with baked potatoes, and baked or fried sour 
apples, makes a very good dinner. It is an improvement to dip 
the pork ? after being par-boiled, into Indian meal, before fry- 



Frizzled Smoked Beef. 

Shave thin slices, and put them in a teacupful of milk into a 



FRIZZLED SMOKED BEEF. LIVER. 157 

email kettle or sauce-pan ; boil it a few minutes, and then add a 
small bit of butter and an egg beaten with a teaspoonful of flour, 
and stir well. Put a little more milk to it if needed. 

[Smoked beef is good in poached eggs, but in that case the 
beef should be boiled a few minutes in the milk before the eggs 
are added. The last remnants of a ham may be scraped from 
the bone, and put into poached eggs, but will not need the boil- 
ing which is necessary in the case of the smoked beef.] 

To Shave Smoked Beef. 

Use a very thin-bladed, sharp knife, and shave as thin as the 
thinnest paper. Do not attempt to cut it across the whole 
piece ; no matter how small the shavings are, if they are but 
thin. 

Sandwiches. 

Shave slices of ham very thin. Then take a loaf of bread 
one day old, cut off the end crust, spread butter on the loaf; 
then cut off a thin slice, divide it across, lay a shaving of 
ham on one half, and lay the other over it. Do this till 
you have as many as you wish for. Smoked or salted tongue, 
cut thin, is often used instead of ham. 

It is an economical and nice way to chop the remains of 
ham very fine, and spread between the slices of bread and 
butter. 

Sandwiches should not be prepared till near the time when 
they are to be used, as bread that is cut thin dries very soon 
Some persons like to have mustard spread over the slices of 
ham. 

Fricassee of Beef 

Slice rare cold beef. To what gravy you may have, ?xld 
water, salt, a bit of butter, a small pinch of cayenne pepper, 
and, when it boils, enough browned flour to thicken slightly. 
Lay in the slices of beef, and stew a few moments. 

Liver. 

Take calf's liver. It is much more tender and delicate 
than beefs liver. Cut it in slices half an inch thick, and broil 



158 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

over quick coals. Turn it but once. Lay it on a hot dish, 
and add butter, salt, and pepper, the same as for beefsteak. 

To fry it. Fry two or three slices of salt pork crisp ; then 
lay in the liver cut as for broiling. Serve with salt and pep- 
per, and lay the pork on the side of the dish. 

Tripe. 

Boil it till tender. When cold, cut it in pieces four or five 
inches square ; flour it a little ; grease the gridiron, and broil 
over a clear fire ; lay it in a hot dish, add pepper and salt, 
and butter, and serve. 

To fry it. Lay two or three slices of fat pork into a spi- 
der, and, when these are crisp, dip the pieces of tripe in a 
beaten egg, and sprinkle them with fine crumbs of bread or 
cracker, and fry brown. They are sometimes dipped in bat- 
ter. 



TO LAY MEAT AND POULTRY ON THE 
DISH FOB THE TABLE. 

LAY a sirloin of beef with the tenderloin down, and the thick 
end towards the left hand of the person who carves. 

A loin of veal or a quarter of lamb, with the thick edge 
toward the carver, and the inside uppermost. A leg of veal, 
with the inside up, and the thick end toward the right hand. A 
leg of mutton or lamb in the same way. A fore quarter of 
lamb or a breast of veal, with the outside up, and the thick 
edge toward the carver. A ham, with the outside up, and the 
thick end toward the right hand. " A turkey or goose upon 
the back, with the neck toward the left hand. Fowls on the 
back, and if there is more than one, with the legs toward the 
carver. 

The appearance of a fowl or turkey when on the table, de- 
pends much on its having been handsomely skewered. 



TO SELECT POULTRY, AND PREPARE IT FOR COOKING. 159 



TO SELECT POULTRY AND PREPARE IT 
FOR BEINQ COOKED. 

A YOUNG turkey has a smooth leg, and a soft bill, and if fresh, 
the eyes will be bright, and the feet moist. Old turkeys have 
scaly, stiff feet. 

Young fowls have a tender skin, smooth legs, and the breast 
bone readily yields to the pressure of the finger. The best are 
those that have yellow legs. The feet and legs of old fowls 
look as if they had seen hard service in the world. 

Young ducks feel tender under the wing, and the web of the 
foot is transparent. The best are thick and hard on the 
breast. 

Young geese have yellow bills, and the feet are yellow and 
supple ; the skin may be easily broken by the head of a pin ; 
the breast is plump, and the fat white. An old goose is unfit 
for the human stomach. 

To keep fowls hi warm weather, take out the heart and liver 
and parboil them, set them aside in a cool place, to be used in 
the gravy. Wash the fowls as clean as possible from the blood, 
and plunge one at a time into a kettle of boiling water for five 
minutes, moving it about, that the water may penetrate every 
part. Drain and wipe them dry and pepper the inside and the 
necks. This process will enable you to keep them two days in 
warm weather. In cold weather all sorts of poultry should be 
kept at least a week ; but care should be taken that they do not 
freeze, as they are not quite so good for being frozen. 

Pick out the pin feathers very carefully. A pair of tweezers 
is sometimes necessary to take out those which a knife will not 
.remove. Cut out the oil bag above the tail. Singe off all the 
hair by turning it quickly over a blazing paper. Cut off the 
legs at the joint above the feet ; trim the neck, and if too long 
cut off some of it ; draw out the crop and be sure to take ou* 



160 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEXD. 

every thing from the inside. The best way of removing the 
crop is to make an incision along the backbone, just below the 
neck. It can be removed in this way as easily as by the com- 
mon method, and the appearance of the bird, when laid on the 
dish, is much better. Be careful, in removing the gall bag, not 
to break it, as it will make every spot it touches bitter, and the 
rv>st careful washing will not remove it. If there is much fat, 
trim off most of it. Throw the liver, heart, and gizzard into 
water and wash them. Wash the fowl in several waters. It is 
then ready to be stuffed and skewered, as directed under the 
head, To roast a Turkey. Some persons think fowls much bet- 
ter not to be washed ; but they cannot be clean without. 

The sharpness of the breast bone, which is a defect in the 
appearance of a fowl on the table, may be remedied in the fol- 
lowing way : When preparing it to be cooked, take a small 
sharp knife, and passing it up the body, cut off the little slender 
bones which join the hug-me-close * to the side. Then push 
down the breast bone by pressing heavily upon it. A little 
.practice will make it easy to do this. 



To Roast a Turkey. 

Observe the directions under the head, To prepare Poultry for 
being cooked. Make a stuffing, and fill both the breast and body. 
Sew it up with a needle and coarse thread ; tie the skin over 
the end of the neck with a thread or piece of twine. Push a 
short skewer through above the tail, and a long one through the 
body under the thighs ; then tie the ends of the legs down with 
a twine, close upon the short skewer. Push another long 
skewer through the body, so as to confine the wings, and tie 
them round with a twine. Put the spit through the length of the 
body, and fasten it with two skewers ; flour it, and put it to the 
fire with a little water in the roaster. It should be roasted 
rather slowly. A turkey weighing twelve pounds should roast 



* This is the bone on each side the neck of a fowl, which answers to 
the collar bone in the htunan frame. 



ON COOKING FOWLS. 161 

three hours ; one weighing six or seven, an hour and a half. 
When half done, flour it again thickly ; when this is browned, 
baste it often. If much fat roasts out, dip off most of it when 
the turkey is about half done, and put a small piece of butter 
into the gravy, and baste the turkey with it. Having washed 
the heart, liver, &c., boil them an hour and a half, in a sauce- 
pan in a pint of water ; skim them when the water first boils 
up ; if it boils away, add more. 

To make the gravy, take out the heart and gizzard, mash 
the liver, and put it back into the water in which it was boiled, 
and pour the gravy also out of the roaster into it ; set it on the 
coals, add browned flour, wet smooth, and a little butter and 
pepper, and boil it a minute or two, and then serve it. When 
dished, put a few spoonfuls of gravy over it, and garnish 
with sprigs of celery or parsley. Cranberry-sauce or cur- 
rant or grape jelly are appropriate to roast turkey. 

More directions respecting gravies may be found under the 
head, Directions for making various kinds of Gravies. 

To Boil a Turkey. 

Stuif a young turkey, weighing six or seven pounds, with 
bread, butter, salt, pepper, and minced parsley ; skewer up the 
legs and wings as if to roast ; flour a cloth and pin around it. 
Boil it 'forty minutes, then set off the kettle and let it stand, 
close covered, half an hour more. The steam will cook it suf- 
ficiently. To be eaten with drawn butter and stewed oysters. 

To Roast Chickens. 

Observe the same directions in stuffing them as for a turkey. 
If you wish to roast several before an open fire, the spit may 
be put through side-ways, instead of length-ways, and four or 
five can thus be roasted at once, in a large roaster. Boil the 
inwards and make the gravy as for a turkey. Koast them an 
hour and a half. 



162 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

To Boil Chickens. 

Make the same dressing as directed for a boiled turkey, or 
boil them without stuffing if preferred. Skewer them up into a 
good shape, as when prepared to roast, and boil them an hour 
and a quarter. Serve them with drawn butter and cut parsley. 
It is an improvement to mash the livers and put into the butter. 
If chickens can be carefully skimmed, they need no cloth around 
them. 

To Broil Chickens. 

Cuf them open through the back, take out the inwards, wash 
them and wipe them dry ; place the inside down on the grid- 
iron. They must broil slowly, and care be taken they do not 
burn. Turn them in ten minutes. To keep them flat, lay a 
tin sheet upon them, with a weight. Broil twenty-five minutes, 
and dress with butter, pepper, and salt. They can be broiled 
best over charcoal 

To Fricassee Chickens. 

Boil them forty minutes in water enough barely to cover 
them. Take off the scum as fast as it rises. Take them up 
and carve them in the usual way. Put part of the water in 
which they were boiled into a spider or stew-pan. For two 
chickens rub a piece of butter as large as an egg, and a spoonful 
of flour together, and stir into the water as it boils up. Add 
some salt, and a gill of cream, or milk. Lay in the pieces of 
chicken, cover the pan close, and stew them gently twenty 
minutes. Parsley cut fine is a decided improvement. 

Chicken Salad. 

Boil or roast a nice fowl. "When cold, cut off all the meat, 
and chop it a little, but not very small ; cut up a large bunch of 
celery and mix with the chicken. Boil four eggs hard, mash, 
and mix them with sweet oil, pepper, salt, mustard, and a gill of 
vinegar. Beat this mixture very thoroughly together, and just 
before dinner pour it over the chicken. 



ON COOKING FOWLS. 163 

Fried Chickens (with Cream Sauce). 

Cut two chickens in pieces, and sprinkle with pepper and 
salt about an hour before dinner. Before frying, dredge flour 
over them. Beat two eggs, dip each piece in this, and fry in 
hot lard. Boil up a cup and a half of cream or rich milk, 
and add a spoonful of butter rubbed into a spoonful of flour 
with a little salt. Stir constantly till it boils again. Lay 
the chickens in a fricassee dish, pour the sauce around them, 
and serve. 



To Bone a Turkey. 

Boil a turkey in as little water as may be ; remove all the 
skin and the fat. Slice the meat, get all off clean from the 
bones, mix the dark and white parts together, and season 
with salt and pepper. Having kept the water warm in which 
the turkey was boiled, pour it upon the meat, and mix well. 
Lay it in a coarse cloth, in a compact shape, and press it with 
a heavy weight. Next day, serve it in thin slices. 

To Broil Prairie-Chickens. 

Broil like other chickens, but longer, because they are 
larger, and the meat is thick. The fire should not be very 
hot, as they should broil gradually. Lay upon a hot platter, 
sprinkle with salt and pepper, and put on a plenty of butter. 
The meat is very dry, and considerable butter is necessary. 
To be eaten with currant-jelly. 

A fricassee ot Prairie-Chickens. 

Remove the inwards, wash the chickens, and boil an hour, 
or a little more. Skim carefully : the water is not so easily 
skimmed as that in which other chickens are boiled. Strain 
the liquor into a stew-pan. When it boils up, add, for one 
chicken, a spoonful of butter, two or three teaspoonfuls of 
browned flour, salt, and a little pepper, and stew ten minutes. 



164 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Chicken Pie. 

Boil chickens in water barely to cover them, fort/ minutes. 
Skim the water carefully. Take them out into a dish, and cut 
them up as they should be carved if placed upon the table. If 
the skin is very thick remove it. Have ready, lined with a 
thick paste, a deep dish, of a size proportioned to the number of 
chickens you wish to use ; put in the pieces, with the hearts 
and livers, in layers ; sprinkle each layer with flour, salt, and 
pepper, and put on each piece of chicken a thin shaving of but- 
ter ; do this till you have laid in all the pieces ; put rather more 
of the spice, flour, and butter over the top layer than on the pre- 
vious ones, and pour in as much of the liquor in which the 
chickens were boiled as you can without danger of its boiling 
over. Lay on the upper crust, and close the edges very care- 
fully with flour and water ; prick the top with a knife. Cut 
leaves of crust and ornament it. Bake two hours. The crust 
for chicken pie should be twice as thick as for fruit pies. Use 
mace and nutmeg if you wish. 

To Roast Ducks. 

Flour them thick and baste them often. If they are roasted 
before the fire, an hour is long enough ; if in a stove, an hour 
and a half. For making the stuffing and gravy, see the direc- 
tions. 

To Boil Ducks, 

Scald and lay them in warm water a few minutes, then lay 
them in a dish, pour boiling milk over them, and let them lie in 
it two or three hours. Then take them out, dredge them with 
flour, and put them into a saucepan of cold water, cover close 
and boil them twenty minutes. Then take them out and set 
them, covered, where they will keep warm, and make the sauce 
as follows : 

Chop a large onion and a bunch of parsley fine, and put them 
into a gill of good gravy. [See receipt for Stock.] Add a 
table-spoonful of lemon juice, a little salt, pepper, and a small 



ON COOKING FOWLS. 165 

piece of butter. Stew these ingredients half an hour ; then lay 
the ducks into a dish, and pour the sauce over them. 

To Roast a Goose. 

Boil it half an hour to take out the strong, oily taste, then 
stuff and roast it exactly like a turkey. If it is a young one, 
an hour's roasting will be sufficient 

To Boil Partridges. 

Put them in a floured cloth into boiling water, and boil them 
fast fifteen minutes. For sauce, rub a very small piece of but- 
ter into some flour, and boil in a teacup of cream. Add cut 
parsley if preferred. 

To Roast Partridges. 

Prepare them like chickens, and roast three-quarters of an 
hour. Currant or grape jelly served with wild birds. 

To Roast Pigeons. 

Pick out the pin feathers, or if there are a great many, pull 
off the skin. Examine the inside very carefully. Soak them 
half an hour in a good deal of water, to take out the blood. 
Then boil them with a little salt in the water, half an hour, and 
take off the scum as fast as it rises. Take them out, flour them 
well, and lay them into a dripping-pan ; strain the water in which 
they were boiled, and put a part of it into the pan ; stir in it a 
little piece of butter, and baste the pigeons often. Add pepper 
and sweet marjoram if you prefer. Roast them nearly two 
hours. Pigeons need to be cooked a long tune. 

Pigeons in Disguise. 

Prepare them just as directed in the receipt above, and boil 
them long enough to remove all the blood, then pepper and salt 
them, make a good paste, roll each pigeon close in a piece of it ; 
tie them separately in a cloth, taking care not to break the 
paste. Boil them gently an hour and a half, in a good deal of 



166 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

water. Lay them in a hot dish, and pour a gravy over them 
made of cream, parsley, and a little butter. 

Rgeon Pie. 

Pick, soak, and boil pigeons with the same care as directed 
in the receipt for roasting them. Make a crust just as for 
chicken or veal pie. Lay in the pigeons whole, and season 
with pepper, salt, shavings of butter, and sweet marjoram ; flour 
them thickly, then strain the water in which they were boiled, 
and fill the dish two thirds with it. Lay the top crust over, 
and close the edges well. Make many incisions with the point 
of a knife, or a large fork, and bake an hour and a half. 

Woodcocks, Quails, and other small birds. 

Pull off the skin, split them down the back with a sharp knife, 
pepper the breasts, and lay the inside first upon the gridiron. 
Broil them slowly at first, skewer a small bit of pork upon each 
one. Turn them after seven or eight minutes. Broil them 
twenty minutes. 

If you wish to make a p5e, do just as directed for the pigeon 
pie. 

Chickens, Lamb, Pigeons, &c,, Curried. 

Boil and joint two chickens. Fry three or four slices of salt 
pork, and when they are nearly brown add a large spoonful of but- 
ter. Cut three or four onions fine, and fry them a light brown ; 
then remove them, and the pork, and fry the chickens gently 
in the fat ; strew over* the meat while it is frying a spoonful 
and a half of good curry powder, and dredge in flour. Then 
add hot water to make sufficient gravy ; if the gravy is not thick 
enough, mix a little flour smooth in cold water, and stir in. Add 
salt to suit your taste. This dish is best when stewed slowly. 
Garnish with slices of lemon. 

Partridges, pigeons, rabbits, sweet-breads, breasts of mutton, 
lamb, and veal, are all used for curries. 

There is a difference in the quality of curry powder. The 



SOUPS. 167 

above measure, is for the strongest kind, and is enough for a 
quart of gravy. The East Indians never use flour in thicken- 
ing the gravy, but depend on the curry powder'. 

To prepare rice for Calcutta curry, wash a pint in several 
waters, and put it into a 'kettle, containing a gallon of warm 
water, with salt in it. Cook it ten minutes from the time it 
begins to boil ; then pour it into a sieve, and when the water is 
entirely drained out, shake the sieve, and the particles of rice 
will separate, and it is ready to serve. Rice should always 
be served with curry. 



SOUPS. 

SOUP is economical food, and by a little attention may be 
made good with very small materials. It should never be made 
of meat that has been kept too long. If meat is old, or has be- 
come tainted in the least, the defect is peculiarly offensive in 
soup. All meat and bones for soup should be boiled a long 
time, and set aside until the next day in order that the fat may 
be entirely removed. . Then add the vegetables, rice, and herbs, 
and boil it from an hour to an hour and a half. The water in 
which fresh meat is boiled should be saved for soup and broth ; 
and the bones of roast beef should never be thrown away with- 
out boiling, as they make excellent soup, and if not used for 
this purpose, should be boiled in order to save the fat which 
they contain. The water is good for making gravies. 

A Rich Soup. 

The richest soups are made by using several kinds of meat 
together ; as beef, mutton, and veal. A shank of each of these 
with very little meat upon it, should be boiled several hours the 
first day ; and vegetables, with various kinds of spice, added 
the day it is to be served. Nice soups should be strained ; and 
they are good with macaroni, added afterwards, and boiled half 



168 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

or three quarters of an hour. If you have the water, in which 
chickens have been boiled, the soup will be much better if the 
beef, mutton, or veal are boiled in this, instead of pure water. 

Roast Beef Bone Soup. 

Boil the bones at least three hours, or until every particle of 
meat is loose ; then take them out and scrape off the meat and 
set aside the water ; the next day take from it all the fat, cut 
up an onion, two or three potatoes and a turnip, and put into it. 
Add, half an hour before dinner, powdered sweet majoram, cat- 
sup, and some salt. Boil it an hour. 

Shank Soup. 

When you buy a shank, have the butcher cut it into several 
pieces, and split open the thickest part of the bone. Boil it 
three or four hours and set it aside. The next day, take off the 
fat, and if you do not wish to eat the meat in the soup, take that 
out also; add vegetables, etc., as in the preceding receipt. 

To add maccaroni, take a handful, cut it small, wash, and 
boil it half an hour, then put it into the soup an hour before 
serving. 

Turtle-Bean Soup. 

Soak a teacup and a half of beans in a little water over 
night. To boil, add two quarts more. When soft, strain 
through a sieve ; add stock, or water in which roast-beef bones 
have been boiled ; also an onion, turnip, carrot, salt, sweet 
marjoram, thyme, and four cloves. Boil an hour longer. If 
too thick, add water. Take out the vegetables before serving. 
It can be made without stock, but needs more seasoning. 

Tomato Soup. 

Put three pints of tomatoes, stewed, strained, and sweetened, 
ro two quarts of meat liquor (the fat being removed). Add 
an onion, salt, and pepper, and water if too thick. With more 
seasoning, and a bit of butter, it is good without meat liquor. 



SOUPS OYSTER, JULIENNE, VERMICELLI. 169 

Oyster Soup. 

Strain the liquor from one quart of oysters, and set it on 
the fire. If there is not a great deal of the liquor, add a 
pint of water. Skim when it boils up, and add a saucer of 
chopped celery. Boil for a few minutes, then pour in a quart 
of rich milk. When it again boils up, stir in two spoonfuls 
of butter rubbed in one of flour. Then add the oysters (cut 
in small pieces, or not, as you choose), and salt and pepper 
to your taste. Let the soup boil but one or two minutes after 
the oysters are added, then take up in a hot tureen. Toast 
two slices of bread, or a few crackers. Cut the toasted bread 
into little square pieces, and put [into t the soup just before 
sending to the table. 

Jnlienne Soup. 

Slice two onions, and fry brown in half a spoonful of but- 
ter, in a soup-kettle, i,. Then put in three quarts of good stock ; 
chop small two turnips and two carrots. When these have 
boiled an hour, add a stalk of celery cut small, a blade of 
mace, salt and pepper, and a pint each of green peas and 
string beans. Boil two hours more. Then rub a spoonful of 
butter with a spoonful of flour, and stir in. The peas should 
be fresh gathered, and the beans should^ not be so old as to 
have a string. In case you have not beef-stock, the water 
in which chickens or any kind of fresh meat has been boiled 
will be a good substitute. 

Vermicelli Soup. 

Boil a shin of veal in three quarts of water. Skim it very 
carefully, then put in an onion, a turnip, and one carrot, not 
cut up ; boil three hours. Add salt and a quarter of a pound 
of vermicelli, and boil a full hour more. Remove the bone 
and vegetables, and serve. If the water boils away, add a 
little more. 



170 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Mock Turtle Soup. 

After having boiled the calf's head (see receipt on page 
151), strain the liquor, and set it away in an earthen pan in 
a cold place. Next day remove the fat, put it in a soup-ket- 
tle. Cut up a carrot, a turnip, and an onion, and put in it ; 
add salt, half a dozen cloves, and as many pepper-corns, and 
boil slowly two hours. Then strain, and return it to the soup- 
kettle. Add a little stock if more soup is needed. Cut up 
some of the pieces left of the head on the previous day, and 
put in. Add half a cup of ketchup. To make the force- 
meat balls, chop some of the meat fine, and mix it with an 
equal quantity of fine bread-crumbs, also two onions chopped 
small ; add Cayenne and black pepper, sweet marjoram, and 
powdered clove. Beat two eggs, and with them stir the in- 
gredients together, and make into balls the size of an Eng- 
lish walaut. Fry them brown in butter, and put them and 
the butter in the soup. Bub smooth in a table-spoonful of but- 
ter as much browned flour as it will take in, and stir in ; let 
it boil up once and serve. 

Turkey Soup. 

The remnants of a young turkey make good soup. Put all 
the bones, and little bits left of a dinner into about three quarts 
of water. If you have turkey gravy, or the remnants of chick- 
ens, add them also, and boil them two hours or more. Skim 
'out the meat and bones, and set the water aside in a cool place 
till the next day. Then take all the fat from the top ; take the 
bones and pieces of skin out from the meat and return it to the 
liquor. If some of the dressing has been left, put that in also, 
and boil all together a few minutes. If more seasoning is 
needed, add it to suit your taste. An onion should be boiled 
in it. 

Pea Soup. 

Take a pint of split peas, and, when carefully picked over 
and washed, put them into a pint of water, soak in morning. 



SOUPS VEGETABLE, ETC. 171 

Three hours before dinner, put them into a pot with a quart 
more water, and about half a pound of pork (less if you wish 
the soup not very rich.) Boil it steadily, and be careful to stir 
it often, lest it should burn. It may need more water before 
dinner, and can be made of whatever thickness you prefer. 

If you prefer to have the soup without pork (which makes it 
too rich for many persons), use the liquor in which beef or other 
fresh meat has been boiled instead of water, and use no pork. 
This is a very good way. 

Vegetable Soup. 

Take two turnips, two carrots, four potatoes, one large onion, 
one parsnip, and a few stalks of celery or some parsley. Cut 
them all very fine, or chop them in a tray ; put them, with a 
spoonful of rice, into three quarts of water, and boil the whole 
three hours. Then strain the soup through a colander or coarse 
sieve, return it to the kettle, and put it over the fire. Add a 
piece of butter of the size of a nut, stir the soup till the butter is 
melted, dredge in a little flour, let it boil up and then serve it. 

Mutton or Lamb Broth. 

Take the water in which a leg of mutton or lamb was boiled 
on the previous day, take off the fat and boil it t\vo hours with a 
turnip, an onion, and a carrot, cut small. Add some minced 
parsley and a spoonful of rice. All these, except the parsley, 
should be put in while the water is cold. Any little pieces of 
the neck, ribs, or shank will make excellent broth. 

Veal Broth. 

Take a knuckle, or if you have a large family, two knuckles 
of veal. Put them over the fire, at least three hours before 
dinner-time ; use not more than two quarts of water for two 
knuckles, and skim it until it is no longer necessary. (Veal 
requires more attention in this respect than any other meat). 
When this is done, add a spoonful of rice. A quarter of an 
hour before it is to be served, put in some minced parsley, 



j[72 TOE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

salt, and pepper It is a very nutritious dish. Some persons 
add two or three slices of salt pork. 

It is a good way, after having taken off cutlets from the 
large end of a leg of veal, to boil the entire piece that remains, 
with the knuckle. Boil it two hours or two hours and a half. 
Make broth of the liquor by putting in a small gill of rice, and 
some parsley ; add the parsley about ten minutes before it ii 
served. 

Melt butter with cut parsley, to eat on the meat. 

In families that like salt pork, a piece should be boiled sep- 
arately to eat with the veal. 

Ox-Tail Soup. 

Take two tails, divide them at the joints. Soak them a 
little while in warm water, then put them into cold water in 
a gallon pot or stew-pan, with a little salt. Skim off the 
froth. When the meat is boiled to shreds, take out the bones, 
and add a chopped onion and carrot. Use spices and sweet 
herbs as you prefer. Sprinkle in a little farina before serv- 
ing.. It is well, in making this and all beef soups, to boil 
the bones and meat the day before being served, and the next 
day take off the fat from the top of the liquor, and then add 
the vegetables and spice, and boil an hour and a half more. 

Economical Soup. 

Put remnants of roast-beef, uncooked bones, giblets, trim- 
mings, and bones of poultry, into two quarts of meat-liquor. 
Add salt, and skim carefully. Boil two hours, then strain, 
and return the soup to the kettle. Add two turnips and a 
carrot chopped fine. Slice two onions, and fry brown in a 
little butter, and put in. If you have cold gravy of roast 
meat, remove the fat, and put the gravy into the soup. Boil 
an hour and a half more. A few minutes before serving, 
sprinkle in a spoonful of farina, dry. Burn sugar in an iron 
spoon, and stir in. Serve hot. 



EGGS BOILED, FRIED, POACHED. 173 

Lobster Soup. 

Chop the meat of one good-sized lobster. It should not be 
chopped very fine. Pound and sift three crackers, and rub 
into the " tomalley," or green part of the lobster, adding also 
a piece of butter large as an egg, a little salt, and Cayenne 
or black pepper. Rub together till smooth. Boil a quart of 
milk, and pour gradually upon the paste ; then put in the 
meat of the lobster, and the coral, if you have any, chopped 
fine. Boil for a minute, and the soup is ready to serve. 



EQGS. 

Boiled. 

NEW laid eggs require half a minute longer to cook than 
others. The fresher they are the better, and the more health- 
ful. Eggs over a week old should never be boiled ; they will 
do to fry. Put them into water that boils, but not furiously, as 
it will crack them. If you like them very soft, boil them three 
minutes. If you wish the yolk hard, boil them five minutes. 
To be served with salad, they should be boiled twelve minutes. 

Fried. 

After you have fried ham, drop in the eggs one at a time. In 
about a minute dip the boiling fat with a spoon over them again 
and again. This will prevent the necessity of turning them, 
which it is difficult to do without breaking the yolks. Take 
them up in about two minutes and a half, with a skimmer. The 
fat that roasts out of a ham that is browned in an oven, is good 
for frying eggs. 

Poached. 

Set a tin pan or pail on the range, containing a pint of milk ; 
then beat six eggs well. When the milk is very nearly boiling, 



174 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

put in a teaspoonfulof salt, and half a table-spoonful of butter ; 
then add the eggs, and stir steadily, until it thickens, which will 
be in a minute or two. Set it off before it becomes very thick, 
and continue to stir it a minute more. Have ready, in a warm 
dish, two slices of toasted bread, spread with butter, and pour 
the egg over them. It should be a little thicker than boiled 
custard. This is an ample breakfast for six or seven persons. 

Dropped. 

Drop fresh eggs into a saucepan of boiling water with salt in 
it. Put them in gently, so as not to break the yolks. Have 
ready slices of buttered toast, and either take up the eggs with 
a skimmer or pour off the water, and then turn them out of the 
saucepan upon the toast. Add more salt, if they are not sea- 
Boned enough by that which is in the water. 

Omelet (baked). 

Boil a pint of milk. Melt in it a teaspoonful of butter, and 
one of salt, and stir in a tablespoonful of flour rubbed smooth 
in cold milk. Pour this upon seven or eight eggs which have 
been beaten for two or three minutes, and stir very fast till 
well mixed. Then pour the omelet into a hot dish, buttered, 
that will hold a quart, and bake about twenty minutes, in a 
quick oven, until it has risen up very high, and is of a rich 
brown color. Send it directly to the table from the oven. 
Make half the quantity for a small family. This is sufficient 
for seven or eight persons. 

Omelets (Fried). 

Allow a tablespoonful of milk for every egg, a bit of butter 
large as a nut, melted, a pinch of salt. Fry on a griddle 
hot enough for cakes, buttered to prevent sticking. Drop 
them on the griddle like large cakes. When they begin to 
set, turn up the edge, and, as they brown, fold them over and 
over ; then let them lie a moment more. Some like the addi- 
tion of boiled ham chopped fine. Have ready a hot covered 
dish, and send them to the table hot as possible. 



SCRAMBLED EGGS, ETC. 175 

Oyster Omelet. 

Chop fine twelve large oysters. Beat well six eggs, and 
add a spoonful of flour; rubbed smooth in milk, salt, pepper, 
and a bit of butter melted. Fry in one omelet, and serve 
hot. 

Scrambled Eggs, 

Separate the yolks and whites of six eggs. Beat the yolks 
about two minutes ; then add to them six tablespoonfuls of 
milk, and a teaspoonful of salt, and beat a little more. Melt 
half a tablespoonful of butter in a spider or saucepan. Pour 
in the yolks, and, when they thicken slightly, pour the whites 
in, without beating them at all. Let them be until they begin 
to look like the white of a boiled egg ; then gently mix them 
in with the yolks with a fork, and serve in a hot dish, with 
or without pieces of buttered toast underneath. Do not let 
them remain in the spider till stiff. This will make a suffi- 
cient quantity for a small family ; but it is easy to increase it 
to any desired amount. 

A Fraise of Ham. 

Cut cold ham in small thin bits. Make a batter of one 
pint of milk, a spoonful of flour rubbed smooth in a little of 
the milk, five or six beaten eggs, and a small teaspoonful of 
salt. Have ready a spider, not very hot. Drop into it a 
large teaspoonful of butter. When melted, pour in half th& 
batter, and strew over this the bits of ham ; then pour over the 
rest of the batter. Let it cook moderately, and, as the batter 
thickens, turn over one-half like an omelet, and serve very 
hot. Make half the quantity for two or three persons. 

A. Fried Omelet. 

Take four or five eggs, and allow one spoonful of milk for 
every egg. Beat them two minutes; then add the milk, and 
a teaspoonful of salt. Have the spider, or omelet-pan, hot, 
but not enough so to burn. Melt in it a piece of butter size 



176 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S 

of a large walnut, and pour in the batter. When it thickens, 
and looks "brown under the edges, fold it over gradually with 
a hroad knife, and slip the omelet from the spider upon a 
very hot small platter. It must be eaten immediately. 

It makes the omelet very handsome to separate two or 
three of the whites, beat them stiff, and lay upon the batter as 
it begins to heat ; then fold the batter over, as directed, after 
the whites are cooked. 

Welsh Rarebit. 

Melt a heaping teaspoonful of butter in a saucepan. Then 
put in a teacup of cheese cut small, and two or three spoon- 
fuls of milk or cream. Let it remain about five minutes, and 
stir repeatedly. Mix with this a beaten egg and a little 
pepper and salt. Have a hot dish ready, with a few slices of 
buttered toast in it, and pour a part of the mixture on each 
slice. Serve at once, as hot as possible. 

Omelette Souffle. 

Cut to a stiff froth the whites of eight eggs, with four 
tablespoorifuls of sugar. Have ready the yolks of the eggs, 
which have been beaten for five minutes. Mix the whites 
and yolks together ; add two tablespoonfuls of flour rubbed 
smooth in milk or cream. Flavor with essence of lemon or va- 
nilla. Bake about fifteen minutes. Serve immediately. 

Tomato Omelet. 

Peel and chop fine four medium-sized ripe tomatoes. Rub 
two spoonfuls of flour into a small piece of butter, and mix 
with the tomatoes. Add a little pepper and salt. Beat six 
eggs a few minutes, and stir into the tomatoes ; then fry like 
other omelets. 

Puff Omelet. 

Heat a cup of milk ; add salt, and a bit of butter. Have 
ready, beaten together, the yolks of six eggs, with the whites 



DIRECTIONS RESPECTING FISH. 177 

of three ; and stir into the milk. Pour this into a hot dish, 
buttered. Add the whites of the other three eggs, heaten 
stiff. Bake ten or fifteen minutes. If the top becomes suffi- 
ciently brown while the mixture underneath is yet soft, set 
the dish upon the top of your stove for a few minutes, until 
done, which may be ascertained by inserting a knife. 



DIRECTIONS RESPECTING^ FISH. 

PURCHASE those which have just been caught. Of this you 
can judge by their being hard under the pressure of the finger. 
Fish lose their best flavor soon, and a few hours make a wide 
difference in the taste of some sorts. 

Cod are best in cold weather. Mackerel are best in Au- 
gust, September, and October. Halibut, in May and June. 
Oysters are good from September to April ; but are not very 
good or healthy from the first of May to the last of August. 
Lobsters are best at the season when oysters are not good. 

They must be put alive into boiling water and be boiled from 
thirty -five to forty minutes. Allow a large spoonful of salt to 
every quart of water in which they are boiled. The medium 
sized ones are the best. The shells of old lobsters are apt to be 
encrusted. On no account should they be eaten later than 
eighteen hours after being" boiled. Some persons never eat 
them after twelve hours. Pond fish should be soaked in strong 
salt and water to take out the earthy taste. Fish may be kept 
good several days, if frozen. All large fish need to be soaked 
in water that is a little warm, before being cleaned ; and they 
should be cleaned with great care, for even if there are few scales 
upon them, there is a great deal of slimy substance which a 
knife will remove. A boiled fish is done when the eyes turn 
white. 

When you broil fish, rub the gridiron with lard or drippings. 



178 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

to prevent its sticking. Do not attempt to turn it like steaks, 
with a knife and fork, but lay an old dish upon it, and hold it 
on with one hand, while you turn over the gridiron with the 
other. Lay the skin side down first. 

Fish that is to be fried, should be cut up and laid in a cloth 
for an hour that the moisture may be absorbed. It should then 
be rolled in fine bread crumbs, or Indian meal. That which is 
apt to break in frying may be kept whole by being dipped in a 
beaten egg, before it is rolled in the bread crumbs. Oysters 
should be skimmed out of the liquor before being cooked, in 
order that it may be strained, as there are often bits of shell 
in it. 

To Boil Cod. 

Rub a little salt down the bone, and over the thick part. 
Wrap it in a cloth and put it over the fire in cold water ; put- 
ting it into hot water at first will cause the outside to break 
before the centre is done. See that it is covered with water, 
and throw in a table-spoonful of salt. Take, off the froth care- 
fully, and boil it half an hour. Fresh cod is eaten with oyster 
sauce and melted butter, or with the latter alone, prepared as 
directed under the head of Drawn Butter, with the addition of 
parsley and if you choose three or four eggs boiled very hard, 
cut up and put into it. 

The head and shoulders of cod are so much thicker than 
the other part, that it is impossible to boil the fish whole and 
have all parts equally cooked. It is therefore a good way to 
buy a large cod, divide it, boil the head and shoulders, and fry 
the other part, or sprinkle it with salt, and after a day or two, 
broil it. 

Cod Sounds and Tongues. 

Soak them over night, wash and scrape, and boil them 
gently a short time, in milk and water. To be eaten with 
drawn butter. If fresh, wash, and dry them with a cloth, dip 
them in meal, and fry with a little salt pork. 



FISH BAKED, FRIED, ETC. 179 

To Bake a Cod or Black Fish. 

The simplest way of baking fish, is very. good. Spread little 
pieces of bread, with butter ; pepper and salt them, and lay 
them inside the fish. Then take a needle and thread and sew 
it up. Put a small skewer through the lip and tail, and fasten 
them together with a piece of twine. Lay it into a dish, in which 
it may be served, put two or three thin slices of salt pork upon 
it, sprinkle salt over it, and flour it well. Baste it several times 
with the liquor which cooks out of it. A fish weighing four 
pounds will cook in an hour. 

To make a richer dish. 

Chop fine a half a teacupful of fat ham ; add a large spoonful 
of butter, some parsley, thyme, marjoram, a little salt, nutmeg, 
and pepper. If you have oysters, add a few. Beat two eggs, 
and put all together with fine bread crumbs enough to compound 
them. With this, stuff the fish, which should be floured thick, 
and wind a string around it to keep it together, or else sew it 
up. Fasten the head and tail together with a skewer. Bake 
it in a stove an hour. Baste it with butter. 

To Fry Cod (or other Fish). 

After it has been cleansed, cut it into pieces of the proper 
size, and lay them in a cloth in order to dry them. Fry four 
or five slices of salt pork, or use instead, lard or nice beef drip- 
pings ; but pork is preferable. When the slices are fried crisp, 
take them out, dip the pieces of fish in a plate of fine Indian 
meal, and lay them into the spider. Fry them brown. When 
the fish is done, lay it with the pork into a hot dish. Pour a 
little water into the spider, boil it up, dredge in browned flour, 
and pour the whole over the fish. 

To make a Chowder. 

Fry three slices of salt pork, crisp, in a deep kettle ; take 
them out and lay in slices of potatoes ; flour and pepper them ; 
then lay in slices of cod or haddock, which must also be floured 



180 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

and peppered. Put in alternate layers of potatoes and fish, 
with flour, salt, and. pepper, till it is all laid in. Pour over it 
boiling water enough almost to cover it. When it boils up, 
dredge in more flour. Dip a few crackers in cold water and 
lay over the top, and cover the kettle close. Boil it three quar- 
ters of an hour. Use ship bread, if it is preferred. Some peo- 
ple add a cup of milk just before it is served. Add part of a 
fresh lemon, if you like. 

Marblehead Chowder. 

Fry three or four slices of salt pork, soak a dozen hard 
crackers, cut up four or five onions. When the pork is fried 
brown take it out, and lay in half of the crackers, and half the 
onions. Cut up the cod, and lay the pieces next, then the rest 
of the crackers and onions, season it with pepper and salt, pour 
boiling water enough into the kettle to cover the whole. Let it 
stew moderately an hour. 

The fish should be fresh from the water. Cod's heads and 
sound bones make the richest chowder. 

To Boil Salt Cod. 

Lay a piece of salt fish into the cellar a few days before it is 
to be cooked, that it may become softened by the dampness. 
The afternoon before it is to be boiled, wash it carefully in sev- 
eral waters. It is well to keep a brush on purpose to cleanse 
salt fish, and use it repeatedly while it is soaking. Leave it in 
water till morning, and then put it into a kettle, and set it where 
it will keep warm, and at length simmer, but not boil. Eat it 
with beets and potatoes, and drawn butter ; or with pork scraps 
if you prefer. 

To prepare the Scraps. Cut salt pork into very small square 
pieces, put them in a saucepan, and cook them till they are 
crisped. A quarter of a pound of pork will be enough for a 
family of five, and it will take half an hour to fry it enough. 

There is a great difference in the quality of salt fish. The 
Dun is considered best. 



MINCED SALT FISH, FISH-BALLS, ETC. 181 

Minced Salt Fish. 

Pick out all the bones and bits of skin the day that the fish 
is boiled, as it is most easily done while it is warm. Next day- 
chop it fine, and also all the potatoes left of the previous dinner ; 
they are better for this purpose than those that are just boiled. 
Lay three or four slices of salt pork into a spider, and fry 
till they are crisped ; take them out, and put the chopped fish 
and potato into the middle, and press it out equally, so that the 
fat will be at the sides. Cover it close ; after about five minutes 
put into the centre a gill of milk, and cover it again. In a few 
minutes more stir it, but so carefully as not to disturb the sides 
and bottom, else a brown crust will not form. Add more milk 
if it is too dry. When thoroughly heated through, stir in a small 
piece of butter, loosen the crust from, the sides with a knife, and 
turn it out upon a hot dish. If it is done right, it will come out 
whole, and nicely browned. 

Fish-Balls. 

Take equal quantities of chopped fish and potato, enough to 
nearly fill a tray of medium size. Add a beaten egg, and a 
table-spoonful of butter, melted. Mix and mash well with a 
wooden spoon. Roll the balls in flour, and fry them with salt 
pork and a little lard or beef fat. The whole surface of the 
balls should be gradually browned. 

To Boil or Broil Halibut 

If you wish to boil it, purchase a thick slice cut through 
the body, or the tail piece, which is considered the richest. Wrap 
it in a floured cloth, and lay it in cold water with salt in it. A 
piece weighing six pounds, should be cooked half an hour after 
the water begins to boil. It is eaten with drawn butter and 
parsley. If any of it is left, lay it in a deep dish and sprinkle on 
it a little salt, throw over it a dozen or two of cloves, pour 
in some vinegar, and add butternut vinegar or catsup. It 
ivill, when cold, have much the flavor of lobster. 

The nape of a halibut is considered best to broil ; but a slice 
through the body a little more than an inch thick, if sprinkled 



182 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

with salt an hour or two before being cooked, will broil without 
breaking, and is excellent. When taken up, put on butter, pep- 
per, and salt. 

To Boil Salmon. 

Clean a salmon in salt and water. Allow twenty minutes for 
boiling every pound. Wrap it in a floured cloth, and lay it in 
the kettle while the water is cold. Make the water very salt. 
Skim it well ; in this respect it requires more care than any 
other fish. Serve it with drawn butter and parsley. 

If salmon is not thoroughly cooked it is unhealthy. When 
a piece of boiled fresh fish of any kind is left of dinner, it is a 
very good way to lay it in a deep dish, and pour over it a little 
vinegar, with catsup, and add pepper or any other spice which 
is preferred. 

To Broil Salmon, 

Cut it in slices an inch and a half thick, dry it in a clean cloth, 
salt it, and lay it upon a hot gridiron, the bars having been rub- 
bed with lard or drippings. It cooks very well in a stove oven, 
laid in a dripping-pan. 

To Broil Shad. 

Procure fresh caught shad. It requires twenty minutes to 
broil, on moderately hot coals. To turn it, see Directions 
respecting Fish. Sprinkle it with salt, and spread on a 
little butter. Fresh fish requires a longer tune to broil than 
meat. 

Boasted Oysters. 

Take them, unopened, rinse the shells clean, and lay them 
on hot coals, or the top of a cooking-stove, with the deepest side 
of the shell down, so as not to lose the liquor. When they be- 
gin to open a little, they are done, and the upper shell will be 
easily removed with a knife, and the oyster is to be eaten from 
the lower shell. Some persons prefer to have roast oysters 
laid on buttered toast. 



CUTLETS OF SALMON. OYSTER PIE. 183 

Baked Shad. 

Lay the fish into water a little warm, for half an hour ; 
then scrape off the scales ; cut it open down the back, and 
remove the inwards. Wash thoroughly. Make a stuffing of 
pieces of bread and butter sprinkled with salt, pepper, and 
parsley. Stuff it full, and sew it up. Skewer the head and 
tail together, and lay it in a deep dish. Flour it well. 
Fasten several small slices of pork on it with skewers, or rub 
it over with butter when half cooked. If qnough moisture 
does not bake out of the fish to baste it, put a little hot wa- 
ter into the dish. Baste it two or three times. Bake it an 
hour. It should be well browned. Put bits of parsley on 
the fish when it is sent to the table. 

Cutlets of Salmon (English). 

Cut salmon in slices not quite an inch thick ; wipe them- 
dry, sprinkle with salt and flour, then dip them in beaten 
egg, and then in sifted cracker-crumbs. Fry in butter in a 
spider. Take care they do not burn. Cook them moderately 
until nicely browned. 

Oyster Pie. 

Line a deep dish that will hold rather more than a quart, 
with a good pie-crust nearly half an inch thick. Strain 
the liquor from a quart of oysters. Put in the bottom of the 
dish a layer of fine cracker or bread crumbs j then add the oys- 
ters, with bits of butter and mace, a little pepper and salt, and 
a part of the liquor. The liquor should fill the dish only about 
one-half. Over the oysters put another layer of fine crumbs, 
and cover with pie-crust. Cut an opening in the top of the 
crust, and ornament with leaves of pastry. Bake about an 
hour. Brown gradually. Serve the pie hot. 

A pie containing a pint, or a pint and a half of oysters, is 
large enough for a family of two or three. 



184 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Oyster Pie. 

Make a nice paste and lay into a deep dish, turn a teacup 
down in the centre. This will draw the liquor under it, and 
prevent it from boiling over ; it also keeps the upper crust from 
falling in and becoming clammy. Lay in the oysters, add a lit- 
tle pepper, butter, and flour ; make a wide incision in the upper 
crust, so that when the pie is nearly done, you can pour in half 
a teacup of cream or milk. Secure the edges of the crust 
according to thedirections for making Pastry, and bake it an 
hour. It should be put into the oven immediately, else the 
under crust will be clammy. Use but little of the liquor. 

To Fry Oysters. 

Lay them in a cloth a few minutes to dry them ; then dip 
each one in beaten egg, and then into sifted cracker-crumbs, 
and fry in just enough fat to brown them. Put pepper and 
salt on them before you turn them over. 

Escaloped Oysters. 

Butter a deep dish, and cover the bottom and sides with fine 
crumbs of bread. Put in half the oysters, with pounded mace, 
pepper, and salt, and cover them with bread crumbs and small 
bits of butter ; add the rest of the oysters with pepper and 
mace, and cover as before. Put in but little of the liquor, as 
oysters part with a good deal of moisture in cooking, and if the 
mixture is too wet, it is not a~s good. Bake a quart of oysters 
half an hour. A plainer dish, with little butter and no spice is 
very good. 

Pickled Oysters. 

Boil the liquor of an hundred oysters and pour it over them. 
When they have stood a few minutes, take them out and boil 
the liquor again, with a gill of vinegar, a few whole black pep- 
pers, and two or three blades of mace. "When this is cold, pour 
it over the oysters, and cover them closely. This is a very 
good way to keep them. 



STEAMED OYSTERS. OYSTERS RAW, ETC. 185 

Steamed Oysters. 

Put a peck of oysters (or less, according to the family) into 
a steamer, and steam till they open. Eat them from the 
shell, with vinegar and pepper, or put them for two or three 
minutes into a saucepan, and stir in a bit of butter. 

Oysters Raw. 

Wash the shells very thoroughly, and wipe them dry. 
Open them, and remove the upper shell, but leave the under 
shell with the oyster in it. Place the oysters thus prepared 
on a dish, with one or two lemons cut in halves, and serve. 
They should be eaten with salt, pepper, and lemon-juice. 

Plain Stewed. 

Boil one quart of oysters for three minutes. Then pour 
them into a hot dish, upon pieces of toast buttered. Sprin 
kle pepper over them. 

Stewed Oysters, Another Way. 

Boil a pint of milk ; rub a tablespoonful of flour smooth in 
cold milk, and strain into it ; then strain in the liquor of a 
quart of oysters, and, when it boils up again, add half a spoon- 
ful of butter, a little salt, and the oysters, and let the whole 
boil two minutes more, or until the oysters begin to curl. 

Curried Oysters. 

Put the liquor of one quart of oysters into a stew-pan. 
Add a little hot water if there is not much liquor. Rub a 
large spoonful of butter into one of flour. When the liquor 
boils up, stir this in, and also two or three teaspoonfuls of 
curry-powder. (Some cooks put in, also, the milk of a cocoa* 
nut and the juice of lemon ; but this is not necessary.) 
Lastly add the oysters, and, when they have boiled one or 
two minutes, take them up in a deep dish, and serve rice with 
them on another dish prepared as directed for curries. 



186 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Oyster Patties. 

Line small patty-pans with a nice crust. When cool, turn 
them out upon a dish. Stew a pint of large oysters one or 
two minutes in their own liquor, with a heaping teaspoon- 
ful of butter, two blades of mace, and some lemon-juice. 
Dredge in a little flour. Take them up, and set them where 
they will become cool. Then put two or three oysters in each 
puff, and serve. Omit the lemon-juice, if you choose. If the 
patties are to be eaten hot, stew as above, and bake covers of 
paste on tins. Put the oysters hot, into the puffs, place over 
them the covers, fresh from the oven, and serve. 

Lobsters (to select and open). 

Buy those that have been boiled but a few hours. The 
heaviest, whether large or small, are best. Lobsters are 
sweet and tender early in the spring, and are good until Sep- 
tember. In opening them, care must be taken to remove the 
poisonous part. This lies in the head, all of which must be 
thrown away, as well as the vein which passes from it through 
the body. All the other parts are good. Break the shells 
with a hammer, and cut open the body on the under side 
with a sharp knife. Carefully examine the tomally, or 
green fat, to see that there is none of the poison vein in it. 
If you are going to stew the lobster, or make salad, save the 
liquor to mix with the meat. 

To Serve Lobster. The Simplest Way. 

Prepare the lobster as above. Put it on a platter : the 
meat from the body in the centre, and that of the large claws 
at each end of the dish. Arrange some of the small claws 
around the edge. Garnish with parsley or lettuce-leaves, and 
serve with vinegar, mustard, and pepper. 

Curried Lobster. 

Put into a stew-pan a cup of veal or other meat stock, or a 
cup of water. Boil this with a blade of mace and a little 



TO OPEN CLAMS. CLAM CHOWDER, ETC. 187 

salt, five minutes. Have ready one spoonful of butter, a 
spoonful of flour, and two teaspoonfuls of curry-powder, all 
rubbed together till smooth. Add this to the gravy or water, 
aud also a few spoonfuls of cream. Stir till well mixed, then 
lay in the meat of one lobster cut small, and simmer gently 
five minutes, and then serve. Squeeze in some lemon-juice 
before taking up, if you choose. 

To Open Clams. 

After washing them thoroughly, pour boiling water over, 
and let them stand a while. The shells will open easily. 

Clam Chowder (of long clams). 

Fry' in a deep kettle two large slices of fat pork. Add 
three large potatoes, sliced thin, and two quarts of hot water. 
Boil until the potatoes are not sufficiently done to break; 
then put in pilot-bread, half a pint of milk, a piece of but- 
ter large as an egg, a little salt and pepper. When it again 
boils up, add a pint of clams, with their liquor. Boil one or 
two minutes, and serve. 

Another Clam Chowder. 

Boil a peck of clams in a quart of water. When the shells 
open, take out the meat ; strain the water, and boil in it six 
potatoes, sliced. Slice an onion, and fry in pork. When the 
potatoes are nearly done, add the onion, a few crackers 
soaked in milk, salt, pepper, a spoonful of butter, and, lastly, 
the clams. Add milk, if too thick. Boil fifteen minutes 
longer, and then serve. 

Scallops Stewed or Fried. 

Boil scallops five minutes in their own liquor. Then add, 
for one quart of scallops, a pint of milk. Boil them in this 
three or four minutes more; then add a spoonful of flour 
rubbed smooth in a spoonful of butter ; stir it well ; add a 
little pepper. Boil up once, after putting in the flour and 
butter. They will cook a little more easily if cut in two. It 
is a nice way to roll them in Indian meal or crumbs, and fry 
in a buttered spider. 



188 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Clams Escaloped. 

Prepare them like oysters, using pepper instead of mace, 
and covering the dish with thin slices of bread, buttered, and 
sprinkled with pepper. 

Clams are very palatable stewed like scallops or oysters., 

Fried Eels. 

Skin and clean them well ; cut them in pieces three inches 

long ; boil them in milk and water with a little salt in it. 
When a fork goes into them easily, dip them in bread-crumbs 
or fine meal, and fry in lard or pork. 

Stewed Eels. 

Skin and wash them, and wipe dry. Cut in pieces ; sprinkle 
with flour, salt, and pepper. Brown them in pork-fat, with 
onion cut fine, and put into the fat first. Pour over boiling 
water just enough to simmer them, and dredge in flour if 
there is not sufficient. Cover closely, and cook fifteen min- 
utes. 

Perch. 

Dress and fry like smelts ; but fry them a longer time. 

Pickerel. 

Bake like shad, or cut in pieces, and fry like cod in pork 
or lard. 

Boiled Mackerel. 

If not dressed when they come to you, cut them down the 
stomach a little way, and take out the inwards. Wash them, 
sprinkle with salt, roll them in a cloth separately, and boil 
gently for twenty minutes. 

Serve with drawn butter. 

Broiled Mackerel (Fresh). 

Open it down the back ; wash, and sprinkle salt over, and 
let it lie for an hour. Grease the gridiron. Lay the skin 
side down first. The fire should not be so hot as to scorch. 
Turn once or twice, and allow fifteen minutes to broil. Lay 
on a hot dish, and put on shavings of butter. 

The wire gridirons are most convenient for broiling fish, as 
they are turned without using a knife and fork. 



FISH BAKED BASS, ETC. 189 

Baked Bass. 

Make a stuffing of pounded cracker or crumbs of bread, an 
egg, pepper, clove, salt, and butter. Fill it very full, and when 
sewed up, grate over it a small nutmeg, and sprinkle it with 
pounded cracker. Then pour on the white of an egg, and 
melted butter. Bake it an hour in the same dish in which it is 
to be served. 

Potted Shad ( a ver 7 convenient and excellent dish). 

Take three or four fresh caught shad, and when nicely 
dressed, cut them down the middle, and across in pieces about 
three inches wide ; put these pieces into a jar in layers, with 
salt, whole cloves, pepper-corns, and allspice sprinkled between. 
When, all is laid in, put in sharp vinegar enough just to cover 
them, and bake in the oven. It is the best way to put the jar 
into a brick oven after the bread is drawn, if considerable heat 
still remains, and let it stand two or three hours, or put it into 
a range oven at night, to stand till morning. This will keep 
several weeks, even in hot weather. Almost any fish of 
the size of shad may be done in the same way. 

Brook Trout. 

If they are small, fry them with salt pork. If large, boil 
them, and serve with drawn butter. 

Round Clams, or Quahogs. 

The round clams, sometimes called quahogs, are much the 
most healthy. The small ones, with thin edges, are to be pre- 
ferred. They may be roasted upon a gridiron, or laid in an 
iron pan upon a stove. When the shell begins to open, pour 
the liquor into a sauce-pan, and cut the clam from the shell and 
put with it. When all are taken out, set the sauce-pan on the 
coals, and when the clams boil up, add pepper and a bit of but' 
ter, and pour them upon toasted bread. 

Clam broth is made by washing them very clean, and boil- 
ing till the shells open; then take out the clams and put 



190 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

them into the water again. Boil them a few minutes, add 
a little butter and flour, and put toasted crackers in the tureen 
into which you put the broth. This is very healthy for feeble 
persons. 

Smelts. 

Soak smelts a little while in warm water ; scrape them, and 
cut the heads so far that you can gently pull them off, and thus 
draw out the dark vein that runs through the body ; then rinse 
and lay them into a dry cloth while you fry two or three slices 
of salt pork crisp. Dip the smelts into a plate of fine Indian 
meal, and fry them brown. If you fry them in lard or drip- 
pings, sprinkle them with salt, but not until they are nearly 
done, as they will not brown as well, if it is put on at first. 

To prepare Salt Shad, Mackerel, or Halibut's Fin to Broil. 

Shad should be soaked twenty-four hours, the water being 
changed once or twice. Mackerel often need soaking thirty, or 
even thirty-six hours; and halibut's fin thirty-six. A gallon 
of water is the least in which either of them should be soaked. 
Grease the gridiron, and lay the skin side down. (See Direc- 
tions at the head of this chapter.) 

Smoked Halibut or Salmon. 

Wash and lay it in a dish of cold water over night, with 
the flesh side down ; wipe dry, and lay it on a gridiron over 
a moderate fire; turn it after a little time. It will cook 
through in ten minutes. Or, butter a tin kept for the pur- 
pose, and cook it in the range or stove half an hour. 



DIRECTIONS FOR SALTINQ MEAT, 
FISH, &G. 

To some young housekeepers, the salting of meat, and taking 
eare of it, and of smoked meat, are perplexing. Perhaps the 



DIRECTIONS FOR SALTING MEAT, ETC. 191 

following directions may .assist them. The best pieces to corn 
are the end of the rump, the thin end of the sirloin, and the 
edge-bone. If you like it with alternate streaks of fat and lean, 
the pieces at the ends of the ribs, called by butchers the rattle- 
ran, are very good. The edge-bone affords the most lean meat. 

The best piece of pork to corn is the shoulder. It is a good 
way to divide it, if large, and stuff half of it with sage and bread 
crumbs, and roast it ; and corn the other half. 

In winter, hang fresh killed meat up two or three days be- 
fore putting it into brine, as it will thus become more tender. 
Make a brine of four quarts of water, three pints of salt, half a 
table-spoonful of saltpetre, and a pint of molasses, or a pound 
of coarse brown sugar. Mix it thoroughly without boiling it. 
In this lay the meat, and see that it is entirely covered. It is 
well to look at it after a day or two, and if necessary, turn it 
the other side up. It will be good in a few days, but it is better 
to let it lie three or four weeks before boiling it. The same 
brine will do for many successive pieces in winter. But for a 
family that like salt meat, it is the best way to make a double 
measure, and put into it at once as much meat as it will cover. 
It should be kept in a firkin or tub, with a close cover. 

After a considerable quantity of meat has thus been cured, 
scald and skim the brine, add a little more molasses, salt, and 
saltpetre, and let it become cold before meat is put into it. 

A brine like this, only a little more rich with molasses, is 
very good for salting tongues, and pieces that are to be smoked. 
But they should lie in it four or five weeks. Meat should 
never be salted for smoking, later than February or the middle 
of March.* 

In warm weather, it will not do to use the same brine more 
than once, as the blood from the meat will become tainted. 
Therefore a less expensive mixture, that may be thrown away 
after being used once, is better. Two quarts of salt to four of 
water, is a good rule for brine in hot weather. 

In the summer, the strong membrane that covers the rib 
bones, must be cut open with a sharp knife before the meat is 



192 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

put into brine ; for, as the salt will- not penetrate this mem- 
brane, the bones will else become tainted, and the meat soon be 
spoiled. Meat, at this season, should be cooked within three or 
four days after being put into brine. 

To Salt Pork. 

Allow a bushel of salt for a barrel of pork, or a peck for fifty 
weight. The salt called coarse-fine, is commonly used by 
butchers ; but the best way in a private family, where no more 
than twenty-five or fifty weight is put down for the year's use, 
is to use fine salt. Put water enough to cover it. Examine it 
in a few days, and if the salt is all dissolved, add more. The 
only sure way of keeping pork sweet, is to have the brine so 
strong that some of the salt remains undissolved. A board, 
with a stone upon it, should always be kept on the top of pork, 
as it will soon become rusty if the edges lie above the surface 
of the brine. 

It is not fit for use, until it has been in brine six weeks. 

Pickle for one Ham. 

To a gallon of water, put a pint of salt, a pint of molasses, 
and an ounce of saltpetre. Turn the ham over in the brine 
often, and let it He in it six weeks ; then let it be smoked nearly 
as long. 

To Cure Hams. 

[This receipt is furnished by a person whose hams are cele- 
brated in the eastern part of Massachusetts, for their superior 
quality. ] 

For curing fifty weight, allow three quarts of coarse salt, half 
a pound of saltpetre, and two quarts of good molasses. Add 
soft water enough just to cover the hams. Common sized hams 
should be kept in this pickle five weeks ; larger ones six. 
They should all be taken out once a week, and those which 
were on the top laid in first, and the lower ones last, They 
should be smoked from two to three weeks with walnut wood or 



KNICKERBOCKER PICKLE TO MAKE SAUSAGES 193 

with sawdust and corn-cobs, mixed. Meat smoked with cobs is 
very delicate. 

Pieces of beef for smoking, may be laid in this pickle, after 
the hams are sent to the smoke house ; but more salt should be 
added. 

The Knickerbocker Pickle, for Hams and Bee 

To three gallons of soft water, put four pounds and a half of 
salt, coarse and fine, mixed ; a pound and a half of brown sugar, 
an ounce and a half of saltpetre, half an ounce of saleratus, and 
two quarts of good molasses. 

Boil the mixture, skim it well, and when cold pour it over 
the hams or beef. Beef laid down in this pickle, does not be- 
come hard, and is very fine, when boiled gently and long. 

Some persons consider this the best of all methods for curing 
beef and hams. 

Another way for curing Hams and Beef-tongues. 

Allow for one gallon of water a pound and a half of salt, 
half a pound of brown sugar, half an ounce of saltpetre, and 
half an ounce of potash. Boil all together, and skim very 
thoroughly. Take meat that has been killed two days, and 
sprinkled slightly with a little fine saltpetre, and, when the 
pickle is cold, pour it over the meat, which should be perfectly 
covered. Let it remain four or five weeks, standing in a cold 
place. Do this only in cold weather. 

How to keep Hams through the Summer. 

When they are taken from the smoke house, do not suffer 
them to lie a single hour where the flies can find them. Sew 
them up in a coarse cloth or stiff brown paper, and pack them 
in ashes. There is no method so sure to preserve them from 
insects, and the effect of the ashes is to improve the meat ; but 
care should be taken that the hams are so secured that the ashes 
will not touch them. The ashes should be perfectly cold and 
dry, and the barrel be in a dry, cool place. 



194 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

To Corn Beef (to boil within two or three days). 

If a lean piece is desired, take three or four pounds, or more, 
according to the size of your family, from the back of the 
rump. Kub the meat well with fine salt, and let it lie a few 
hours ; then add cold water just to cover it, and sprinkle in 
three or four spoonfuls of salt. The thin end of the sirloin 
is good corned. If you like some fat, take a piece of the 
rattle-ran. This is cheaper. Salted beef should be boiled 
long. A piece weighing five pounds should boil slowly four 
hours, and then be laid in a dish with a heavy weight on it. 

See directions for salting meat. 

Corned Beef with Baked Beans. 

Those who object to baked beans on account of the pork 
commonly used will find it a good way to substitute corned 
beef for the pork. 

Corned Pork. 

Take a leg weighing six or eight pounds, or a part of a 
large leg, put it for a week or ten days in strong salt and 
water. Before boiling it, lay it for an hour in cold water, 
then boil it gently two and a half or three hours. Skim it 
several times. To give it a delicate appearance, boil it in a 
nice floured cloth. Best eaten cold. 

To make Sausages. 

A common fault is, that the meat is not chopped enough. It 
should be chopped very fine, and this is most easily done if it is 
a little frozen. When ready for the seasoning, put in just cold 
water enough to enable you to mix the ingredients equally ; 
but be careful not to use more than is neessary for this pur- 
pose. 

The following excellent rule for seasoning sausages ,is fur- 
nished by the same person whose receipt for curing hams I 
have been allowed to copy. 

To twelve pounds and a half of meat put a gill of fine salt, a 
large gill of powdered sage, and half a gill of ground pepper 
Let the measures be exact. 



HOW TO SALT SHAD TO KEEP A YEAR. 195 

Some persons find it most convenient to keep sausage meat 
in a cloth. It is done by making a long bag of strong cotton 
cloth, of such a size that, when filled, it will be as large round 
as a common half pint mug. It should be crowded full, and 
each end tied up. If you have not a sausage-filler, it can be 
filled with the hand. Sew up only a quarter of a yard, then fill 
it tight, so far ; then sew another quarter, and fill it, and so on 
until you reach the end. When the meat is to be used, open 
one end, rip up the seam a little way, and cut off slices rather 
more than an inch thick, and fry them. It may be kept good 
from December to March, in a cold, dry place. Dip the bag in 
strong salt and water, and dry it, before filling it. 

How to salt Shad to keep a Year. 

Procure those which are just caught ; soak them an hour or 
two in a plenty of water, in order that the scales may be easily 
taken off. Take care to remove them all. Cut off the heads 
and open them down the back. When you have taken out all 
the refuse parts, remove the greatest part of the spine, as the 
fish will be more sure to keep sweet. A sharp knife is indis- 
pensable. Lay them in fresh water with a good deal of salt in 
it for an hour or two, in order to extract the blood. Then take 
them out, and sprinkle them plentifully with fine salt, taking 
care that it touches all the ends and edges. If most convenient, 
let them lie over night. In the morning, mingle an ounce of 
saltpetre and a pound of sugar with a peck of coarse-fine salt, 
and put a layer of salt, and a layer of fish (the skin being down), 
into the firkin. A peck of salt will cure twenty-five shad. 

To try Lard. 

The fat should not be suffered to stand long without being 
tried, because, even in cold weather, some parts of it may soon 
become musty, and nothing can then restore its sweetness. Re- 
move all the lean bits, as they will adhere to the kettle, and 
cause the fat to burn. Cut it into pieces a little more than an 
inch square, and take care to have them nearly of a size. Put 



196 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

a little water into the kettle, and keep a steady, good fire, with- 
out much blaze, and stir the fat often. Attention to the kettle 
and the fire will be necessary, through the process. It will re- 
quire three hours to do it. When the fat no longer bubbles, but 
is still, it is done enough. It is best to squeeze it through a tow 
cloth bag, made by folding half a square in such a way that 
the corner will form the end, and it should be rounded off a lit- 
tle at the bottom, and the seam made exactly as directed for a 
pudding-bag. Two pieces of wood fastened together, somewhat 
like a lemon-squeezer, will facilitate the process of straining it. 
Strain all that flows off without much pressure into one jar, and 
that w r hich is extracted last, into another. There is no advan- 
tage in putting salt into lard. It does not mingle with it, as 
appears by its being always found at the bottom of the kettle, 
undissolved. Stone jars are best for keeping lard, but potter's 
ware does very well. It should stand in a cold place, arid in 
warm weather, a fire-place with a close board, in a cool room, is 
a very good place to keep it. 

Scraps are a favorite dish with many persons. Put salt, pep- 
per, and pulverized sage to them, while they are still warm, 
break them small, and stir them well that the seasoning may be 
equally distributed. 

TOMATOES. 

Stewed. 

Scald them in order to remove the skins. Cat them up 
and put them into a saucepan, with a little salt, a bit of butter, 
and some fine crumbs of bread or pounded cracker. Let them 
stew gently an hour ; if you like them sweet, add sugar ten 
minutes before serving. 

Ba&ed. 

Butter a dish, and when you have skinned the tomatoes lay 
them in it, whole. Sprinkle salt and sugar over them, and then 
fine crumbs of bread or pounded cracker. Bake them forty 
minutes in a dish in which they may be put upon the table. 



TOMATOES BOILED, PRESERVED, ETC. 197 

When they are half baked, dip the syrup over the top, so as 
to moisten the crumbs, and put over them a few bits of butter. 

Broiled. 

Cut them in two, and lay them skin side down upon the 
gridiron. They will not break, and will require six or seven 
minutes to cook through. When laid in the dish, add salt 
and butter, and also pepper if you prefer. May be cooked in 
a spider with a little butter. 

Like Cucumbers. 

Take fair fruit. The small kind, called love-apples, are the 
best for this use. Take off the skins, slice them, sprinkle salt 
over them, add vinegar (rather less than for cucumbers), and 
put on pepper. 

Preserved. 

Having skinned them, weigh equal quantities of fruit and 
sugar. Let the tomatoes lie upon a hair sieve a little while, in 
order that some of 'the juice may drain out. Then lay them 
carefully, so as not to spoil the shape, into a stone jar, in alter- 
nate layers with the sugar. Allow one lemon for every four 
pounds of fruit, and lay slices of lemon between each layer of 
fruit. Cover the jar close, and set it in a kettle of cold water, 
where it will boil moderately, but constantly, many hours all 
day if possible. See that the water comes up high enough 
around the jar, and also that none of it boils into the top. When 
it is boiled enough, let the jar stand until the water has in a 
measure cooled, as it may be broken by being taken at once out 
of boiling water. 

Soup. 

Take two quarts of rich beef-soup ; remove the fat, and 
add an onion. Cut small, tomatoes enough to make three 
pints ; stew them until they can easily be strained through a 
sieve or colander, and add to the soup. Put in salt 
and a little pepper, and, before serving, add a tablespoonful 
of sugar. 



198 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Pickle (an excellent Condiment). 

Put eight pounds of skinned tomatoes, and four of biown 
sugar, into a preserving kettle. Stir often and see they do not 
burn. Boil them to the consistency of molasses, then add a 
quart of sharp cider-vinegar, a teaspoonful of mace, another of 
cinnamon, and half a teaspoonful of clove, and boil five min- 
utes longer. The tomatoes should be ripe. 

Stewed Tomato (to keep the year round). 

Skin and cut up the fruit, and boil it gently two hours in a 
porcelain kettle ; add nothing to it but a little salt. Have ready 
enough clean bottles to contain the quantity to be stewed. Olive 
bottles are very convenient for the purpose, but common junk 
bottles are also good. Provide a tunnel, good corks, a coarse 
towel, a hammer, and a tin dish containing equal parts of rosin 
and shoemaker's wax. After two hours' boiling, set the kettle 
off; have the bottles ready warmed by standing near the fire so 
that heat will not crack them; put hot water into three or four at 
a time, shake it about, and drain it out ; then fill the bottles 
with the hot tomato nearly far enough to meet the cork. If it 
does not -readily go through the tunnel, push it down with a 
stick or skewer. When you have filled these, put in the corks 
and hammer them down ; take the coarse towel to protect your 
hands from the heat, and dip the mouth of the bottle into the 
melted sealing-wax. See that the cork is entirely covered by it. 
Set these aside, and do the rest in the same way. This is a con- 
venient way for those who do not own the cans now so much 
used ; and tomatoes put up thus, are as good months afterwards 
as if the fruit was just gathered- None but fresh and sound 
ones should be used. Set the bottles in a cool, dry place. 

Catsup. 

Slice the tomatoes and sprinkle them with salt. If you in. 
tend to let them stand until you have gathered several parcels, 
put in plenty of salt. After you have gathered all you intend 

* See page 124. 



TOMATOES CATSUP, PICKLED. 199 

to use, boil them gently an hour, strain them through a coarse 
sieve ; slice two good-sized onions very thin for every gallon ; 
add half a spoonful of ginger, two spoonfuls of powdered clove, 
two of allspice, and a teaspoonful of black pepper. Boil it 
twenty minutes after the spices are added. Keep it in a covered 
jar. 

This kind of catsup is specially designed to be used in soups, 
and stewed meats. 

Another Catsup (retaining the color and flavor of the Fruit). 

Skin and slice the tomatoes, and boil them an hour and a half. 
Then put to one gallon not strained, a quarter of an ounce of 
mace, the same of nutmegs and cloves, one handful of horserad- 
ish, two pods of red pepper, or a large teaspoonful of cayenne, 
and salt as you like it. Boil it away to three quarts, and then 
add a pint of wine and half a pint of vinegar. Bottle it, and 
leave the bottles open two or three days ; then cork it tight. 
Make this catsup once, and you will wish to make it every year. 

Pickled. 

Wash and weigh eight pounds of green tomatoes, chop 
them small, and pour away the liquid that flows out. Allow 
four pounds sugar, two quarts cider-vinegar, and eight onions. 
Put the vinegar to boil in a porcelain kettle with the sugar, 
stir it, and when it boils up, set it off, and let it stand a few 
minutes until you can remove the scum without wasting the 
vinegar ; then add the onions, two teaspoonfuls of salt, a table- 
spoonful each of powdered cinnamon and clove, and a grated 
nutmeg; then set it upon the fire and immediately add the 
tomatoes. When the vinegar begins to simmer press the toma- 
toes gently down. Let them boil only two or three minutes. 
Put them into covered jars; or, when cool enough, into wide- 
mouthed bottles. When the pickles are all used, the vinegar 
need not be lost, as it is excellent upon baked beans, and cold 
salt meat. 



200 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

SALADS. 

To Dress Lettuce. 

Get that in which the head is hard and compact. Lay it 
on ice, or in ice-water, until nearly time to serve ; then 
break off the imperfect leaves, and throw them aside. Cut 
off the remainder of the leaves from the root, and look them 
over carefully; for lettuce is sometimes infested with green 
flies and snails. Wash them in two or three waters, and then 
arrange the leaves nearest the outside, in the bottom of a 
salad or other deep dish ; next the more crisp and tender 
leaves, and the smallest upon the top of all. Allow two hard- 
boiled eggs for each head of lettuce. Have them ready, cold, 
to slice, and lay over the lettuce. Bits of ice may be put 
in here and there. Do not let it stand in, the hot kitchen, but 
send at once to the table, and serve with* sugar, vinegar, mus- 
tard and the best salad oil. 

Drawn butter and beef gravy are excellent substitutes for 
oil. Dip from the gravy tureen upon each plate of lettuce as 
prepared at the table. 

Another Way. 

Prepare a head of lettuce as above, but cut each leaf in 
several pieces before putting in the dish. Make a dressing 
beforehand as follows : Take a small cup of vinegar, half 
a cnp of oil or melted butter, a little made mustard, the 
yolk of a hard-boiled egg mashed fine, and mixed with the 
beaten yolk of a raw egg ; also a small pinch of salt and a 
spoonful of spft brown sugar. Mix the egg first ; then add 
the oil or butter, the sugar and salt ; and, after stirring these 
a few minutes, put in the vinegar, and pour the dressing over 
the lettuce just before you serve it. If allowed to stand in the 
dressing some time, it will not be crisp. Add more vinegar 
and oil to suit your taste. The egg is not necessary, but is 
preferred by many persons. You may also dress lettuce with 
sweetened vinegar only. 



/ / 




SUL^ 



f 











, , 





LOBSTER SALAD. SALMON SALAD, ETC. 201 

The French use more oil than we; but it is of a better 
.quality, having a peculiarly fresh, agreeable flavor. They cut 
and dress their salad very much as directed just above, and 
often place it around the edge of a platter of meat. They 
consider no dinner complete without salad, and have some 
delicate and pretty varieties not grown in this country. 

Lobster Salad ( to serve at supper). 

Cut very small the meat of one good-sized lobster. (The 
hen lobsters are best for salad, because they contain the red 
meat, called " coral," which is desirable for garnishing.) Put 
it in a salad dish, reserving the coral for ornamenting the 
salad. Make a dressing as follows : Beat the yolks of two 
raw eggs with the yolks of two eggs boiled hard, and mashed 
fine as possible. Add gradually a tablespoonful of made 
. mustard, three of melted butter or the best of salad oil, a lit- 
tle salt and pepper (either black or Cayenne), and vinegar to 
your taste. Beat the mixture a long time. Use more or less 
oil as you prefer. Some persons like the addition of lemon- 
juice and a little brown sugar. Increase the quantity of 
dressing, as you may find necessary, according to the size of 
the lobster. 

Just before serving, take one or two good heads of lettuce 
which have been on the ice for several hours, and cut up very 
small the crisp inside leaves only. Put them over the lobster- 
meat in the salad dish, first pouring over the lobster some of 
the dressing. Pour the remainder of the dressing over the 
salad ; garnish with the coral cut fine, the white of the two 
hard-boiled eggs cut in rings, and two others boiled hard, and 
sliced. The salad is then ready to serve. 

Lobster Salad ( for tne dinner-table). 

Put the meat of the lobster on a platter, pouring over it a 
part of the dressing, made as directed above. Cut each of 
the lettuce-leaves in three or four pieces, roll them in the re- 
mainder of the dressing, and place them around the lobster. 
Sometimes lobster salad at dinner is considered a course, and 



202 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

should be served with rolls and butter, after the poultry and 
meat are removed. 

Salmon Salad.* 

Take a pound, or less, of boiled salmon. While warm, re- 
move the skin, and as many bones as you can without break- 
ing the fish. Lay it in a deep dish. Put a few cloves in and 
around it ; sprinkle salt and pepper over ; cover with cold vine- 
gar, and let it stand for a day or two ; then take it from the 
vinegar, and lay it on a platter. Prepare a dressing as for 
lobster, covering the salmon thickly with a part of it. Roll 
the crisp inside leaves of lettuce, cut in two or three pieces, 
in the remainder, and place around the salmon, and serve. 
Like lobster salad, it may be a course^at dinner, and is a hand- 
some dish for the supper-table. 

A Superior Salad Dressing. 

Beat the yolks of eight eggs, and add to them a cup of 
sugar, a tablespoonful each of salt, mustard, and black pep- 
per, also a little Cayenne pepper and half a cup of cream. 
Mix thoroughly. Boil a cup of butter in one pint and a half 
of vinegar. Pour this upon the mixture, and stir well. 
When cold, put it in bottles. This dressing will keep for 
weeks in the hottest weather. 

Role Slau. 

Lay a hard head of white cabbage in cold water for several 
hours. Drain it well from the water, then shave it very fine 
with a sharp knife. Put it in a deep dish, and pour vinegar 
over, and sprinkle with pepper; or serve with salad dress- 
ing. This is a good substitute for salad in the winter season. 

A Sauce for Lobster. 

Mash the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs ; add the tomally, 
a teaspoonful of made mustard, half a cup of butter, melted, 
vinegar, salt, and pepper to taste. 

* For Chicken Salad, see page 162. 



ON COOKING VEGETABLES. 203 



ON COOKING VEGETABLES. 

AFTER being well washed, they should be laid in water, ex- 
cepting corn and peas, which should be husked and shelled with 
clean hands, and not washed, as some of the sweetness is thereby 
extracted. Put all kinds, except peas and beans, into boiling 
water, with a little salt in it. Hard water spoils peas, and is 
not good for any vegetables ; a very little saleratus or soda will 
rectify it. Peas are much best when first gathered, and they 
should not be shelled long before boiling. If they are old, a 
salt-spoon of soda in the water will make them tender. Aspar- 
agus should not be cut so far below the surface of the ground as 
it usually is for market ; the white end never boils tender 
Sweet potatoes require a third longer time to cook than the 
common ones. 

Greens, lettuce, and cucumbers should be gathered before the 
dew is off in the morning, and p.nt into fresh water. All these, 
with peas, beans, and asparagus, are unhealthful after they are 
withered. 

To Boil Potatoes. 

The best potatoes are good boiled without paring, but even 
they, are best pared ; and poor potatoes are unfit to eat, boiled 
with the skins on. New potatoes are made watery by being 
laid in water, but late in the winter and in the spring they should 
be pared and laid in cold water an hour or two before they are 
cooked. Put them into boiling water, with salt in it, and allow 
thirty or forty minutes for boiling, according to the size. When 
they are done through, pour off the water, and take the kettle 
to the door or window, and shake them. Doing this in the 
open air makes them mealy ; return them to the fire a minute 
or two, and then serve. Many persons take a fork and break 
them up in the kettle, before taking them up, and they make a 
beautiful looking dish done in this way. 



204 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Potatoes require nearly an hour to bake in a cooking stove 
or range. 

Mashed Potatoes. 

Boil them according to the directions in the preceding receipt, 
allowing twenty minutes more time before dinner, than if they 
were to be put on the table whole. When they are dried, set 
off the kettle and mash them in it with a wooden pestle. This is 
better than to take them into a pan, as they will keep hot in the 
kettle. Have ready a gill or two of hot milk or cream ; if you 
use milk, put a small piece of butter into it. Sprinkle salt into 
the -potato and mash it till it is perfectly fine ; then pour in the 
hot milk and mix it thoroughly. The more it is wrought with 
the pestle, the whiter it becomes. Put it into the dish for the 
table, smooth the top into proper shape, and set it into the stove 
to brown. To prepare it in the nicest manner, beat the yolk of 
an egg and spread over the top before putting it into the 
stove. If you do not care to take all this trouble, it is very 
good without being browned. 

Potatoe Balls. 

Mash boiled potatoes fine, stir into them the yolk of an egg, 
and make them into balls ; then dip them into a beaten egg, roll 
them in cracker crumbs, and brown them in a quick oven ; or, 
fry them in a small quantity of nice drippings, and in that case 
flatten them so that they can be easily turned, and browned 
both sides. 

Old Potatoes. 

"When potatoes are poor, as they often are in the spring, 
pare, soak, and boil them as directed in the first receipt. Then 
take two together in a coarse cloth, squeeze and wring them. 

Potatoes Fried Whole. 

Boil them till nearly done ; then brown in pork-fat, turn- 
ing often. Or roll them in flour, then dip in a beaten egg 
and fine crumbs, and fry in as much lard or beef-drippings as 



TO FRY POTATOES. 205 

you would doughnuts. Potatoes may be fried whole without 
previous cooking, but will require nearly as much time as 
boiled potatoes. 

To Fry Potatoes. 

Pare and slice very thin raw potatoes. Some persons cut 
them around and around, like an apple-paring. Have ready, 
heated, the fat of baked ham, pork-fat, or lard. The fire 
should not be so hot as to scorch the fat. Stir the potatoes 
occasionally until brown; then drain from the fat, sprinkle 
salt over, and lay them in a well heated dish. A hot dish is 
Indispensable in serving potatoes. 

Chopped Potatoes, fried. 

Chop cold boiled potatoes ; have a slice or two of pork fried 
crisp in a spider ; then take it out, and put in the potato and 
brown it. 

Cold Potatoes, 

Never throw away cold potatoes. Cold boiled potatoes are 
best to fry, and require less time than raw ones ; but they 
should be sliced thicker. "Skin baked potatoes while yet| 
warm. These are excellent for meat-hashes, or to heat in 
milk. It is also a nice way to chop them fine, sprinkle with 
salt, and fry in pork-fat or butter. Press the mass down in 
the spider ; let it remain till heated through, and the lower 
surface is browned ; or stir occasionally with a fork till su 
ficiently heated and browned. 

Potatoes Broiled. 

Slice cold boiled potatoes half an inch thick, and brown on 
a wire gridiron. Season with salt, butter, and pepper. 

Potatoes Heated in Milk. 

To make a very good dish for breakfast, cut cold potatoes 
quite small, and put them into a saucepan or spider, with milk 
enough almost, but not entirely, to cover them. When the 



206 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

milk becomes hot, stir and mash the potatoes with a large spoon 
until there are no lumps. Add salt, and a small bit of butter, 
stir it often, until it is as dry as you wish to have it. It is a 
nicer dish, when prepared with so much milk that a good deal 
of stirring is necessary to make it dry, than if done in but a 
small quantity. 

Potatoes and Ham. 

Fry a slice of ham ; lay it upon a heated platter, and set 
where it will keep hot. In the fat fry cold potatoes, sliced, 
and when brown, arrange them on the dish around the ham. 

Always save the fat of baked or fried ham. None is so 
good in which to fry potatoes. 

Potatoes Lyonaise. 

Boil in water just to cover them seven potatoes ; then slice^ 
sprinkle with salt, and fry them. Slice also half an onion, 
and fry brown. When cooked sufficiently, add a few drops of 
vinegar ; mix the onion with the potato, and serve very hot. 

Sweet Potatoes. 

They are best baked ; are very nice boiled till tender, and 
then pared and laid into the oven to brown. They require 
more time for being cooked, than the common potatoe. Cold 
sweet potatoes are excellent sliced and browned on the grid- 
dle. When one side is done, sprinkle salt over before turn- 
ing them. 

Mashed Turnips. 

Boil them in salt and water, at least an hour and a half, un- 
less they are of early growth. Take them from the kettle into 
a deep dish, press them a little and pour off the water ; mash 
them like potatoes, but use no milk, as they are moist enough. 
Add salt and a little butter. 

It is a very nice way to put an equal number of potatoes and 
turnips together, and mash them until they are thoroughly mixed. 
This is a favorite dish among the Dutch in the State of New 
York. 



SHELLED BEANS, PEAS, ASPARAGUS. 207 

Shelled Beans. 

Put them into cold soft water, just enough to cover them. 
Boil them from an hour to an hour and a quarter. Some kinds 
are more easily boiled than others. Do not put in salt until 
they are nearly done, as its tendency is to make them hard. 
Take them up with a skimmer and butter them. 

String Beans. 

Beans should never be used in this way after the pod has 
become old enough to have a string, or tough fibre upon it. 
Cut off each end, and cut them up small. Boil them in as 
little water as will keep them from burning. Just before you 
take them up, add salt and butter, and dredge in a little flour. 
They should have only as much liquor in them as you wish to 
take up in the dish, else the sweetness is wasted. String beans 
and peas are good boiled together. 



If peas are young and fresh (and none others are good), 
they will boil in half an hour or thirty-five minutes. They 
shoujd be put into cold water, without salt. The same quan- 
tity should be used as for string beans, and for the same 
reason. When they are tender, add salt and butter. It is an 
improvement to boil a single small slice of pork in them. It 
need not be laid into the dish, and the same slice will do for an- 
other boiling. 

Asparagus. 

Wash it, trim off the white ends, and tie it up in bunches 
with a twine or a strip of old cotton. Throw them into boiling 
water with salt in it. Boil twenty-five minutes or half an hour. 
Have ready two or three slices of toasted bread, dip them in the 
water and lay them in the dish. Spread them with butter and 
lay the bunches of asparagus upon the toast. Cut the strings 
with a scissors and draw them out without breaking the stalks ; 
lay thin shavings of butter over the asparagus, and send it to 
the table. 



208 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Radishes. 

A little while before using, lay them upon ice, or put them 
in cold water. To prepare them for the table, cut off the 
leaves ; then scrape them, and put them into a tumbler, or 
other glass suitable, with ice-water. Serve with salt, or pep- 
per and vinegar. 

Mushrooms. 

Choose such as are young, having red gills ; cut off the 
part of the stalk which grew in the earth ; wash them, remove 
the skin from the top, stew them with some salt in a little water, 
and when tender add butter, into which you have rubbed 
browned flour. They are good fried on a griddle. 

Artichokes. 

Trim them, wash thoroughly, and lay into cold water for 
several hours. Then put them into boiling water, and boil 
three-quarters of an hour, or until tender. Then stew them a 
few minutes in half a pint of milk, slightly thickened with 
flour or corn-starch, wet in cold milk, and seasoned with a bit 
of butter, a little salt and pepper. 

Artichokes are also eaten raw, and served like cucumbers, 
sliced, with salt, vinegar, and pepper. 

Fried Celery- 
Cut large stalks of celery in three pieces. Boil till tender ; 
then dip each alternately into a batter made with two eggs 
and a few spoonfuls of milk, and into fine crumbs. Pry 
brown in butter. 

Cucumbers. 

Cucumbers should be gathered while dew is yet on them, 
and put immediately into water. Half an hour before dinner, 
pare and slice them very thin, and let them lie in fresh water 
till dinner is ready ; then drain them, lay them into a dish, 
sprinkle them with salt, pour on the vinegar, and add the pep- 
per last. 



MACARONI, PARSNIPS, CARROTS, BEETS. 209 

Macaroni ( to serve with roast beef, venison, and poultry). 

Procure that which looks white and clean, and is free from 
insects. Break into pieces two inches long, enough macaroni 
to fill a pint bowl. Wash it, and put into a saucepan with a 
pint and a half of water and a teaspoonful of salt! Boil slowly 
half an hour ; then add a cup of milk and a small piece of but- 
ter, and boil fifteen minutes more. Place it in a small pud- 
ding-dish, buttered. Half fill the dish, and scatter over cheese 
cut fine. Add the remainder of the macaroni, and upon the 
top put shavings of cheese and a few bits of butter. Brown 
in a quick oven. It will require about half an hour. 

A simpler way is, to boil macaroni as above, stir in a bit of 
butter, also a little cheese, and then serve as a vegetable. 

Parsnips. 

Those that have remained in the ground till March, are usu- 
ally very nice. Boil them three quarters of an hour, and cook 
enough for two days. Scrape the outside, split them, and lay 
them on a dish with a little butter, salt, and pepper. Take 
those that are left the next day, and lay them on a hot griddle 
or spider, with a little butter, ham fat, or nice drippings, and 
brown them. These are better than on the first day. They 
will brown well when first boiled, but not so quickly. 

Carrots. 

These are not considered by most people very good ; but 
they are so in broth and soup. To eat with meat they should 
be boiled three quarters of an hour, if fresh from the garden ; 
in the winter, an hour and a half. They make very good pies 
after the fashion of pumpkin or squash ; but they must be boiled 
very tender, and in a good deal of water, else a strong taste 
will pervade the pies. 

Beets. 

When they are washed the little fibres and ragged excres- 
cences should not be broken oif, as the juices of the root will 



210 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Urns be lost. Young beets boil in an hour; but in the winter 
they require from two to three hours. When tender, put them 
for a minute or two into cold water, take them in your hands 
and slip the skins off. This is a much easier and better way 
than to remove the skin with a knife. Lay them into a dish r 
cut them several times through, sprinkle them with salt and 
pepper, add a little butter, and, if you choose, vinegar also. It 
is a very good way to cut up all that remain after dinner, put on 
salt and vinegar, and set them aside to be used cold another day. 

Salsify, or Oyster Plant 

Wash and scrape it very thoroughly, and put it in boiling 
water with salt in it. When tender, cut it in slices and fry it 
in hot fat, in a batter made of an egg, milk, flour, and salt. It 
is very nice, also, dipped in bread-crumbs moistened with a 
beaten egg, and browned on a griddle. 

Summer Squash. 

If the rind is tender, boil it whole, in a little bag kept for the 
purpose. It should be put into boiling water ; three quarters of 
an hour is long enough to cook it. Take the bag into a pan 
and press it with the edge of a plate or with a ladle, until the 
water is out ; then turn the squash out into a dish, add salt and 
butter, and smooth over the top. 

Winter Squash, 

Cut it up and take out the inside. Pare the pieces, and stew 
them in as little water as possible. If you have a tin with holes 
in it, which will fit the kettle and keep the squash from 
touching the water, it is the nicest way to steam it. Be 
careful it does not burn. It will cook in an hour. Mash it 
in a dish, or, if it i& watery, squeeze it in a coarse cloth like 
summer squash. Stir in butter and salt. Lay it into the dish, 
smooth the top, and, if you like, pepper it. 



ONIONS, SPINAGE, GREENS, CABBAGE. 211 

Onions. 

Boil them twenty minutes, and pour off the water entirely ; 
then put in equal parts of hot water and milk, or skimmed milk 
alone, and boil them twenty minutes more. When they are 
done through, take them up with a skimmer, let them drain a 
little, and lay them into the dish. Put on butter, pepper, and 
salt. 

Spinage. 

Put it into a net, or a bag of coarse muslin, kept for the pur- 
pose, and boil it in a plenty of water with salt in it, half an 
hour. All kinds of greens should be boiled in plenty of 
water, else they will be bitter. 

One method of serving spinage is, to press it between two 
plates, then put it into a saucepan with a small bit of butter, 
salt, and a little cream, and boil it up. Another is to drain it 
thoroughly, lay it in the dish, put upon the top hard boiled eggs, 
sliced, and pour melted butter over it. 

Greens. 

Cabbage plants, turnip or mustard tops, the roots and tops of 
young beets, cowslips, dandelions, and various other things, 
make a good dish in the spring. When boiled enough, they 
will sink to the bottom of the kettle. Some require an hour, 
and others less time. Turnip-tops will be boiled enough in 
Iwenty minutes. Remember to put salt into the water, unless 
you boil a piece of \)ork with them. 

Cabbage. 

Remove the waste leaves, and divide the stump end as far as 
the centre of the cabbage. It is good boiled with salt meat ; 
but if cooked by itself, salt should be added to the water. Cab- 
bage should be put into boiling water, be well skimmed, and 
boil an hour or hour and a half, according to the size. 



212 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Cauliflowers. 

Laj them an hour or two in cold salt and water ; remove 
the outside leaves and boil them half an hour in milk and 
water. If they are strong, pour off the water when they are 
half done, and put fresh boiling water to them. Brocoli is 
cooked in the same manner, and should be laid on toast exactly 
like asparagus. 

Egg Plant. 

Cut in slices half an inch, or less, in thickness. Put them 
in salt and water for an hour. Dip them in beaten egg, then 
in Indian meal, or fine cracker crumbs, and fry until tender 
and brown. One plant is sufficient for a small family. 

Boiled Corn. 

Put the ears into boiling water, with salt in it, and boil them 
half an hour. 

Corn Soup. 

Cut the corn off the cob, and boil the cobs half an hour in the 
water ; then take them out, put in the corn and boil it twenty 
minutes or half an hour. If there is a quart of the corn and 
water, add a pint of new milk, with salt, pepper, and one or two 
beaten eggs. Continue the boiling a few minutes, and thicken 
it a little with flour. 

Succotash. 

Cut off the corn from the cobs, and, an hour and a half be- 
fore dinner, put the cobs, with a few shelled beans, into cold 
water to boil. After one hour take out the cobs, put in tho 
corn and boil it half an hour. There should be no more water 
than will be necessary to make the succotash of the right thick- 
ness ; as having too much occasions a loss of the richness im- 
parted by the cobs. When you take it up, add a small piece of 
butter. This is much better than to boil the corn on the cob 
and then cut it off. 











d & 

l&$, 



\j 








PICKLES CUCUMBERS. 213 

It is a very good way, when a family are tired of fresh meat 
in hot weather, to boil a piece of pork in another pot until the 
grossest fat has boiled out, and then put it with the succotash 
for the remainder of the time. It gives a very good flavor to 
the corn, and makes an excellent dinner. 

Corn Oysters. 

Grate young, sweet corn into a dish, and to a pint add one 
egg, well beaten, a small teacup of flour, half a gill of cream, 
and a teaspoonful of salt. Mix it well together. Fry it exactly 
like oysters, dropping it into the fat by spoonfuls about the size 
of an oyster. 



PICKLES AND CONDIMENTS. 

PICKLES should never be kept in potter's ware, as arsenic 
and other poisonous substances are used in the glazing ; and 
this is sometimes decomposed by vinegar. Whole families have 
been poisoned in this way ; and where fatal effects do not follow, 
a deleterious influence may be operating upon the health, from 
this cause, when it is not suspected. Pickles should be made 
with cider vinegar. 

Cucumbers. 

Wash and drain them in a sieve, but take care not to break 
the little prickles upon them, as the effect will be to make them 
soft. Lay them in a jar, pour boiling vinegar upon them and 
cover them close. The next time you gather any, take those 
from the jar, and put them into that in which they are to be 
kept, in fresh vinegar having a very little salt in it, and a 
small bag oi spices. Take the vinegar from the first jar, boil it 
again, pour it upon the fresh* cucumbers, and transfer them like 
the first to the larger jar, the next time you have a new quun- 



214 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

tity to boil. When you have gathered all you wish for, put a 
brass or bell-metal kettle * over the fire, with the vinegar in it 
which you have so often boiled, and add a little more to it, 
no matter if it is not sharp. Lay in your pickles and scald 
them a few minutes. Take them out with a large skimmer, 
draining them, and lay them back into the jar of spiced vinegar. 
Look at them occasionally ; they may need a little more vinegar. 
Keep them covered close. 



Select small musk-melons (the common kind are much better 
for this purpose than cantelopes) ; cut an oval piece out of one 
side. You must have a sharp knife, and be careful to make a 
smooth incision. Take out the seeds with a teaspoon. Fill the 
melons with a stuffing made of cloves, mustard-seed, pepper- 
corns, scrapings of horseradish, and chopped onion if you like 
it. Sew on the piece with a needle and coarse thread, or bind 
a strip of old cotton around each one and sew it. Lay them in 
a jar, and pour boiling vinegar on them with a little salt in it. 
Do it two or three times, then lay them in fresh vinegar and 
cover them close. 

Peaches. 

Select ripe, but not soft, peaches. For a half a peck, allow 
three pounds of granulated sugar and a pint of vinegar. 
Boil the sugar and vinegar together twenty minutes. Put 
the peaches into hot water for an instant, and, on taking them 
out, rub the fur off with a coarse towel. Put them into the 
boiling vinegar, and boil till tender. Put them in jars or 
wide-mouthed bottles. Boil eight or ten cloves in the vinegar ; 
then pour it on the peaches, not so hot as to break the jars. 



* A kettle lined with porcelain is better than any other for cooking acids. 
Brass or bell-metal should be thoroughly scoured immediately before it is 
used for these purposes. 







V 



PICKLES NASTURTIONS, ONIONS, ETC" 215 

Nasturtiums. 

Gather the seeds while green, let them lie a few days, then 
throw them into vinegar. They need no spice except a little 
salt, being themselves sufficiently spicy. Boil the vinegar and 
pour on them. They are considered by many persons better 
than capers, and are much like them. They should be kept six 
months, covered close, before they are used. 

Onions. 

Select as many small silver onions as a quart of water will 
cover. Boil in this a short time half a cup of salt, and pour 
over the onions. Let them remain twenty-four hours closely 
covered ; then place them between dry cloths. When cold, 
put them into a stone jar, and pour over enough hot vinegar 
to cover ; having first boiled the vinegar with two or three 
bits of white ginger-root and half a teaspoonful of white pep- 
per. Cover tight. 

Peppers. 

Take fresh, hard peppers, soak them in salt and water nine 
days, changing the brine each day. Let them stand in a 
warm place. Then put them into cold vinegar. If you wish 
them very hot, leave in the seeds. If not, take out the seeds 
of the .greatest part of them. If peppers are put into the 
same jar with cucumbers, the entire strength of them will go 
into the cucumbers, and they themselves will become nearly 
tasteless. Half a dozen peppers will improve a jar of cucum- 
bers. 

Butternuts. 

Gather them between the twenty-fifth and thirtieth of June. 
Make a brine of boiled salt and water, strong enpugh to bear 
up an egg after if is cold. Skim it while it boils. Pour it 
on the nuts, and let them lie in it twelve days. Then drain 
them ; lay them in a jar, and pour over them the best of cider 
vinegar, boiled with pepper-corns, cloves, allspice, mustard, 
ginger, mace, and horseradish. This should be cooled before it 



216 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

is poured on. Cover close, and keep them a year before us,, 
ing them. Walnuts are done in the same way. The vinegar 
becomes an excellent catsup, by many persons preferred to any 
other. 

Martinias. 

Gather them when they are rather small, and so tende^ that 
you can run the head of a pin into them. Wipe off the down 
and put them into a cold, weak brine. Keep them in brine nine 
days, changing it every other day. Make a pickle of vinegar, 
allspice, cloves, mace, nutmegs, and cinnamon. Take the martin- 
ias out of the brine, wipe them, and lay them into a stone jar ; 
pour the mixture of vinegar and spice, boiling hot, over them ; 
cover them close, and let them stand one month, and they will 
be fit for use. There can be no finer pickle than this, and the 
plant is so prolific, that half a dozen seeds will produce enough 
to fill a large jar. , 

Tomatoes. 

See page 199. 

Plums, Currants, Cherries, or Tomatoes. 

Four quarts of cider vinegar, five pounds of sugar, a quarter 
of a pound of cinnamon, and two ounces of clove, to" seven 
pounds of fruit. Scald the vinegar and sugar together, and 
take off the scum ; add the spices and boil it up again, and pour 
it immediately upon the fruit. Scald the vinegar twice more 
at intervals of three or four days, and cover the jar close after it 
is poured in. 

A less expensive way is found to be very good. Put four 
pounds of sugar to eight of fruit, half the quantity of spice, a 
spoonful of salt, and one also^of powdered allspice. 

Sterling Pickle, 

Chop two heads of cabbage, a pint of onions, and one 
dozen peppers ; mix, sprinkle with salt, and drain on a hair 




I) U i^ Jt X^^^^c, 0^2~ 
^ s 




PICKLES PICCALILLI, CAULIFLOWER, ETC. 217 

sieve over night. Mix four ounces each of mustard and 
mustard-seed with two ounces of celery-seed. In the morn- 
ing put into a jar alternate layers of the mixture and the 
spice. Four over cold vinegar. Cover closely. 

Piccalilli (of all kinds of pickles). 

Mix tomatoes, chopped and drained, with chopped onions, 
red and green peppers, horse-radish, &c., as you like. Add 
spices, salt, sugar, and a little curry-powder. Cover with 
vinegar. Boil an hour. 

Cauliflower. 

Cut a large cauliflower in several pieces. Put them into 
cold water with two tablespoonfuls of salt. Let the water 
heat gradually. Boil the cauliflower ten minutes ; then drain 
them on cloths or a hair sieve until perfectly dry, and place 
them in a glass jar. Boil a teaspoonful of cloves and two of 
mustard-seed in one quart of vinegar for a few minutes. 
When cool, pour this over the cauliflower. The vinegar 
should cover. 

Red Cabbage. 

To two heads red cabbage, chopped fine, put twelve pep- 
pers, also chopped line. To a gallon of the mixture add one 
tablespoonful each of cloves and ground cinnamon, two of 
salt, half a cup of fine black mustard-seed, and a few pepper- 
corns. Mix well, lay it in a stone jar, and pour over enough 
boiling vinegar to cover. Keep in a cool place. Pieces of 
cauliflower put in with the cabbage become of a fine color. 

Chow-Chow. 

Chop a peck of green tomatoes ; sprinkle over them a 
large cup of salt. Let them stand twelve hours ; then drain 
off the water, and mix with them six green peppers, six 
onions, and six or eight large stalks of celery, all chopped 
fine. Mix, also, with two pounds of sugar, the following 
spices : two tablespoonfuls of ground mustard, four of fine 
black mustard-seed, one each of peppercorns, whole cloves, 



218 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

ground cinnamon, and mace, and half a spoonful of ground 
pepper. Put a layer of the chopped mixture in a preserving- 
kettle ; then scatter over some of the sugar and spice, and so 
on alternately. Cover with vinegar, and let it simmer two 
hours. 

Chili Sauce. 

Peel and chop twelve large ripe tomatoes. Add two peppers 
and two onions, chopped, two tablespoonfuls of salt, two of 
sugar, one of vinegar, one of cinnamon. Boil one hour. 

Currant Catsup. 

Mix five pounds of ripe currants with four of sugar, two 
teaspoonfuls of cloves, pounded fine, and two of ground cin- 
namon. Boil two hours ; then add a pint of vinegar. Boil 
up once, and remove from the fire. 

Damsons. 

Boil five pounds of sugar in a pint of vinegar for a few 
minutes. Skim ; then add a peck of damsons with two table- 
spoonfuls of ground cinnamon and one of whole cloves. Boil 
gently three hours, stirring frequently. 

To select Mushrooms. 

Gather none that grow near trees, that have a rank smell, 
or a yellow skin : all such are poisonous. Good mushrooms 
are small at first, white, and grow rapidly on a slender white 
stalk. On the flaps beneath, a bright flesh-colored fringe ap- 
pears. 

Mushrooms (an English receipt). 

Hub the buttons of young mushrooms with flannel. Take 
out thj| red inside. Put them in a saucepan with bits of 
mace, and sprinkle with salt and black pepper. As the liquor 
comes out, shake them well. Let them simmer till nearly dry ; 

then cover with vinegar, boil up once. They are delicious, 

and keep well. 

Mushrooms are sometimes dried to use when out of season. 
Dry them in a moderate oven, and keep them in paper-bags. 
When used, simmer them in gravy. They will swell to nearly 
their original size. 



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TEA, COFFEE, CHOCOLATE, COCOA, ETC. 219 



TEA, COFFEE, CHOCOLATE, COCOA, ETC. 

Tea. 

SEE that the water boils. Scald the pot, and put in a tea- 
spoonful for each person. Upon green tea, pour a little water, 
and allow it to stand two or three minutes where it will keep 
hot ; then fill the pot from the teakettle. Green tea should 
never be boiled, a'nd it is rendered dead by being steeped 
long. 

Of black tea the same measure is used ; the pot being filled 
up at first, and set immediately upon the stove, just long enough 
to boil up once. Water should be added to the teapot from the 
teakettle ; never from the water pot, as in that case it cannot 
be boiling hot. Black and green tea are good mixed. If tea 
is made from a boiling urn at the table, which is, on several 
accounts, a very good practice, make black tea in the same way 
as green. 

To roast Coffee. 

As this must be done well in order to have good coffee, direc- 
tions for it may not be amiss. There are often little stones in 
coffee, of the same color with it ; therefore, pick it over care- 
fully. If you have no coffee-roaster, put it into a round-bot- 
tomed, iron kettle, and let it be where it will be hot an hour or 
two without burning ; then put it where it will brown, and stir 
it constantly until it is done. If it is left half a minute, the 
kernels next to the kettle may be burnt black, and this is 
enough to injure all the rest. It should be a dark, rich brown 
but not black. Before taking it up, stir in a piece of butter the 
size of a small nut. Put it, while steaming hot, into a box with 
a close cover. 

In a small family, not more than two pounds should be roasted 
at once, as it loses its freshness by being roasted long before 
n.^e. For the same reason it shpuld be ground as it is wanted. 
The practice of grinding up a quantity for two or three weeks, 



220 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

is a poor one. The best kinds are the Java and the Mocha , 
and it is considered an improvement to mix the two. West 
India coffee, though of a different flavor, is often very good. 

To make Coffee. 

Put a coffee-cupful into a pot that will hold three pints of 
water; add the white of an egg, or two or three clean eggshells, 
or a well cleansed and dried bit of fish-skin of the size of a 
ninepence. Pour upon it boiling water, and boil it ten minutes. 
Then pour out a little from the spout, in order to remove the 
grains that may have boiled into it, and pour it back into the 
pot. Let it stand eight or ten minutes where it will keep hot, 
but not boil ; boiling coffee a great while makes it strong, but 
not so lively or agreeable. If you have no cream, boil a sauce- 
pan of milk, and after pouring it into the pitcher, stir it now 
and then till the breakfast is ready, that the cream may not 
separate from the milk. 

If you use a coffee-biggin, let the coffee be ground very fine 
and packed tight in the strainer ; pour on boiling water, stop 
the spout of the pot, shut the lid close, and place it upon a 
heater kept for the purpose. This is made at the table. 

CofFee Milk. 

Put a dessert spoonful of ground coffee into a pint of milk ; 
boil it a quarter of an hour with a shaving or two of isinglass ; 
then let it stand ten minutes and pour it off. 

Chocolate. 

For those who use a great deal of chocolate, the following is 
an economical method. Cut a cake into small bits and put 
them into a pint of boiling water. In a few minutes set it off 
the fire and stir it well till the chocolate is dissolved ; then boil 
it again gently a few minutes, pour it into a bowl, and set it in 
a cool place. It will keep good eight or ten days. For use, 
boil a spoonful or two in a pint. of milk, with sugar. 



CHOCOLATE, SHELLS, SYRUP OF CREAM. 221 

Another. 

Shave fine an inch wide across a cake of chocolate ; pour on 
it a quart of boiling water ; boil it twenty minutes ; add milk in 
such proportion as you like, and boil it up again. 

Cocoa. 

The cracked cocoa is considered the best. Two large spoon- 
fuls put into three pints of cold water, and boiled from one to 
two hours, is a good rule to make it for four or five persons. It 
should be boiled over several times, as it is very strong. Boil 
milk for it by itself. 

To make the ground Cocoa. 

Boil two large spoonfuls in a quart of water half an hour ; 
skim off the oil, pour in three gills of milk, and boil it up again. 
It is the best way to make it the day before it is used, as the 
oily substance can be more perfectly removed when the cocoa is 
cold. 

Shells. 

Put a heaping teacupful to a quart of boiling water. Boil 
them a great while. Half an hour will do, but two or three 
hours is far better. Scald milk as for coffee. If there is not 
time to boil shells long enough before breakfast, it is well to put 
them into the water over night. 

Syrup of Cream. 

To a pint of fresh cream, put a pound and a quarter of loaf 
sugar ; boil it in an earthen pot or saucepan ; pour it into a 
jar or basin, and let it stand till it is cold ; then put it into 
phials and cork close. It will keep good for several weeks, and 
is convenient to carry to sea. 

To raise a Thick Cream. 

Put new milk into an earthen pan, and set it on a stove, or 
over clear embers till it is quite hot. Then set it aside till the 
next day, and it will produce excellent cream for coffee or fruit. 



222 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 



CONVENIENT COMMON DISHES, AND 
WAYS OF USINO REMNANTS. 

Baked Pork and Beans. 

FOR a family of six or seven, take a quart of white beans, 
wash them in several waters, and put them into two or three 
quarts over night. In the morning (when it will be easier to 
cull out the bad ones, than before they were soaked), pick them 
over, and boil them until they begin to crack open ; then put 
them into a brown pan, such as are made for the purpose. Pour 
upon them enough of the water they were boiled in almost to 
cover them. Cut the rind of about a pound of salt pork into 
narrow strips ; lay it on the top of the beans, and press it down 
so that it will lie more than half its thickness in the water. 
Bake several hours ; four or five is not too much. Where a 
brick oven is used, it is well to let beans remain in it over night. 
If they are baked in a stove, or range, more water may be 
necessary, before they are done. Good with les^ pork. 

Many persons think it a decided improvement to put in a 
large spoonful or two of molasses. It is a very good way. 

Those who object to the use of pork, can have a very good 
dish of beans, by substituting two table-spoonfuls of nice beef- 
drippings, and adding two teaspoonfuls of salt. 

To heat over baked beans, put them in a spider with a little 
water ; heat them slowly at first, and cover close. If they are 
too moist, remove the cover and stir them often. 

Salt meat and Vegetables, boiled together. 

Put in the beef first, and allow twenty-five minutes or half 
an hour for every pound. Skim the water when it begins to 
simmer. An hour and a half before the dinner-hour, put in the 
pork, well scraped and washed, and again skim off the froth. 
Wash the vegetables with special care, and allow for boiling 
turnips, carrots, and cabbage, an hour, or an hour and a quarter ; 



REMNANTS OF ROAST BEEF. 223 

for parsnips three quarters, and for potatoes, half an hour. If 
the potatoes are not pared, a small piece of the skin should be 
cut off from each end. When the dinner is served, the pot 
should be set away in a cool place, and the fat taken from the 
top the next day, and put aside for soap grease. It will not be 
good for any other use, as it will have the flavor of the vege- 
tables. 

Remnants of Hoast Beef. 

Take off with a sharp knife all the meat from the bones. If 
there are a few nice slices, reserve them, if most convenient, to 
be eaten cold. Chop the rest fine in a tray. Take cold gravy, 
without the fat, and put into a spider to heat. If you have not 
this, some of the stock, or water in which meat has been boiled. 
When it boils up, sprinkle in salt, and put in the minced meat ; 
cover it, and let it stand upon the fire long enough to heat 
thoroughly, then stir in a small piece of butter. Toast bread 
and lay in the dish and put the meat over it. The common 
error in heating over meat, sliced or minced, is the putting it 
into a cold spider, with too much fat, and cooking it a long time. 
This makes it oily and tasteless. Almost all meats, when 
cooked a second time, should be done very quick. The good- 
ness of these dishes depends much upon their being otrved hot. 

Another. 

When tomatoes are to be had, cut up several, according to 
the size of your family, and the quantity of cold meat ; put 
them into a covered saucepan or kettle. When it boils put 
in the remnants, large and small, of cold roast beef, and also of 
roast mutton and lamb, if you have them. Add half a spoonful 
of brown sugar, salt, and a small bit of butter unless you have 
cold gravy. This, with the fat taken off, is nearly as good. 
Boil it again, fast, but only long enough to heat the meat thor- 
oughly. Five minutes is enough. 



224 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Remnants of Boiled Meat 

Chop fine cold pieces of soup meat, or other boiled meat, salt 
or fresh ; then add cold potatoes, and when these are chopped 
and mixed with the meat, heat in a spider some cold soup, or 
water in which meat has been boiled. As it boils up, put in 
the meat and potatoes, add salt, and cover it close for two or 
three minutes, then stir in a small piece of butter, let it stand a 
minute or two longer and then serve in a warm dish. 

Croquettes of Beef or VeaL 

Chop cold beef fine, with an onion. Add sweet marjoram, 
salt and pepper to your taste, and enough gravy to moisten 
slightly. Make into balls, dip in beaten egg, then in fine 
crumbs or flour, and fry till brown in pork or beef fat. 

Veal croquettes are made in the same way, but omitting 
the onion, and using mace instead of sweet marjoram. 

Minced Veal. 

Chop fine the pieces left of roast veal. Heat the gravy in a 
spider, or, if you have none left, melt a piece of butter half the 
size of an egg in a gill of hot water ; stir it till it is melted lest 
it becdme oily. When it boils, put in the veal and cover it ; 
stir it two or three times in the course of eight or ten minutes ; 
season it with salt and pepper. Toast two or three slices of 
bread and lay in the dish. Put the veal upon the toast. 

Brawn. 

Boil a hock of beef, and any little pieces you may have be- 
sides, several hours. When the meat is ready to fall from the 
bones, take it out into an earthen pan, salt it, and season it with 
pepper, sage, and sweet marjoram. Put it into a coarse linen 
cloth or towel, twist it up tight and lay a weight upon it. A 
good deal of fat will thus be pressed out. When it has lain 
twenty-four hours take off the cloth. Cut thin slices for breakfast. 
It is very good, and will keep in a cool place several weeks. 
The water in which it was boiled will make excellent soup, or 
stock for gravies. 



TURKEY-HASH, CHICKEN-PATTIES, BEEF-PIE. 225 

Turkey Hash. 

A good-sized turkey will make two dinners for a small 
family, the first day hot, the next cold; then there usu- 
ally remain some good pieces, and bones which have nice 
pickings on them, also some of the dressing and gravy. A 
good breakfast dish is made by cutting up all that remains of 
the turkey, heating the gravy, with a little hot water added, 
and putting the meat, bones, stuffing, and cold sliced potatoes, 
into the boiling gravy. Heat thoroughly, and serve in a hot 
covered dish. 

Use the remnants of cold roast or boiled chickens in the 
same way. 

Chicken Patties, 

Line small patty pans with pie-crust. 'Then bake, and 
turn out on a small platter. Have ready remnants of cold 
chicken, chopped fine, mixed with a little cream, salt, and 
pepper, and quickly heated in a saucepan. Fill the patties 
with the hot chicken,- and send them to the table. 

Cold veal may be used in the same way, but with the addi- 
tion of a very little mace, powdered. 

Beef Pie. 

Cut cold roast or stewed beef in slices . Sprinkle with 
flour, pepper, and salt, and lay them in a dish that will hold 
a quart. The dish should not be quite full. Cut an onion 
fine, and spread over the meat. Boil up a little gravy, or 
water in which meat has been boiled. Thicken slightly with 
browned flour ; melt in it a small piece of butter ; and then 
pour over the meat. The gravy should not quite half fill the 
dish. Spread over, a batter of eight large potatoes, boiled, 
mashed with a little butter or cream, salt, and two beaten 
eggs. Put it over the meat about an inch thick. Bake till 
brown, which will require about half an hour. 

Instead of a cover of potatoes, you can place ripe tomatoes, 
peeled, upon the meat, and sprinkle with salt, sugar, pepper, 



226 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

crumbs, and bits of butter. In that case use less gravy, ana 
bake longer, nearly an hour. Cold lamb and mutton may 
also be used in this way. 

Pressed Veal (for lunch or tea). 

Boil a shin of veal in four quarts of water until tiie meat 
is soft enough to allow the bones to be taken out, and the 
water is nearly boiled away. Chop the meat fine ; season it 
with powdered mace, pepper, salt, and add two crackers, 
pounded and sifted, and parsley cut small. Mix well to- 
gether with the water that remains in the kettle, and put it 
all into a bowl previously wet with cold water. As you fill 
the bowl, insert here and there slices of two or three hard- 
boiled eggs. Put a plate over the bowl that will fit closely ; 
set a weight upon it, and let it stand till the next day. Cut 
in slices. 

Vegetable Hash with Dropped Eggs. 

Mince boiled salt meat fine ; then add cold boiled potatoes, 
beets, and turnips, also chopped fine. Put stock or meat-liquor 
into the spider, and when it boils stir in the minced meat and 
vegetables, a small piece of butter, pepper, and a little salt 
(not as much salt as if the meat were fresh). Put it into a 
buttered dish, and set it into the oven to brown. Drop two or 
four or more eggs, according to the number at the table, and 
lay them on the top. Sprinkle salt on the eggs, lay on them 
thin shavings of butter, and serve. 

Hashed Beef or Mutton. 

Cut the meat in very thin slices ; flour both sides ; put it 
in a deep dish ; sprinkle each layer with salt and pepper ; 
add sliced potatoes in alternate layers. When the meat and 
potatoes are all laid in the dish, put an onion in the centre, 
cut it in quarters, and stick one clove in each quarter ; then 
pour over the whole some gravy or stock which you have 
boiled up and thickened with scorched flour. Cover close 
with an old plate. Bake two hours in a moderate oven. 



HEAD-CHEESE, SOUSE, BOILED RICE. 227 

Head Cheese. 

Take the head, feet, ears, and tail of a hog, and boil them 
until every bone falls out. Then take all the meat, both fat 
and lean, and put into an earthen pan. Season it with salt, 
pepper, sage, cloves, and summer savory, or any spice and 
herbs you may prefer. Put it into a coarse cloth, twist it up, 
and lay a weight upon it. This is a favorite article of food in 
some parts of the country, and certainly it is very good. Great 
care is necessary in cleaning such giblets of pork. 

Another economical use for them is to take out all the bones, 
as for head cheese, and then return the meat to the liquor, boil 
it up, and stir in Indian meal, just as in making hasty-pudding. 
Put in considerable salt, and let it boil very moderately another 
hour and a half. Then take it up in deep dishes, and when it 
is cold cut it in slices and brown it on a griddle. A convenient 
breakfast article for laborers, but too hearty for persons of 
sedentary habits. 

Souse, 

Take off the horny parts of the feet and toes of a pig, and 
clean the feet, ears, and tail very thoroughly ; then boil them 
till the large bones slip out easily. Pack the meat into a stone 
jar, with pepper, salt, and allspice sprinkled between each layer. 
Mix some good cider vinegar with the liquor in which it was 
boiled, in the proportion of one third vinegar to two thirds 
liquor, and fill up the jar. 

To boil Rice. 

Rice should be carefully picked over, and then washed first 
in warm water, and rubbed between the hands ; then, five or 
six times in a good deal of cold water. It will not be white 
unless it is well washed. 

To cook rice as a vegetable to be eaten with meat, put a pint 
into three or four quarts of hot water, with a teaspoonful of salt 
for each quart. Boil it fast fifteen minutes, then pour off the 
water, and set it, uncovered upon the stove where it will not 



228 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

burn, to dry. Boiled in this way, the kernels are separate, and 
it is considered, by those who live in the rice growing countries, 
the best, if not the only proper way of cooking it. 

To boil rice in milk, is a very good way for families that 
keep cows, as it is thus a nice substitute for a pudding. Put a 
pint of rice into nearly two quarts of cold milk, an hour before 
dinner. Add two teaspoonfuls of salt. Boil it very slowly, 
and stir it often. It will cook on the back part of the range or 
stove, and not be liable to burn. When the supply of milk is 
small, boil rice in skimmed milk, or milk and water. It should, 
when boiled in a way to lose the distinct form of the kernels, 
be taken up in a mould, or bowl, wet in cold water, a short time 
before it is served. 

Cracked Wheat. 

Take one or two quarts, according to the size of the family, 
put it into cold water and after stirring it well, let it settle, then 
pour off the water, and add more, in the proportion of three 
quarts to a quart of wheat. Let it stand over night, and the 
next day boil it very moderately two or three hours in a tin 
pail set into a kettle of boiling water. If it becomes too 
thick, add more water. The evaporation is more rapid at some 
times than at others. It should be not quite as thick as hasty 
pudding. Take it up in dishes wet in cold water. To brown 
it for breakfast, grease a tin or dripping pan, turn the wheat out 
of the dish upon it, and set it into the stove oven. It will be- 
come heated through, and handsomely browned in half an hour 
or forty minutes, and many people like it thus, better than when 
it is first boiled. Either way it is very nutritious and healthful. 

Hasty Pudding. 

Boil in a pot or kettle about six quarts of water, leaving 
room for the addition of the meal ; mix a pint bowl full o^ 
Indian meal and cold water with a small spoonful of salt. 
When the water boils, stir this into it. After thirty or forty 
minutes, stir in four or five handfuls of dry meal, and let it boil 



HASTY-PUDDING, HOMINY. 229 

as much longer ; then add more dry meal. Taste it to see if it 
is salt enough. Stir it very often to prevent its burning. Most 
people make it too thick, and do not cook it half long enough. 
Boil it, altogether, at least two hours. When taken out, it 
should be so soft that it will in a few minutes settle down 
smooth in the dish. If you wish to fry it, put a spoonful of 
water into each deep pan or dish into which it is to be put, to 
keep it from sticking. 

Hasty Pudding fried, 

Cut cold pudding in slices the thickness of your finger, and 
lay them on the griddle. More fat will be necessary than for 
buckwheat cakes, but it fries much slower. If the fire is right 
to will be ready to turn in fifteen minutes, and will be brown. 
Turn it and let it lie about half as long as on the first side. 

This is a very good breakfast for a winter morning. It does 
very nicely to be laid in the dripping-pan, and set into a stove 
oven ; it will in that case not need turning, and of course will 
absorb less fat. It will take forty minutes to brown it in the 
stove. 

Hominy, Boiled and Fried, 

Take a pint of hominy, put cold water over it, stir, and let 
it settle; then pour off the water. Do this twice; then put 
it into a tin pudding-pan or pail, in three pints of water to 
soak over night. In the morning set the pail into a kettle of 
boiling water; add a little salt; stir it often. If it becomes 
so thick as not to stir easily, add more water. It should be 
just thick enough, when done, to settle down almost smooth 
soon, in a deep dish. Fine hominy will cook in two hours; 
the coarse requires three. Very nice eaten warm with milk. 

To fry it for breakfast, slice it about half an inch thick, 
and lay it on a griddle greased with nice beef-drippings or 
butter. It will require about fifteen minutes to brown both 
sides. The coarse does not fry as nicely as the fine. 



230 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Oat-meal Pudding (for breakfast). 

Have a pint of water in a saucepan. Wet two tablespoon- 
fuls of oat-meal in cold water, with a small teaspoonful of 
salt. Rub it smooth as you can (it will not rub smooth as 
flour), then stir it into the boiling water, and boil slowly half 
an hour. Stir it often. Should it be too thin after it has boiled 
about twenty minutes, scatter in a little more oat-meal, dry ; 
if too thick, add more water. Eat with sugar and cream. 

There is much difference in oat-meal. Be sure and get 
fresh, sweet Scotch oat-meal. 

Baked Rice. 

Wash an even cupful of rice. Butter a dish that holds a 
large quart ; put in the rice and a teaspoonful of salt ; pour 
cold milk, or, if you have not plenty, milk and. water, upon 
the rice ; then drop upon the top three or four bits of but- 
ter the size of a bean. This will prevent the top from burn- 
ing. Set the dish into a moderately-hot stove-oven an hour 
and a half before dinner. To be eaten with sugar and milk 
or cream. This is a beautiful looking dish. If it becomes 
too dry, pour a little milk over the top before taking it from 
the oven. 

Pan Pie. 

The sour apples that drop from the trees early in the autumn, 
make an excellent pan pie without being pared. The skin then 
contains much of the richness of the apple, and is often so thin, 
that when cooked, it cannot be distinguished from the pulp. 
There are few articles of diet so healthy and palatable as pan 
pie, that are prepared with so little trouble and expense. 

Where a brick oven is used, the following is a good receipt. 

Take a potters ware pan, that will hold a gallon, and fill it 
with apples, quartered and cored ; in winter pare the apples ; 
roll out a piece of light bread dough, and lay upon the top ; but- 
ter the edge of the pan to prevent the dough from sticking to 
it ; cut an opening in the crust to allow the steam to escape, 
and put it into the oven. After about two hours draw it out 
and remove the crust, sweeten it with good molasses, or, if you 



PAN PIE CRUMB CAKES. 231 

choose, coarse sugar. Some persons use both. Put in a few 
sticks of cinnamon or some allspice, and a piece of butter as 
large as a nut. Stir it up thoroughly from the bottom. Your 
taste must guide you as to the quantity of sugar or molasses. 
Break up the bread crust and put into the apple. If it is very 
moist, return the pan uncovered to the oven ; but if dry enough, 
cover it with an old plate ; let it stand four or five hours. 

There are various ways of making this dish. Some persons 
prefer to put in the molasses at first, and others use only 
sugar. It is very easy to jmprove it by rolling a little butter 
into the dough, exactly as in pie-crust ; and if this is done 
once only, it makes the crust much more tender. Some per- 
sons put any crusts or pieces of bread they happen to have, into 
the -apple, and if the crust that was baked with it is thin, it is a 
very good way. 

Another. 

To make a pan pie to bake in a stove oven, or range, cover 
the bottom of a deep dish with a layer of stewed apple ; spread 
over it brown sugar enough to make it sweet, scatter in a little 
powdered cinnamon, and add two or three bits of butter the size 
of a filbert ; then lay in pieces of plain pie crust or biscuit, 
baked rather brown, or crusts of light bread ; spread a thick 
layer of apple over the pieces, scatter more cinnamon, and pour 
over the whole molasses enough to sweeten the upper layer of 
apple, then bake it in a moderate heat an hour and a half, or 
two hours. It is the best way to make it while the stewed apple 
is hot. 

Crumb Cakes. 

Keep a bowl or pitcher with sour milk in it, and from time to 
time throw in the crumbs of bread which break off when it is 
sliced, and also the dry pieces left of the table. When you 
next want griddle-cakes, take this mixture and break up all the 
pieces with your hand, add an egg, salt, and saleratus, and a 
few spoonfuls of flour. If the proportion of bread is too great, 



232 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

the cakes will not be good. Experience must teach, as no 
exact rule can be given. 

Milk Toast 

Put a quart of milk, except two or three spoonfuls, to boil ; 
rub smooth a small table-spoonful of flour in the reserved milk ; 
when that in the saucepan begins to boil, stir in a piece of but- 
ter, rather larger than an egg, cut up in little bits. Stir stead- 
ily until it is all melted ; then stir in the flour, and add a tea- 
spoonful of salt. When it boils up again, set it where it will 
keep hot, without boiling, while the bread is toasted. Bread is 
not good when it is dried in the process of toasting ; it should be 
browned quickly, and dipped while it is hot. 

If you have cream, boil it without adding any butter ; when 
boiled, put in a little salt, and a very little flour rubbed smooth 
in a spoonful of milk ; dip the slices of toasted bread, and let 
them remain half a minute ; then lay them into a hot dish with 
a cover, and pour over the remainder of the boiled cream. 
Maizena is much better than flour for milk-toast. 

Bruiss, 

Take crusts of brown bread, and if they are dry and hard, 
lay them over night in a little water. In the morning add milk 
and boil them slowly. Take care they do not burn. Sprinkle 
in salt, and just before you take them up, add a little butter. If 
there is too much milk, take off the lid the latter part of the 
time. Take up the pieces as whole as you can. 

Crusts of white bread make a good breakfast dish, in 
the same way, except that they do not need soaking over 
night. 

Uses for pieces of Bread. 

In some families there is always an accumulation of pieces of 
bread, and a good deal of ingenuity is necessary to prevent 
waste. If bread is good, and proper care is taken, such a thing 
as a plate of dry pieces is needless. Some families never have 
them. But for the benefit of those who, from any cause, cannot 



CARE OP FAT AND DRIPPINGS. 233 

always prevent it, the following modes for making good use of 
pieces are suggested. A bread pudding is easily made, by 
boiling the pieces in milk. You can make as rich a pudding as 
you choose, by adding sugar, eggs, suet, spice, and raisins ; or 
as plain a one, putting no sugar, two eggs, and a few sliced 
apples to a quart of milk, and boil or bake it. Make crumb 
cakes of some of the pieces. Boil a dish of others in milk for 
breakfast. If you are cooking meat that requires or admits of 
a stuffing, soften crusts with a very little boiling water, add 
butter, herbs, and a beaten egg. In summer, when bread be- 
comes mouldy from long keeping, lay the pieces which cannot 
be used immediately, upon a tin and dry them in the oven ; 
they are as good pounded for puddings and crumb cakes as 
before drying, and as nice to dress a ham as cracker crumbs. 
Nice pieces of bread are good in pan pie, and also in stewed 
tomato. 

It is a good way to have a small board upon which to slice 
bread ; and brush the crumbs from it into a box, or dish kept 
for the purpose. Such things may seem of little consequence, 
but the beneficial influence of economical habits is not limited 
to the actual value of the amount saved. 

Care of Fat and Drippings. 

In a large family, where much meat is consumed, the care of 
the fat and drippings is an important item ; and every house- 
keeper should know what is done with them.* If she has a 
young cook, she probably will not be acquainted with the vari- 
ous ways of preventing them from being wasted ; if one who is 
experienced, she may not always care to take the trouble. 
When meat is of a superior quality, there is usually some fat 
which should be trimmed off before it is cooked, and more will 
then roast out, than can be properly used for gravy ; therefore, 
about three quarters of an hour before the meat is done, pour 



* The custom of giving them to the cook as her perquisite, besides being 
wasteful,is productive of various evils. 



234 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

off all the drippings from the roaster, into a dish, and set them 
away to cool.* Save all the nice pieces of fat, and put those 
that are not so into the soap-grease. In warm weather, the 
good pieces should be clarified once in three or four days ; in 
winter, once a week. If you have boiled lamb, or boiled beef 
which has been slightly salted, take the fat which cools on the 
top of the liquor, and add to that poured off from the roaster ; 
scrape off any specks which may be on the under side of it. 
To clarify, cut small all the pieces saved, and put them into a 
small kettle ; cover it, and put it on the stove or range where 
it will not burn. It should be tried slowly ; stir it occasionally. 
When it looks clear, the cakes of drippings, the pieces from the 
top of the pot, &c., should be added. As soon as it again be- 
comes clear, pour it through a little sieve, or colander with very 
small holes. 

Fat thus clarified will save butter. It makes very good 
plain gingerbread and common pie-crust, or if preferred^ can be 
used in each of these with half butter ; it is as good as lard, to 
fry doughnuts or biscuit, and much more healthful ; and though 
not equal for frying fish, to salt pork, does very well for this 
purpose. It is well to keep a small stone jar for such fat. A 
brown earthen one soon becomes saturated with it, and smells 
disagreeably. 

The fat of mutton should not be put with other kinds, as it is 
very hard and tallow-like, and the taste is not agreeable. It 
however does very well to use on the griddle, or to grease pans 
for bread. 

The fat which is not nice enough for any of these uses, should 
(unless it is more convenient to dispose of it to the soap boiler) 
be tried for the purpose of making soap. It should be kept in 
a dry place where it will not mould, and be covered so that flies 
will not visit it. Two receipts are given (see page 235) for 
making soap with very little trouble. 

* See the directions for making gravies. 



TO MAKE SOAP. 235 

To make Soap with Potash. 

Allow sixteen pounds each of grease and potash for a barrel 
of soap. The grease should be such as has been well taken 
care of, viz., tried before it became wormy or mouldy. The 
potash should be about the color of pumice-stone. That which 
is red, makes dark soap, unfit for washing clothes. Cut up the 
grease into pieces of two or three ounces, put it into a tight bar- 
rel with the potash ; then pour in two pailfuls of rain or spring 
water. The soap will be soonest made by heating the water, 
but it is just as sure to be good if made with cold water. Add 
a pailful of soft water every day, until the barrel is half full, 
and stir it well each day. A long stick with a cross piece at 
the lower end, is convenient for the purpose. When the barrel 
is half full, add no more water for a week or ten days, but con- 
tinue to stir it daily. After that, add a pailful a day, until the 
barrel is full. It is the best way to keep soap three or four 
months before beginning to use it. It spends more economically, 
and is less sharp to the hands. When half of it has been used, 
put two pails of soft water to the rest, and stir it up well, from, 
the bottom. The lower half of a barrel of home-made soap is 
always the strongest. Soft soap, made with clean grease and 
good potash is of a light nankeen color, and is better for wash- 
ing flannels and white clothes than any other. 

It is good economy to make soap, and it is so little work to 
make it with potash, and the result is so sure, that no one need 
to be deterred from it by the fear of trouble or ill-success. 

To make Soap with Ashes. 

The following method of making soap with ashes has been 
tried and proved good. 

Provide a leach cask, that is, one that is large at the top, and 
small at the bottom. If this is not readily obtained, procure a 
hogshead that will not leak, have the head taken out at one end, 
and set it, propped forward a little, upon logs placed right and 
left, and high enough from the ground to set a pail under the 



236 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

front side. There should be a hole in the bottom, close to the 
front, with a tight plug in it. Lay in two or three bricks 
around the plug hole, and across them some bits of board, so as 
to reserve a space, and keep the ashes from packing close 
against the plug hole, also several bricks here and there over 
the bottom with straw or brush laid on them. Then have the 
ashes put in and pressed down, till the hogshead is very full. 
Scoop a hollow in the centre in which to pour the water, and 
then fill it with cold soft water, until it will absorb no more. 
The next day, see if the water has settled away, if so, add 
more. When it is full, cover it up. After three weeks, draw 
off the ley, and put it into the soap barrel. Then pour into it 
twenty pounds of grease, of all kinds, tried and rough, ham 
skins, and scraps, boiling hot. Stir it very thoroughly, and 
every day. Have the hogshead filled again, and after three or 
four weeks draw off the ley, which will, this time, be compara- 
tively weak; fill up the soap barrel, and continue to stir it daily 
for a week or two. The first ley being very strong will com- 
pletely eat up even the coarsest of the grease, and after three or 
four months you will have a barrel of excellent soap, fit for use. 

In order to have strong ley the ashes should be of good wood. 
"Walnut and maple ashes are best for the purpose. If you wish 
to make the soap immediately, the water for filling the leach 
should be nearly boiling, and it can be drawn off the next day. 

Leached ashes are useful to spread upon grass. 



THE CARE OF MILK, AND MAKINQ 
BUTTER. 

No branch of household economy brings a better reward than 
the making of butter; and to one who takes an interest in 
domestic employments, it soon becomes a pleasant occupa- 
tion. 



CARE OF MILK, AND MAKING BUTTER. 237 

The following instructions are derived from the personal 
experience of one of the most Skilful dairy-women in New 
England ; and by observing them, the youthful house-keeper, 
hitherto unpractised in such mysteries, will have the pleasure of 
furnishing her table with the finest butter, the work of her own 
hands. 

The first requisite is to have a good cow. One that has high 
hips, short fore-legs and a large udder is to be preferred. The 
cream-colored and the mouse-colored cows generally give a 
large quantity and of rich quality. Her feeding should be 
faithfully attended to. She should have a good pasture not far 
distant, or if this is impracticable, care must be taken that she 
is not made to run a piece of mischief frequently practised. 
Give her a teacupful of salt once a week. Feed her once a 
day with the waste from the kitchen, adding to it about a 
pint of Indian meal. Give her the skimmed milk not wanted 
in the family. If she does not readily drink it, teach her by 
keeping her a few days without an ample supply of water. 
Take care that nothing is given her which will injure the taste 
of the milk, such as turnips and parsnips. Carrots are a fine 
vegetable for cows. Have her milked by a person who under- 
stands the process, or she will not give it freely, and will soon 
become dry. But the most abundant supply of the richest milk 
will avail little, unless all the articles used in the care of it are 
kept in perfect order. They should not be used for other pur- 
poses. Keep a cloth for washing them only, and never wash 
them in the same water with other dishes. After washing, 
every article, and the cloth with which they are washed, must 
be scalded. Wash off thoroughly all the milk from the pans, 
pail, strainer, churn, dasher, skimmer, spoons, &c., before scald- 
ing them. If milk remains in them when scalded, the butter 
will be injured, as may be supposed, from the fact that a cloth 
strainer, if scalded a few times with milk in it, becomes yellow, 
and as stiff as if it were starched. 

To scald them the water must actually boil. Have a kettle 



238 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

of a size to admit the pail and pans, and plunge all the articles 
into it ; as, if the water is only poured on, the edges of the pan 
and the ears of the pail will not always be well sealded. 

If a cloth strainer is used, it should be of thin, coarse linen. 
A basin having a fine wire strainer is used by many persons. 
Tin pails and pans are better than wood and earthen ; be- 
cause tin is more easily kept sweet than wood, and the glazing 
upon brown earthen pans is sometimes decomposed by sour 
milk.* Large wooden churns, worked by dogs trained to the 
business, are used in large dairies ; but those who keep one or 
two cows only, will find a stone-ware churn best. No other is 
so easily kept sweet. For keeping the cream, never use tin, 
but always stone, cream-colored or fire-proof ware. For work- 
ing butter, keep a wooden bowl and ladle. This last article is 
seldom found in New England, but always in the State of New 
York. Every butter-maker should have it, as the warmth of 
the hand detracts from the sweetness of the butter. 

Have the milk closet on the coolest side of the house, or in 
the dryest and coolest part of the cellar, and with a window in 
it covered with wire-net or slats. Good butter cannot be 
made without a free circulation of fresh air. Allow no drops 
of cream or milk to remain a day on the shelves. Every inch 
of such a closet must be kept perfectly clean. 

Strain the milk as soon as it is brought in, and set it immedi- 
ately in its place. To remove milk after the cream has begun 
to rise, prevents its rising freely. For the same reason the 
smallest quantity should not be taken from a pan set for raising 
cream ; therefore all that is wanted for the day's use, must be set 
apart from the other pans. Those who have ice through the sum- 
mer, have a valuable aid in making good butter. A piece as large 
as a peach, should be put into a pan containing three quarts of 



* About two years since four men, while making hay in a warm day, 
drank buttermilk which had been kept in a jar of potter's ware, and every 
one died immediately. 



CARE OF MILK, AND MAKING BUTTER. 239 

milk, as soon as it is placed in the closet. The milk will not 
sour as soon, and of course will afford more cream. Skim the 
cream as soon as the milk has become loppord, which will, in 
hot weather, be in about thirty hours. To do this, first pass 
the fore-finger round the edge of the pan ; (this is better than 
to use the skimmer, because there is a hard, wiry edge of 
cream adhering to the pan, which if taken off will injure the 
butter ;) then take off the cream, clear as possible from the 
milk. 

In very hot weather, especially in August, which is the least 
favorable month for making butter, a heaping spoonful of salt 
should be put into a pailful of milk, after 'the portion for the 
ordinary family uses is taken out ; and at all seasons, fine salt 
should be put into the cream from day to day, as it is gathered. 
The effect of this is excellent, in keeping it sweet and giving a 
rich flavor to the butter. 

The finest butter is made where the number of cows renders 
it necessary to churn every day. The custom of churning once 
a week is not to.be tolerated. Cream that is kept seven days, 
unless it be in the coldest Aveather, cannot be made into good 
butter. If you keep but one cow, churn twice a week ; and in 
dog-days, three times. Do it in the cool of the morning. If 
the weather is warm, set the churn into a tub of cold water ; 
add ice if you have it, and put a piece also into the churn. Air 
is necessary to make butter come ; therefore, if the cream flies 
out of the opening around the dasher, do not put any thing 
round to prevent it. When the butter has come, continue the 
strokes of the dasher a few minutes to separate all the little 
particles from the butter-milk. This done, take it out into the 
wooden bowl with a ladle or skimmer. The bowl and ladle 
should have boiling water poured on them when you first begin 
to churn. After a few minutes it should be poured off, and 
cold water be poured on them, and they should stand till you 
are ready to use them. This is to prevent the butter from 
sticking to them. 

Work the butter with the ladle, until the buttermilk ceases 



240 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

to come out; then sprinkle it with clean sifted salt, as that 
which was put into the cream will not be enough ; work it in 
well, and taste it to see if more should be added. Observation 
and experience must teach you how much to use. Mould the 
butter with the ladle into balls or lumps of any form you pre- 
fer ; put it into a covered jar or tureen and set it in the ice- 
house or cellar. 

Butter is sweetest to be worked but once, and if all which 
you make is used from week to week, it is sufficient, provided 
it comes hard ; if it is soft at first, it must be worked again the 
next morning. That which is to be laid down for future use, or 
to be kept two or three weeks, must be worked again after a 
day or two, and every particle of buttermilk got out. ISfever 
work butter a third time. 

From October to June, the best method of raising cream is 
to set the pans for twelve hours in the milk closet, and then for 
five hours on a stove, or a furnace having embers in it, where 
the milk will become hot, but not scald ; then return it to the 
closet, and after' it is cold, take off the cream, -draining it very 
clear from the milk. Much more cream will be obtained in 
this, than in the ordinary method ; and at least a quarter more 
butter will be secured from the same quantity of milk. It also 
comes very quick ten minutes' churning being often sufficient, 
This is the method practised in Devonshire, England ; and the 
clotted cream, as it is there called, is carried up to the London 
market ; for it is not only good for butter, but also for coffee 
and other uses. Care must be taken that the milk is not made 
too hot. If it becomes so hot as almost to scald, the cream will 
have little skinny fiakes in it, which will be visible in the 
butter. 

A good Brine for keeping Butter. 

To two quarts of water, put one of clean fine salt, a pound of 
loaf or crushed sugar, and a teaspoonful of saltpetre. "When it 
has stood an hour, in order that the salt and sugar may dissolve, 
strain it through a flannel bag, and pour it over the butter. 



ON MAKING CHEESE. 241 

Less salt may be enough. The object is to have as much as 
the water will take up. 

To keep Butter sweet a Year. 

Take care that the butter is made in the best manner, and 
the buttermilk entirely worked out of it. Lay it in a white- 
oak firkin. Make a strong brine of salt and water, and put it 
into another and larger firkin, and set the one containing the 
butter into the one in which the brine is. Let the brine come 
up very near to the top of the butter firkin. Lay on the top of 
the butter a white bag with fine salt in it, cover it close, and 
then put on the cover of the outside firkin. 



ON MAKING CHEESE. 

THE articles used in making cheese should be kept sweet 
and clean as in making butter. They should be scalded daily, 
and never be set away until perfectly dry. The conveniences 
wanted are a large pine tub, painted white inside ; a cheese 
basket and a ladder, on which to set the basket over the tub ; 
two cheese-hoops, large or small, according to the size of the 
dairy ; two large square strainers of thin coarse linen ; two cir- 
cular boards called followers ; and a brass kettle large enough 
to hold several pails of milk. Presses used are of various con- 
structions. The most convenient one has a lever and weight ; 
and for making very large cheeses, a windlass should be 
attached to the end of the lever. 

To make Cheese. 

Strain the night's milk into the tub ; in the morning stir in 
the cream (if you want rich cheese do not let any of it be 
taken off), and put a part of the milk over a clear fire, in the 
brass kettle. Heat it enough to make the milk which is still in 



242 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

the tub quite warm, but not hot ; pour it back into the tub, and 
strain in the morning's milk. Put in a spoonful or two of ren- 
net, stir it well, and let it stand half an hour undisturbed. If 
the curd does not form well by that time put in more rennet. 

To prepare rennet. This is the stomach of a calf; and it is 
often the case that a piece of curd (the last milk eaten by the 
calf) is found in it. See if there is any thing inside which 
should be removed, and then return the curd to its place, in the 
rennet ; it is the best part of it. Soak the rennet in a quart of 
water, then salt it and hang it up to dry where the flies will not 
find it ; keep the water in a jar or bottle. There is a great dif- 
ference in the strength of rennets ; some will make a thousand 
weight of cheese, while others will scarcely make fifty. Ex- 
perience alone will teach exactly how much to use. 

When the curd is well formed, cut it in squares, making the 
knife go clown to the bottom of the tub at every stroke ; let it 
stand fifteen minutes for the whey to separate. Then break it 
up very gently, putting the hand down through all parts. It 
should be done gently, or some of the milk will be lost in the 
whey. This causes white whey ; the greener the whey, the 
richer the cheese. Lay the strainer on the top of the curd, 
and dip off the whey that presses up through, until you have 
dipped about a third of it. Put this immediately over the fire 
to heat. When hot, but not boiling, pour it back upon the curd 
and then break up the curd small, and as quickly as possible, 
with your hand ; then lay the strainer into the cheese basket, 
and pour the curd into it to drain. When this is done, return 
it to the tub, salt it, put it again into the strainer, and then into 
the cheese-hoop. Do not twist up the strainer, but lay it over 
smooth ; lay a follower upon it, put it into the press, and press 
it tight. Let it remain two days, and increase the pressure four 
or five times meanwhile, turning the cheese over each time. If 
you make cheese every day, you will need two presses. 

After this, turn the cheese out upon a shelf, in a dark closet 
or room, secure from flies. Rub every clay the side that has 
lain upon the shelf, and turn it over, liub it all over with but- 



FOOD AND DRINKS FOR THE SICK. 243 

ter often. These things must be done for six months. Butter 
made of whey-cream, is generally used for this purpose. If 
cheese is rich, a strip of new American cotton, as wide as the 
thickness of the cheese, should be sewed tight around it, when 
first taken from the press. Without this, it would soon melt 
out of shape. During the season, when flies are about, rub 
cheese now and then with butter sprinkled with cayenne 
pepper. 



FOOD AND DRINKS FOR THE SICK, AND 

FOR INFANTS, AND SUGGESTIONS 

IN REGARD TO SICKNESS. 

Beef Tea. 

CUT a piece of lean, juicy beef into pieces an inch square, 
put them into a wide-mouthed bottle and cork it tight. Set the 
bottle into a kettle of cold water and boil it an hour and a half. 
This mode of making beef tea concentrates the nourishment 
more than any other. 

Another (furnished by a physician). 

Take a piece of beef cut from the round ; take off every par- 
ticle of fat, then cut it into pieces about an inch square and put 
into cold water, in the proportion of a pint to the pound. After 
standing half or three quarters of an hour, set it on the fire and 
boil it slowly several hours. If the water boils away, add 
more cold water, so that there will be a pint of tea for every 
pound of beef. Strain it, add salt, and black pepper also if the 
case allows it. 

Another Way. 

Choose a lean and juicy piece of beef, the size of your hand ; 
take off all the fat ; broil it only three or four minutes, on very 
hot coals. Lay it in a porringer or bowl, sprinkle it with salt, 
and pour upon it two or three gills of boiling water ; then cut it 



244 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

into small pieces, as it lies in the water. Cover it close, and let 
it stand where it will keep hot but not boil. It is fit for use in 
half an hour, and does well where such nourishment is wanted 
immediately. 

This is more agreeable to the taste than tea made by either 
of the two preceding rules, but it is not as good for a patient 
who is so sick as to take but very little nourishment at once. 

Chicken Broth. 

If the weather is warm, use but half a chicken to make broth 
for one person. If it is cool take a whole one, as the broth will 
keep several days. Pull oft' the skin (because there is a good 
deal of oil in it) and allow two quarts of water for a chicken. 
Skim it in the neatest manner when it begins to boil. Put in a 
large spoonful of rice, and a teaspoonful of salt, and boil it 
slowly two hours. If onion and parsley are to be added, cut 
them fine ; put in the onion when the broth has boiled an hour, 
and the parsley five minutes before it is served. 

It is the best way to boil the chicken the day before it is 
wanted, and the next day take off the fat, add the rice, &c., and 
boil it another hour. 

Chicken Tea. 

Take a leg and thigh of a chicken, lay it into a pint of cold 
water, and set it on the fire till it boils up long enough for you 
to skim it. Put in* a little salt. 

Chicken Panada. 

Boil a young chicken half an hour in a quart of water. Then 
remove the skin, cut off" the white meat, and when cold, put it 
into a mortar with a spoonful or two of the water in which it 
was boiled, and pound it to a paste. Season it with salt, and u 
very little nutmeg; add a little more of the water, and boil it 
up three or four minutes. It should be of such a consistency 
that it can be drank, though rather thick. 

The bones which remain may be returned to the water in 



FOOD AND DRINKS FOR THE SICK. 245 

which the chicken was boiled ; and with the addition of rice, a 
good broth be made of it. 

Calf's foot Broth. 

Boil two feet in three quarts of water, until it is wasted to 
three pints. Strain it, and set it aside in a cool place. When 
cold, take off the fat. Heat a little at a time as it is wanted, 
and add salt, nutmeg, and, if approved, a spoonful of good wine. 

Wine Whey. 

To a pint of milk put two glasses of wine ; mix it, and 
let it. stand twelve minutes, then strain it through a muslin bag 
or a very fine sieve. Sweeten it with loaf sugar. 

If it is necessary to have the whey weaker, put a little hot 
water to the milk. 

Barley Water. 

Boil an ounce of pearl barley a few minutes to cleanse it, 
pour off the water, and put a quart of cold water and a little 
salt to it. Simmer it an hour. 

Arrow-root. 

The best kinds of arrow-root are the Jamaica and Bermuda. 

"Wet a large teaspoonful in a little cold water, with half a tea- 
spoonful of salt ; pour on it half a pint of boiling water, stirring 
it very fast. Then set it where it will just boil up for one min- 
ute. Sweeten it, and add milk if it is allowed. For a drink, 
make it very thin, and put in lemon juice and sugar. 

Pearl Sago, and Tapioca. 

The directions, page 99 are appropriate for the preparation 
of these articles for invalids. 

Milk Porridge. 

Put to half a pint of boiling water, two teaspoonfuls of flour 
wet smooth in cold water, and add salt. Then put in half a 



246 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

pint of milk, stir it well, and let it boil up again. Vary th<* 
proportions of milk and water as the case requires. Made 
wholly with milk it is a very hearty dish. 

Oatmeal Gruel. 

Put two large spoonfuls of oatmeal, wet in cold w r ater, into 
three pints of boiling water ; boil it gently half an hour, skim 
it, add a little salt, sugar, and nutmeg. If raisins are also used, 
a large teacupful stoned, will be enough. But gruel with 
raisins should be boiled longer than without. 

Ground Rice Gruel, 

Rub a heaping teaspoonful of ground rice in a small quantity 
of cold water, and stir it into half a pint of boiling water ; add 
a little salt, and let it boil up half a minute. If milk is allowed, 
it is an improvement to make the gruel with equal parts of 
milk and water. 

Indian Meal Gruel. 

This is made in the same way as the ground rice, but re- 
quires much longer boiling. It should never be boiled -less than 
half an hour, and an hour is much better. The white froth 
that rises upon the top should never, be skimmed off, as it is the 
most nutritious part of the gruel. Nutmeg, sugar, and a spoon- 
ful of cream may be added, if approved. 

Panada. 

Set a saucepan with three gills of water upon the fire, add 
one glass of white wine, a little loaf sugar, and a very little nut- 
meg, and grated lemon. Meanwhile, grate some white bread, 
and the moment the mixture boils, put in the bread, keeping it 
still on the fire. Let it boil fast, and when of a thickness just 
to allow of drinking it, set it off. 

4 Nutritious Jelly. 

Take of rice, sago, pearl barley, and hartshorn shavings, each 



FOOD AND DRINKS FOR THE SICK. 247 

an ounce ; add three pints of water, simmer it till reduced to 
one, and then strain it. When cold, it will be a jelly, to be 
given dissolved in broth, milk, or wine, as directed by the phy- 
sician. 

Caudle. 

Into a pint of thin rice gruel put, while it is boiling hot, a 
mixture made of the yolk of an egg, beaten well with sugar, a 
large spoonful of cold water, a glass of wine, and some nutmeg. 
It should be stirred in by degrees. 

Rennet Whey. 

Wash a piece of rennet an inch or two square, and lay it 
into half a gill of warm water for an hour. Warm a pint of 
milk, but do not make it hot ; put it into a shallow dish, and 
stir the rennet-water into it. Let it stand undisturbed half an 
hour, then cut it across many times with a knife, and after an 
hour pour off the whey. Let the dish then remain several 
hours undisturbed, and more whey will be formed. 

In cases of great debility of the stomach, consequent upon in- 
flammation, or attended with it, rennet whey will be retained 
when every thing else is rejected, and may be given, a tea- 
spoonful at the time, very often, in order to prepare the stomach 
to receive and retain nourishment. 

Apple Tea. 

Roast sour apples and pour boiling water upon them. Let 
them stand till the water is cold. 

Another. 

Pare and slice thin three or four pleasant sour apples, pour a 
pint of boiling water on them, and boil them six or eight min- 
utes. Let them stand till they are cold, then pour or strain off 
the water, and sweeten it a little, unless the invalid prefers it 
without. It is a refreshing drink. 



248 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Wine Jelly 

Put into a porcelain saucepan half a paper of English gela- 
tine and a large half cup of white sugar. Pour over half a 
pint of cold water, and let it soak for fifteen minutes. Then 
add half a pint of boiling water, and stir till the gelatine and 
sugar are dissolved. Put it on the stove, and when it boils 
up remove at once from the fire. Add half a pint of best 
Madeira, Sherry, or California wine. Put in tumblers or 
small moulds wet with cold water. 

Mutton Broth 

Take the shank or lower part of the leg ; have the bone 
broken in two or three places, wash, and put it into a sauce- 
pan with a large quart of water and a teaspoonful of salt. 
Skim it well. To make the scum all rise, add half a cup of 
cold water after having skimmed it twice. Boil it till the 
meat is ready to fall from the bones ; put it aside till the next 
day in order to take off every particle of fat; or, if it is 
wanted immediately, skim off the fat carefully ; then add a 
spoonful of whole rice, and, if allowed, a piece each of onion 
and turnip, and boil another hour. 

Cinnamon Tea, 

Break a stick of good cinnamon into pieces ; pour enough 
boiling water upon it to make a cupful of tea. Boil it up only 
a minute or two. Do not steep it. For bowel-complaint 
take a teaspoonful many times a day. It is a safe and ex- 
cellent remedy. 

Flaxseed Tea. 

Put to two tablespoonfuis of whole flaxseed a pint of boil- 
ing water, and boil it fifteen minutes. Cut up a lemon, and 
put into a pitcher with' two tablespoonfuis of white sugar. 
Strain the flaxseed tea, boiling hot, through a small wire 
strainer into the pitcher, and stir it. Good for a cough and 
sore throat. More sugar if preferred. Take a spoonful often. 



BLACK CURRANT JELLY ANTIDOTES TO POISON, ETC. 249 

Black Currant Jelly (for a sore throat). 

When the currants are picked over and washed, put them 
in the preserving pan or kettle with a very little water. When, 
they begin to simmer, stir and crush them. When all are 
done soft, squeeze them in a coarse linen bag, and, for a pint 
of juice, allow twelve ounces of white sugar. Boil the juice 
gently a few minutes, and set it off in order to remove the 
scum. This done, return it to the fire, and stir in the heated 
sugar. Boil it slowly ten or twelve minutes. Being used 
only as a remedy for the sore throat, it should not be put into 
ajar, but in small glasses, or jelly-cups, j 

Antidotes to Poison. 

In cases where poison has been taken into the stomach, 
give immediately the whites of several eggs, to a child, two 
or three ; to an adult, six or seven. Or stir a large teaspoonful 
of mustard into a tumbler of warm water, to be drank all at 
once. 

Blackberry Syrup. 

Procure perfectly ripe high blackberries. The low black- 
berries have not so much of the medicinal quality as the high 
berries. Put them in a porcelain-lined kettle over a moderate 
fire. Let them remain till they break in pieces ; then mash, 
and strain through a flannel bag. To each pint of juice put 
one pound of white sugar, half an ounce of powdered cinna- 
mon, quarter of an ounce of mace, and two teaspoonfuls of 
whole cloves. Boil all together for fifteen minutes, stirring 
occasionally ; then strain the syrup again, and to each pint 
put a wine-glass of best French brandy. Put into bottles, 
cork, and seal them tight, and keep in a cool place. This 
syrup, mixed with cold water in the proportion of a wine- 
glass to two-thirds of a tumbler of water, is an excellent 
remedy for bowel-complaint. 



250 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Posset. 

Put a pint of milk into a tin pail, and set it into a kettle 
of hot water. Pound a soda-cracker very fine, and stir into 
the milk when it boils. Beat two eggs with two tablespoon- 
fuls of fine sugar, and to these add a small glass of pale 
sherry. Take the milk from the kettle, and stir in these in- 
gredients gradually, but very fast. Add nutmeg if allowed. 

To treat Frozen Limbs. 

Rub with snow or very cold water until the part frozen be- 
comes red. Then wL>e dry, rub briskly with the hand, and 
cover with flannel. 

How to make a Mustard-Plaster. 

Take for a plaster the size of your hand a large teaspoon- 
ful of rye or Graham meal. Make it, with warm water, into 
a paste stiff enough to be spread smooth upon a piece of cotton 
cloth. Do not spread it nearer than an inch from the edge. 
Sprinkle fine mustard enough over it just to cover it ; lay a 
piece of thin muslin over. In some kinds of sickness, the 
skin is torpid, and such a plaster has little effect. In such a 
case, the rye-meal should be wet with hot vinegar. 

To Cure the Earache. 

Put boiling water with a little soda or laudanum in it into 
a teapot, and hold the spout as near the ear as can be en- 
dured. Keep a shawl or other covering around the head and 
over the teapot, so as to confine the steam. Another remedy 
is to take the heart from a roasted onion, cool it, and dip in 
sweet oil and laudanum. Press the- onion into the ear, and 
tie a handkerchief around the head 

To Believe Chilblains 

Baste soft linen inside the heels and toes of the stockings, 
and rub the linen well with a piece of common chalk. 



FOOD AND DRINKS FOR THE SICK. 251 

A Refreshing Draught in a Fever. 

Wash a few sprigs of sagej burnet. balm, and sorrel, and put 
them into a jug with half a sliced lemon. Pour in three pints 
of boiling water, sweeten it, and stop it close. 

Crust Coffee. 

Take a large crust of bread ; brown is to be preferred, but 
Graham bread will answer. Dry it in the toaster, and at last 
almost burn both sides ; lay it in a saucepan and pour boiling 
water on it ; boil it up a minute or two, and then strain off the 
coffee ; return it to the saucepan with a little milk or cream, 
and boil it up again. It should be made strong enough to look 
like real coffee, of which it is a very good imitation when well 
made. 

Toast Water. 

Toast a crust of white bread very brown without burning it, 
and put it into cold water. After an hour, the water will be a 
refreshing drink ; and it is sometimes grateful to the stomach 
when no other can be taken. 

Herb Drinks. 

Herb drinks should be made with boiling water in an earthen 
pitcher or tea-pot, and be drank after standing a few minutes 
without boiling. Long steeping makes them insipid and dis- 
agreeable. 

All food and drink for the sick should be prepared with 
careful attention and perfect neatness, and should be served in 
as inviting a manner as possible. The appetite of an invalid is 
excited or checked by things that escape the observation of a 
person in health. 

Food for a Young Infant. 

Pour four spoonfuls of boiling water upon one of sweet cream, 
and add a very little loaf sugar. This receipt was given by an 
experienced physician, and has been proved, to be entirely 
suited to the stomach of the youngest infant. But care must 



252 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

be taken to secure good cream ; and this can be done only by 
providing new milk every day, from one cow. Mixed milk 
cannot be safely used for a little infant. 

For a child just weaned. 

There is always danger, especially in warm weather, that 
the stomach, even of a healthy child, will become disordered by 
being weaned ; and it is important to guard against the evil, by 
careful attention to the diet, for a little while. Boil every 
morning new milk enough to last twenty-four hours, and stir 
into it the best of arrow-root wet in cold water, in the proportion 
of a large teaspoonful to a quart. Add a very little salt, and 
boil it up again for one minute, then set it in a cold place. 

Flour Gruel (for children sick with teething complaints). 

Tie up in a piece of thick cotton cloth a coffee-cup of white 
flour. Put it into boiling water, and keep it boiling steadily 
three hours. Then remove the cloth and lay the lump where 
it will become perfectly dry. To use it, grate it and thicken 
two gills of boiling milk with a dessert spoonful of it wet in 
cold water. Put a little salt in the milk. This is excellent 
food for feeble children. 

[The value of the following receipts has been proved in the 
successful rearing of very feeble infants by the use of them. 
Several mothers have gratefully testified to their excellence, 
especially for children reduced to extreme debility by teething 
complaints. After weighing the articles a few times it will be 
easy to proportion the ingredients by measure]. 

Food for an Infant at successive periods. 

For the first three months : 5 grains of gelatine ; 25 grains 
of arrow-root; 2 gills of milk; 1 gill of cream; 1^ pints of 
water. 

From three to six months : gelatine, arrow-root, and water, 
as above ; 3 gills of milk ; 1 gill of cream. 

From six to nine months ; gelatine, arrow-root, and water, as 
above ; 1 pint of milk ; 1 J gills of cream. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 



253 



From nine to twelve months : gelatine, arrow-root, and 
water, as above ; 1 J pints of milk ; 1 J or 2 gills of cream. 

If the child is feeble, use in each case one quart of water. 

Put the gelatine into 1^ pints of hot water, and when it boils 
add the arrow-root dissolved in a gill of cold water. When this 
has boiled five minutes, add the milk, and when it boils again 
pour in the cream. Take it from the fire, and sweeten with 
loaf sugar until it is slightly sweeter than cow's milk. Strain 
if necessary, through fine muslin, and stir occasionally while 
cooling. If the child is constipated, use a little more cream, or 
sweeten with brown sugar. In the opposite case, use a little 
less cream. This food should be prepared once in twenty-four 
hours ; in warm weather, twice, unless kept in a very cool place. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS AND USEFUL 
DIRECTIONS. 

Italian Cream * 

Soak half a box of English gelatine in a pint and a half 
of milk for an hour. Set it over the fire ; stir till it boils ; 
then sweeten, and add the beaten yolks of four eggs. Flavor 
with vanilla. When cold, put it into the freezer for six hours 
with plenty of ice and salt, adding more occasionally, but do 
not stir. 

Frozen Pudding.* 

Place in the pail of a freezer layers of cake and raspberry 
or strawberry jam, till there is about a pint and a half. Then 
pour over a pint of boiled custard. When the cake has 
become soft, and the mixture is cold, set the pail in the 
freezer, and freeze according to the directions for Italian cream. 
When ready to serve, remove the pail, dip quickly into boil- 
ing water, and turn out upon a dish. 

I 

Lemon Ice.* 

To one quart of rich lemonade made very sweet, add the 
beaten whites of six eggs, and freeze till it is thick. 

* Received by the publishers too late for their appropriate sections. 



054 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Frosted Tapioca Pudding.* 

Take a small cup of tapioca, and soak it in cold water over 
night. Put it into a kettle with a quart of milk. Let it 
boil a few minutes, stirring to prevent burning. Then add 
the beaten yolks of three eggs, and a small cup of sugar. 
Pour into a dish, and cover with the whites of the eggs 
beaten stiff with half a cup of sugar. Put it into the oven to 
brown the top, and eat cold. Salt and flavor to taste. 

Longwood Omelets .* 

Beat the yolks of three eggs. Add a teaspoonful of butter, 
melted, two-thirds of a tablespoonful of flour, two-thirds of 
a cup of milk, and a little salt and pepper. Beat the whites 
very stiff, and pour the mixture over. Do not stir, but only 
break up the froth slightly. Butter a heated spider ; put into 
it three spoonfuls of the mixture, dipping through from the top 
to the bottom. As it browns on the under side, roll over and 
over, and place one roll after another upon a hot dish. Serve 
quickly as possible. If you use cream, omit the butter. 

Steamed Turkey.* 

Fill the turkey with oysters, and cook it in a steamer 
placed over a kettle of boiling water until it is tender to the 
fork. Serve with oyster-sauce, pouring some over the turkey. 
Chickens may be cooked in the same way. 

Spiced Currants (to eat with meats).* 

To five pounds of ripe currants, put four of brown sugar, 
one pint of vinegar, two tablespoonfuls of cloves pounded fine, 
^and t^vfc of ground cinnamon. Boil gently two or three hours 
until it thickens. Stir frequently. Some persons prefer to 
stew the currants soft first, then rub them through a sieve 
before adding the sugar and spice. 

Genesee Pickle.* 

Take as many ripe cucumbers as can be covered by one 



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MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 255 

quart of vinegar. Pare them, remove the seeds, and cut in 
slips about the length of a finger. Soak them in vinegar for 
twenty-four hours ; then drain it off, and prepare a syrup of 
one quart of vinegar, one pound of white sugar, cloves and 
cinnamon to your taste. Boil the cucumbers in this syrup for 
half an hour ; then skim them out ; boil the syrup twenty 
minutes longer, and pour over the cucumbers. Add one red 
pepper to one quart of vinegar if you like. The pickle will 
be ready for use in three or four days. 

Snow-Balls. 

One cup of flour, one of sugar, three eggs, one table- 
spoonful of yeast-powder (Preston & Merrill's), one of milk, 
a teaspoonful of essence of lemon, a little salt. Steam in 
tin cups in a steamer twenty minutes. Roll in powdered 
sugar while hot, and turn them on the plate upside down. 
Put a table-spoonful and a half of the mixture to each 
cup. 

New-Haven Jumbles. 

Four cups of flour, two of sugar, a heaping cup of butter, 
three eggs. Twist strips of the dough around and around 
on the pan until the size of cookies. 

Molasses Candy. 

TO one pint of best molasses put four ounces of brown su- 
gar. Boil in a porcelain saucepan, and stir often, taking care 
that it does not burn. Boil until it will become hard and 
brittle ; put a teaspoonful upon ice, or into cold water, in or- 
der to ascertain this. Before taking up, add a teaspoonful of 
essence of lemon and a plenty of almonds, chopped. Pour 
into a tin well buttered ; or take some of the candy without 
nuts (first rubbing your hands with butter), and, while warm, 
pull until it is of as light a color as you wish. 

Lemon Candy. 

Boil briskly in a porcelain saucepan two cups of white su- 
gar, one of water, and half a cup of vinegar. Try in water 



256 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

as for molasses candy ; turn into a shallow pan, and work as 
soon as cool enough to handle. Flavor, before pouring from 
the saucepan, with essence of lemon or any thing else you 
please. Cut in small pieces. 

Chocolate Caramels. 

Boil together for twenty minutes one cup of molasses, one 
of sugar, one of chocolate, and half a cup of milk. When 
nearly done, add a piece of butter large as an egg, and flavor 
with vanilla. Drop a little in water to ascertain if it is done. 
Stir a few minutes, and then pour "upon buttered dishes. 
When not quite cold, mark the candy in little squares with 
the back of a knife. 

Camphor Ice. 

Two ounces of lard or nice mutton-tallow, the same of 
spermaceti, one ounce of white wax, half an ounce of cam- 
phor-gum, a quarter of an ounce of glycerine. Melt all to- 
gether with as little heat as possible. 

Good Cider Vinegar. 

Put one gallon of rain-water, and three of good cider, into 
a small keg, with a gimlet-hole in the upper end to admit the 
air. Set it in the sun in the warm season, and in a warm 
cellar in winter. Shake it well once or twice a week. A 
large demijohn will answer instead of a keg. Tie a piece of 
muslin over the mouth so as to keep out the flies, and yet ad- 
mit the air. 

Fresh Pine-apple.* 

For the tea-table, pare one pine-apple, and chop it fine in 
a tray with a common chopping knife. Put it in a deep dish, 
and mix with it half a pint of powdered sugar ; more if the 
pine-apple is large. Lefc it stand several hours. 



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MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 257 

Cider (to keep, sweet and sparkling). 

Let the new cider ferment from one to three weeks as the 
weather is cold or warm. When it has attained to lively fer- 
mentation, add to each gallon, according to its acidity, from 
one half to two pounds white sugar, and let the whole fer- 
ment till it possesses precisely the taste which it is desired 
should remain permanent. In this condition, pour out a quart) 
of the cider, and add for each gallon one-quarter ounce of 
sulphite of lime (anti-chloride). Stir the powder and cider 
until intimately mixed, and return it to the cask. Agitate 
briskly and thoroughly for a few moments, and then let the 
cider settle. The fermentation will cease at once. After a 
few days, the cider has become clear. Draw off, and bottle 
carefully, or remove the sediment, and return to the cask. 
If loosely corked, or kept in a barrel on draught, it will re- 
tain its taste as still cider. If put id bottles carefully corked, 
it will become a sparkling cider. 

Lemon Syrup. 

One pound of loaf or crushed sugar to every half pint of 
lemon juice. Let it stand twenty-four hours, or till the sugar 
is dissolved, stirring it very often with a silver spoon. When 
dissolved, wring a flannel bag very dry in hot water, strain 
the syrup, and bottle it. This will keep almost any length of 
time. 

Another without lemons. 

Put six pounds of white sugar to three pints of water, and 
boil five minutes. Have ready the beaten white of an egg 
mixed with half a pint of water, and stir it into the boiling mix- 
ture. In a few minutes a scum will arise, and the kettle must 
be set off from the fire, and stand five minutes ; then remove 
the scum. When it is almost cold, measure it, and to a gallon 
of syrup put three ounces of tartaric acid, dissolved in half a 
pint of hot water ; add at the same time a large teaspoonful 01 



258 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

the oil of lemon. When it is cold, bottle it. The goodness of 
the syrup (and it is an excellent imitation of the genuine), de- 
pends on the oil of lemon being fresh. If this is in the least 
rancid, it will spoil the syrup. 

Raspberry Vinegar. 

To two quarts of raspberries, put a pint of cider vinegar. 
Let them lie together two or three days ; then mash them up 
and put them in a bag to strain. To every pint, when strained, 
put a pound of best sugar. Boil it twenty minutes, and skim it. 
Bottle it when cold. 

Currant Wine. 

Use sugar, water, and currant juice in these proportions, viz., 
one quart each of juice and the best of sugar, and two of water. 
Put the mixture into a tight keg with a faucet. Leave out the 
bung for two or three weeks, and then put it in loosely, so that 
if it continues to ferment longer, the keg will not burst. After 
a few days more put in the bung tight. Let it stand a year, 
and then draw it off and bottle it. 

Another. 

To one gallon of currant juice, put nine pounds of the best of 
sugar, and two gallons of water. Set it where it won't be dis' 
turbed, and bottle it at the end of the year. 

Currant Shrub. 

Boil currant juice five minutes with loaf or crushed sugar a 
pound of sugar to a pint of juice. Stir it constantly while cook 
ing, and when cold, bottle it. A spoonful or two in a tumbler 
of water affords a refreshing beverage. 

Sarsaparilla Mead. 

Three pounds of sugar, three ounces of tartaric acid, one 
ounce of cream tartar, one of flour, one of essence of sarsapa- 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 259 

rilla, and three quarts of water. Strain and bottle it, then let it 
stand ten days before using it. 

English Ginger Beer 

Pour four quarts of boiling water, upon an ounce and a half of 
ginger, an ounce of cream of tartar, a pound of clean brown 
sugar, and two fresh lemons, sliced thin. It should be wrought 
twenty-four hours, with two gills of good yeast, and then bottled. 
It improves by keeping several weeks, unless the weather is 
hot, and it is an excellent beverage. If made with granu- 
lated sugar, the appearance and flavor are still finer. 

Maple Beer. 

To four gallons of boiling water, add one quart of maple syrup 
and a small table-spoonful of essence of spruce. When it is 
about milk warm, add a pint of yeast ; and when fermented, 
bottle it. In three days it is fit for use. 

Spring Beer. 

Take a handful of checkerberry (wintergreen), a few sassjv 
fras roots cut up, a half a handful of pine-buds, while they are 
small and gummy, and a small handful of hops.* Put all 
these into a pail of water over night, and in the morning boil 
them two or three hours ; fill up the kettle when it boils away. 
Strain it into a jar or firkin that will hold a half a pailful more 
of water. Stir in a pint and a half of molasses, then add the 
half pailful of water, and taste it. If not sweet enough add 
more molasses. It loses the sweetness a little in the process 
of fermentation, and should therefore be made rather too sweet 
at first. Add two or three gills of good yeast, set it in a warm 
place, and let it remain undisturbed till it is fermented. When 



* If dried in the ordinary way. But a small pinch of the hops put up in 
pound packages by the Shakers is enough. 



260 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

the top is covered with a thick dark foam, take it off; have 
ready clean bottles and good corks ; pour off the beer into an- 
other vessel, so gently as not to disturb the sediment ; then bot- 
tle it, and set it in a cool place. It will be ready for use in two 
days. The sediment should be put into a bottle by itself, 
loosely corked, and kept to ferment the next brewing. 

Spruce and Boneset Beer. 

Boil a small handful each of hops and boneset for an hour 
or two, in a pailful of water ; strain it, and dilute it with cold 
water till it is of the right strength. Add a small table-spoon- 
ful of essence of spruce, sweeten, ferment and bottle it, like the 
spring beer. 

The essences of hops, checkerberry, ginger, and spruce, put 
into warm water in suitable proportions, then sweetened, fer- 
mented, and bottled, make good beer. 

Rennet Wine. 

Wash a third, or half of a salted rennet ; wipe it dry and put 
it into a bottle of wine. The wine will be fit to use for custard 
the next day. To kejep the remainder of the rennet till more is 
needed, put it into a strong brine and cover it close. 

To Boil Cider. 

Take cider which has been made but a day or two, and boil 
it nearly half away. Skim it often. It will keep good a long 
time, and is useful in making mince pies, and to flavor pudding 
sauce. Bottle it and cork it well. A mould will form over 
the top, but will not injure the cider. 

Cologne Water. 

To one gallon of alcohol, put twelve drachms each, of oil of 
lavender, oil of bergamot, and essence of lemon ; four drachms 
of oil of rosemary, and twelve drops of oil of cinnamon. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 261 

Canadian Liniment. 

For rheumatism or sprains. To one ounce of peppermint, 
put one .of strong spirits of ammonia. Mix these well, and 
add one ounce of spirits of turpentine, one of olive oil, one 
of alcohol, and half an ounce of strong spirits of camphor. 
To be applied with a piece of soft flannel. Keep it closely 
corked, and shake before using it. One drachm of cayenne 
pepper adds to its efficiency. 

To prevent Books, Ink, Paste, &c., from moulding. 

A drop or two of oil of lavender on a book, and a single one 
in a pint bottle of ink, will prevent mould. 

Tooth Powder. 

Two ounces of Peruvian bark, two of myrrh, one of chalk, 
one of Armenian bole, and one of orris root. 

Rose Butter (a good substitute for rose water). 

Gather every morning the leaves of the roses that blossomed 
the day before, and put them in a stone jar in alternate layers 
with fine salt. After all the leaves are gathered, put a saucer 
or small plate into the jar, and lay in a pound of butter, for 
cake or pudding sauce. It is a very good way of obtaining the 
flavor of roses, without expense. 

To keep Parsley. 

Gather fresh sprigs, and after washing them, chop them fine, 
and work them into as much butter as will be needed for boiled 
poultry, lamb, and fish, before the next summer. Put the butter 
into a stone jar, and cover it with a brine made with nice salt. 

To keep Suet. 

Pull off the skin or membrane from fresh suet, sprinkle salt 
upon it, tie it up in a cloth or bag, and hang it in a cool, dry 
place. It will keep sweet the year round. 



2G2 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

To keep Eggs, 

To tour quarts of air-slacked lime, put two ounces of cream 
of tartar (that is, two table-spoonfuls), two of salt, and four 
quarts of cold water. Put fresh eggs into a stone jar, and pour 
the mixture over them. This will keep nine dozen, provided 
they are all good when laid down ; and after many months, the 
yolks will be still whole, and the whites stiff and clear as at 
first. The water may settle away so as to leave the upper layer 
uncovered. If so, add more. Cover them closely and keep 
them in a cool place. 

Eggs should be laid down when they are at the lowest market 
price. 

To cleanse a Calf's Head and Feet. 

Take them as soon as the animal is killed, wash them clean, 
and in order to remove the hair, sprinkle pulverized rosin over 
them and dip them for an instant in scalding water. The rosin 
will dry immediately, and they can be easily scraped clean. 
Soak them from one to three days in cold water, changing it 
repeatedly. 

To kill Cockroaches and Beetles. 

Strew the roots of black hellebore, at night, in the places in- 
fested by these vermin, and they will be found in the morn- 
iug dead, or dying. Black hellebore grows in marshy grounds, 
and may be had at the herb shops. 

To drive away Ants. 

The little red ants will leave closets where sea-sand is 
sprinkled, or where oyster-shells or sprigs of arbor vitae are 
laid. 

Scatter sprigs of wormwood in places infested with black 
ants. 

To secure Woollens, Furs, Furniture, etc., from Moths. 

Carefully shake and brush woollens early in the spring, so as 
to be certain that no eggs are in them ; then sew them up in 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 263 

cotton or linen wrappers, putting a piece of camphor gum, tied 
up in a bit of muslin, into each bundle, or into the chests and 
closets where the articles are to lie. When the gum is evapo- 
rated it must be renewed. 

A lady put up her blankets and carpets in this way before 
going to Europe, and on her return, three or four years after, 
found every article safe from moths. 

Furs should not be hung out in the sun in the spring before 
being put away for the season. The moth miller will be likely 
to visit them when thus exposed. They should be put into a 
close box with a piece of camphor, and the box tied up in a pil- 
low case or bag. 

Blankets that are in use only occasionally during the summer, 
should be laid when not wanted, under a mattress in constant 
use, or in a trunk where there are pieces of camphor gum, or 
cedar chips. It would be a most convenient arrangement for 
housekeepers to have a closet with shelves and draws made of 
cedar boards. 

It is more difficult than it used to be, to preserve woollens, 
furs, carpets, and furniture from being injured by moths. 
Thirty years since it was regarded as an indication of very 
negligent housekeeping to have a moth-eaten carpet. Now, 
the utmost care will not always preserve carpets from being 
injured in this way. Perhaps the reason may be, that in general, 
warehouses and dwellings are warmed throughout, during the 
winter, by furnaces. New stuffed and cushioned furniture is- 
sometimes found to contain moths. To destroy them, pour burn- 
ing fluid plentifully upon the cushions, sofas, &c. If it is fresh, 
it will leave no stain, and the disagreeable odor will soon pass 
away. To preserve a carpet that cannot be often shaken, draw 
out the tacks twice a year, turn back the edges a quarter of a 
yard all around, brush out the dust, and then with a painter's 
brush put new spirits of turpentine upon the boards as far as 
the carpet is turned back; then return it immediately to its 
place, and put in the tacks. 

The floors of some houses have moths in the cracks. In this 



264 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

case, cedar saw-dust sprinkled over the floor before laying down 
the carpet, will protect it from these diligent mischief-workers. 
If this cannot be had, use tar-paper. 

To kill Moths. 

Take furs or pillows infested with moths, and put them into a 
brick oven which has just been used for baking. Let them 
remain over night, and the next day beat them well in the open 
air. 

To remove the Bad Odor from New Feathers. 

Make a cover for the bed of some coarse material, or a couple 
of old sheets ; get a baker to put it into his oven one or two 
nights. A better way, when it can be done, is to send the 
feathers in bags to a baker's oven, before they are put into the 
tick. 

To purify a Sink or Drain. 

Dissolve a pound or two of chloride of lime in plenty of 
water, and pour down ; or use carbolate of lime. 

To take out Mildew. 

(This and the next receipt were furnished by a chemist.) 
Obtain the dryest chloride of lime that can be bought, and 
for strong fabrics dissolve four table-spoonfuls in a half a 
pint of water. Let the mildewed article lie fifteen minutes in 
this solution. Then take it out, wring it gently, and put it 
immediately into weak muriatic -acid one part of the acid 
and four parts soft water. 

For delicate fabrics, laces, muslins, &c., the solution of lime 
should be diluted by the addition of three or four times the 
measure of water. Let the article lie in it five minutes ; then 
put it into the .muriatic acid. 

To take out Iron Mould. 

Dissolve a teaspoonful of salts of tin in two table-spoonfuls 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 265 

of water. Dip the iron-mould into the solution, and let it rev 
main five minutes. Then dip it into a mixture of equal parts 
of muriatic acid and water. Dip the mould spots alternately 
into these mixtures, or make the first one stronger with the 
salts of tin, and apply it with a soft rag on the end of a stick. 
Last of all, rinse the articles very thoroughly in cold water. 

A simpler method of removing iron-mould succeeds well, pro- 
vided it is recent, and not very dark. Tie up a teaspoonful of 
cream of tartar in the moulded place, and put it into cold water 
without soap, and boil it half an hour. 

To take out Ink. 

Turn boiling water upon it immediately, in this way : spread 
the cloth over a pitcher or basin, with the ink-spots in the 
centre, and while you hold it in its place, let another person 
turn the boiling water on the spots. This is better than to put 
the article into boiling water, as the whole will then be tinged 
with the ink. If the spots are still visible, tie up a teaspoonful 
of cream of tartar in the places where they are more for a 
large stain, less for a very small one then put the cloth into 
cold water without soap, and boil it half an hour. If it is not 
convenient to put boiling water at once on the stains, put them 
in cold water ; do not let them become dry. 

Articles that have been stained with ink or fruit, should not 
be put into soap suds until the stains are removed. Soap will 
tend to make them permanent. 

To take out Fruit Stains. 

Tie up cream of tartar in the spots, and put the cloth in cold 
water, to boil ; or if the stains are much spread, stir the cream 
of tartar into the water. If they are still visible, boil the cloth 
in a mixture of subcarbonate of soda, a small table-spoonful to a 
pail of water. 

To take out Grease or Fresh Paint. 

Rub grease spots with chloric ether. To remove paint, the 



266 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

ether shou'id De applied on tne other side. Good benzine, as 
prepared for such use by apothecaries, is the best article for 
removing grease or spermaceti. 

To remove rust from Iron Ware and Stoves. 

New stove or range furniture is sometimes so much rusted 
as to make the use of it very inconvenient. Put into a rusty 
kettle as much hay as it will hold, fill it with water and boil it 
many hours. At night set it aside, and the next day boil it 
again. If it is not entirely fit for use, repeat the process. It 
will certainly be effectual. 

Rub the rusty spots on a stove with sand-paper, and then 
with sweet oil. 

To take oiF starch or rust from Flat-irons. 

Tie up a piece of yellow beeswax in a rag, and when the 
iron is almost, but not quite hot enough to use, rub it quickly 
with the wax, and then with a coarse cloth. 

To prevent Glass, Earthen, Potter's and Iron Ware from be* 
ing easily broken. 

Put dishes, tumblers, and other glass articles into a kettle ; 
cover them entirely with cold water, and put the kettle where 
it will soon boil. When it has boiled a few minutes, set it aside, 
covered close. When the water is cold, take out the glass. 

Treat new earthen ware in the same way. When potter's 
ware is boiled, a handful or two of bran should be thrown into 
the water, and the glazing will never be injured by acids or 
salt. 

Cast-iron stoves, and iron ware should be heated gradually 
the first time they are used. 

A permanent Cement for Glass, China, and Wood. 

Steep Russian Isinglass twenty-four hours in white brandy, 
gently boil and stir the mixture until it is well compounded, 
and a drop of it, cooled, will become a very thick jelly ; then 
Btrain it through a linen cloth, and cork it up closely. A gentlu 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 267 

heat will dissolve it into a colorless fluid. Broken dishes united 
with it, will break elsewhere, rather than separate in the old 
fracture. To apply it, rub the edges, place them together, and 
hold them two or three minutes. 

To preserve steel Knives from Rust. 

Never wrap them in woollen cloths. When they are not to 
be used for some time, have them made bright, and perfectly 
dry ; then take a soft rag, and rub each blade with dry wood- 
ashes. Wrap them closely in thick brown paper and lay them 
in a drawer or dry closet. Coal-ashes, sifted through a fine 
sieve, rubbed on with a cork dipped into hot water or soft 
soap, are better to clean steel knives than Bristol-brick. 

To prevent Ivory Knife Handles from being cracked. 

Never let knife blades stand in hot water as is sometimes 
done to make them wash easily. The heat expands the steel 
which runs up into the handle a very little, and this cracks the 
ivory. Knife handles should never lie in water. A handsome 
knife, or one used for cooking is soon spoiled in this way. 

To remove spots from Furniture. 

Paint, or white spots occasioned by spilling medicine, or set- 
ting something hot upon furniture, can be removed by rubbing 
them with camphene. 

To remove Mortar or Paint from Windows. 

Rub the spots of mortar with a stiff brush dipped in sharp, 

hot vinegar, and paint spots with burning fluid or camphene 
and sand, or rub tho spot with a copper cent. 

To clean Paint with Pumice-stone. 

Use powdered pumice-stone instead of whiting or sand. It 
cleans paint very quickly, and without injuring it. But very 
little should be put on the cloth at once. A pint of it is enough 
to clean the paint of a large house. It is well to keep it on 
hand, as it is often needed for removing spots from paint, and 
for cleaning closet shelves. 



268 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Pomade. 

Half a pint of castor-oil, half an ounce of white wax, half 
an ounce of spermaceti, half an ounce of bergamot, oil of 
almonds, or rose-geranium. Melt the spermaceti and wax in 
a quart bowl set into the top of the teakettle ; then pour in 
slowly the castor-oil, stirring constantly five minutes. Then 
remove it from the fire, and set it into a basin of cold water, 
and continue to stir it until it is white and creamy. When it 
has been beaten an hour, add the perfume, and stir a little 
longer. 

Sweeping. 

Before sweeping a carpeted room, set the vases and shelf- 
ornaments near together on a table ; lay the books and small 
articles on a table or couch. Open the windows, and shut the 
'doors. Remove the chairs and light articles of furniture to the 
entry. Cover the furniture that remains in the room with old 
sheets or skirts of old calico dresses kept on purpose to protect 
furniture from dust. A new housekeeper may not have these ; 
and pieces of American cotton should be provided. 

It is a good way to sprinkle tea-leaves squeezed dry upon 
the carpet across one side of the room ; then sweep them, with 
short strokes, to the other side. Long strokes raise a great 
dust, and throw the tea-leaves upon the legs of furniture, be- 
sides wearing the carpet. When sweeping a cold room in win- 
ter, sprinkle a little snow over the carpet instead of tea- 
leaves. Always take up the dirt in the room which is swept ; 
never sweep it into the entry. A long brush is good for 
sweeping oil-cloths or uncarpeted floors. After sweeping, 
wait at least twenty minutes for the dust to settle. Keep 
always a supply of dusters made of soft old calico, silk, 
gingham, or half-worn cotton. They should be hemmed, or 
made double, else they will not come out of the wash 
ironed and ready for use. With one of these wipe the walls 



TO SWEEP A CEMENTED CELLAR, ETC. 269 

as far as you can reach, all the ledges, and the furniture, ex' 
cept such parts as are carved, for which use a feather-brush. 

Before sweeping a chamber or bedroom, cover the bed with 
one of the dust-sheets. 

To Sweep a Cemented Cellar. 

Open the windows, shut the dampers in the heat-pipes of 
the furnace, and close the registers in all the rooms above. 
Sprinkle the floor plentifully with a watering-pot ; then sweep 
with a stiff broom. Let the dust settle for an hour ; then 
sweep down the walls, brush off the dust from the furnace- 
pipes and from any shelves there may be, and sweep the floor 
again with a long-handled soft brush. In % winter, as there is 
much dust from the furnace, the cellar should be swept once 
in two weeks, at least ; in summer, not so frequently. 

How to Take Care of Inlaid Eloors and Hard-Wood Staircases, 

(Of black walnut, ash, birch, &c.) 

They must not be oiled often, because it" gives them a 
greasy appearance. When entirely new, they should be oiled 
once in two or three months. Be careful to use the oil spar- 
ingly, as the wood will not look so well if you apply it too 
freely. Procure it of a house-painter. A quart bottle will 
last some time. Put it on with a brush, and rub it in with a 
soft cloth as you proceed. During the interval after oiling,, 
wash the floors and stairs every week or two with hot water 
having a little soft soap in it, and wiping dry with old flannel, 
or soft, thick cotton. Some persons wash such floors occasion- 
ally with skimmed milk and water. After the first year, oil 
them not oftener than once or twice a year ; but they should 
be washed as above directed every week. Sweep them with 
a long-handled soft brush. 

To Cleanse Piano-Keys. 

Hub them with a little alcohol applied with a soft rag. 



270 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

To polish unvarnished Mahogany Furniture. 

First take out ink stains, if there are any, by touching them 
with spirits of salt. Do it with a sponge tied upon the end of 
a stick ; then wash the spots instantly with vinegar, and make 
the whole surface to be polished, clean with it. Then rub on 
the following preparation with a woollen cloth : 

Melt together in an earthen pot two ounces of beeswax, and 
half an ounce of alconet root ; then take it from the fire and add 
two ounces of spirits of wine, and half a pint of spirits of tur- 
pentine. Polish with a soft silk cloth. 

Care of Bedsteads. 

Bedsteads should be carefully examined often. Two or 
three bugs will soon multiply, and make a great deal of 
trouble. Bedsteads should be taken down spring and au- 
tumn. If there is reason to suppose they are infested, spread 
an old sheet on the floor under the bedstead, so that, if any 
bugs fall off, they will be quickly seen. Have ready a stick 
with a soft rag tied on the end, and a cup or dish containing 
kerosene or benzine. Apply this to every bug and to the 
joints of the bedstead, and see that every crack and every 
possible hiding-place is wet with it. If you prefer to use 
bug-poison, every apothecary can furnish it. 

To clean Paper Hangings. 

Put a clean soft bag, or an old pillow-case over a new broom, 
and gently brush the dust from the paper ; then take crusts of 
stale bakers' bread, and wipe it down lightly, beginning at the 
top. If you rub it, the dirt will adhere to the paper. After 
thus brushing all around the upper part of the walls with the 
bread, begin just above where you left off, and go round again. 
Do thus until you have finished the paper. The dust and 
crumbs will fall together. Whenever a room is cleaned it is a 
good way, before the paint and windows are washed, to wipe 
the paper with a covered broom as above directed. 

To prepare earth for House Plants. 

Put together equal parts of the three following things soil 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 271 

from the sides of a barn-yard, well-rotted manure, and leaf 
mould firm tlio woods, or earth from the inside of an old tree 
or stump. Add a small quantity of sand. For Cactuses, put 
as much sand as of the other materials and a little fine char- 
coal. 

To raise Hyacinths in Winter. 

When they are put into the glasses or earth, set them into a 
dark closet until they sprout. If they are in glasses, do not let 
the water touch the bulb, by an inch. When the roots have 
shot down to the water, fill the glass, put in a piece of charcoal, 
and set them in the sun. 

Soot Tea for Roses. 

Get soot from a stove or chimney where wood is used for 
fuel, put it into an old pitcher, and pour hot water upon it. 
When cool, use it to water your plants every few days. When 
it is all used, fill up the pitcher again with hot water. The 
effect upon plants, especially upon roses that have almost hope- 
lessly deteriorated, is wonderful in producing a rapid growth of 
thrifty shoots, with large thick leaves, and a great number of 
richly-tinted roses. Never despair of a decayed rose till this 
has been tried. 

To destroy Grass in Gravel Walks. 

Scatter the cheapest coarse salt along the edges, and where- 
ever the grass is springing. 

Even the Canada thistle can be rooted out by cutting off the 
stalks very near, but not below the surface of the ground, and 
putting salt on them. Old brine, not fit for any other purpose, 
is good for this. 

Use to be made of Ashes, Saw-dust, etc. 

To spread ashes upon grass makes it thrifty, and of a richer 
green. Those which have been first used for making soap, are 
as good for the purpose as new ashes. Let them be scattered 
just before a rain. 



272 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

If you cultivate raspberries and blackberries, have saw- 
dust from the wood-house put around them once a year. Where 
these berries grow wild, the largest ones are found near decayed 
stumps and logs. 

To purify a Well. 

When a well is cleared out, if any offensive substance is found 
in it, have the bottom sprinkled with two or three quarts of 
quick-lime. 



As a general rule, it is most economical to buy the best 
articles. The price is, of course, always a little higher ; but 
good articles spend best. It is a sacrifice of money to buy poor 
flour, meat, sugar, molasses, butter, cheese, lard, &c., to say 
nothing of the injurious effect upon the health. 

Of West India sugar and molasses, the Santa Cruz and Porto 
Rico are considered the best. The Havana is seldom clean. 
White sugar from Brazil is sometimes very good. Refined 
sugars usually contain most of the saccharine- substance, there- 
fore there is probably more economy in using loaf, crushed, and 
granulated sugars, than we should at first suppose. 

Butter that is made in September and October is best for 
winter use. Lard should be hard and white, and that which is 
taken from a hog not over a year old, is best. 

Rich cheese feels soft under the pressure of the finger. That 
which is very strong is neither good or healthy. To keep one 
that is cut, tie it up in a bag that will not admit flies, and hang 
it in a cool, dry place. If mould appears on it, wipe it off with 
a dry cloth. 

Flour and meal of all kinds should be kept in a cool, dry 
place. 

The best rice is large, and has a clear, fresh look. Old rice 
sometimes has little worms and black insects inside the ker- 
nels. Buy the Carolina Head rice. 















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MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 273 

The small white sago, called pearl sago, is the best. The 
large brown kind has an earthy taste. These articles, and 
tapioca, ground rice, &c., should be kept covered. 

The cracked cocoa is the best, but that which is put up in 
pound papers is often very good. 

Shells are apt to be musty. Try a quarter of a pound before 
buying a quantity. 

To select nutmegs, prick them with a pin. If they are good, 
the oil will instantly spread around the puncture. 

Keep coffee by itself, as its odor affects other articles. Keep 
tea in a close chest or canister. 

Oranges and lemons keep best wrapped close in soft paper, 

When a cask of molasses is bought, draw off a few quarts, 
else the fermentation produced by moving it will burst the cask. 

Bread and cake should be kept in a tin box~ or stone jar. 

Salt cod should be kept in a dry place, where the odor of it 
will not affect the air of the house. The best kind is that 
which is called Dun, from its peculiar color. Fish-skin for 
clearing coffee should be washed, dried, cut small,' and kept in 
a box or paper bag. 

Soft soap should be kept in a dry place in the cellar, and 
should not be used till three months old. 

Bar soap should be cut into pieces of a convenient size, 
and laid where it will become dry. It is well to keep it several 
weeks before using it, as it spends fast when it is new. 

Cranberries will keep all winter in a firkin of water in the 
cellar. 

Potatoes should be put into the cellar as soon as they are 
dug. Lying exposed to the sun turns them green, and makes 
them watery. Some good housekeepers have sods laid over 
barrels of potatoes not in immediate use. To prevent them 
from sprouting in the spring, turn them out upon the cellar-bot- 
tom. 

To thaw frozen potatoes, put them in hot water. To thaw 



274 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

frozen apples, put them in cold water. Neither will keep long 
after being frozen. 

Cabbages should be buried in sand, with the roots upward. 

Celery should also be buried in sand. 

Turnips and beets should be put in a dry part of the cellar. 
Carrots keep anywhere. Onions keep best spread, and in a 
cool place, but should not freeze. Parsnips are best buried in 
a pit in the garden, and not opened till March or April, in coVd 
parts of the country. 

Squashes should be kept in a dry place, and as cold as may 
be without freezing. 

Apples should remain out of doors in barrels till the weather 
becomes too cold. They should not be headed up immediately 
after being gathered, as a moisture accumulates upon them 
which causes them to decay. When brought in, set them in a 
back room, until the weather requires their being put into the 
cellar. A linen cloth laid over them will keep them from frost 
till very cold weather. Many good housekeepers prefer not to 
have apples headed up at all. There is an advantage in being 
able to pick them over several times in the course of a winter, 
as one defective apple injures all its neighbors. If they are 
moist, wipe them. 

Herbs should be gathered when just beginning to blossom ; 
as^they are then in their perfection. Medicinal herbs should be 
dried, put up in paper bags, and labelled. Those used in cooking 
should be pounded, sifted, and put into labelled boxes or bottles. 
Herbs retain their virtue best, to be dried by artificial heat. 
The warmth of an oven a few hours after the bread is drawn, is 
sufficient. 

Inspect every part of your house often, and let every place 
be neatly kept. Habits of order in housekeeping save a great 
deal of time and trouble, and the most thorough way of doing 
every thing, is the most economical of labor and money, in the 
end. 

Every thing used in the preparation of food should be kept 
clean. A half washed pot or saucepan, or a dingy brass kettle, 



DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, ETC. 275 

will spoil the articles cooked in them. A lady should accustom 
herself to such habits of attention to her household concerns, 
that careless ways on the part of those who serve her, will not 
escape her observation. Unfaithfulness in servants is the sure 
result of ignorance or negligence in the housekeeper. 



DIRECTIONS ABOUT WASHING, &c. 

THE design of these directions is to assist the inexperienced; 
to teach those who are unacquainted with the business of wash' 
ing, how to do it, and those who can afford to employ others, 
how to direct them ; and also to discover where the fault lies 
when it is not done well. 

As I write only for the uninitiated, I shall be excused for 
being very minute ; and for giving some preliminary hints, 
needed only by learners. 

For the family wash, good water, and good soap are indis- 
pensable. Rain, river, or spring water is best, but in some 
places the well-water is soft, and good for washing. Clothes 
washed repeatedly in hard water with common soap, will soon 
become too yellow to be worn, and can never be made white 
again. As the supply of soft water sometimes fails where a 
cistern is depended on, it may be well to mention that hard 
water can be made to answer the purpose, temporarily, by dis- 
solving in it the sub-carbonate of soda, commonly called wash-, 
ing-soda. Put a large table-spoonful into three or four pails of 
water while it is heating, and then use the olive-soap both for 
rubbing and boiling the clothes. Remember that soda must 
not be used hi washing calicoes or flannels. It will spoil both. 
Here it may be well to say that white clothes which are con- 
stantly washed with soda, will, when laid aside a few months 
become of a deep yellow color, not easily removed by any 
ordinary bleaching process. 



276 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Provide a wash bench of convenient height, three tubs, one q 
large one for rinsing,* a water ladle, a pail to be kept for use 
about the washing alone, a washing board, a clothes stick, 
clothes pins, a line and two baskets ; one cheap coarse one in 
which to drain the clothes, when taken from the boiling-kettle, 
and a better one for taking them to the line, and for laying 
them in to when folded for the ironing. Have good soft soap, 
which, if you cannot readily procure at the manufactory, you 
can make with very little trouble.f Bar-soap is not necessary 
for white clothes, provided the soft is of a nice quality. The 
olive soap is a great improvement on the common yellow soap. 
If it is several months old, it spends economically, cleanses 
quickly, and is not sharp to the hands. 

When clothes are very much soiled, they should be put into 
a tub of warm suds over night. 

Borax soap is so effectual in cleansing soiled clothes, that the 
use of it essentially diminishes the labor of washing. To prepare 
it, put together bar soap, borax, and hot water in the following 
proportions, a pound of the soap, cut into small pieces, an ounce 
of powdered borax, and a quart of hot water. Mix the ingredi- 
ents together over the fire, but see that it does not boil. When 
it is cold, cut it up in cakes, and use it like common hard soap 
Put the clothes which are most soiled, or if you choose, all the 
white clothes of the wash into quite a warm suds made with 
this soap, and let them remain from Saturday evening until 



* A large painted wash-tub is expensive, and it may be convenient to some 
persons to know that a very good rinsing tub can be made of a flour bar- 
rel. Take one that is clean and well made ; have the upper part sawed 
off about nine inches. See that there are no nails sticking through. 
Make three holes large enough to admit the fingers, in two opposite staves, 
to serve for handles. If there are cracks, caulk them, and fill the tub with 
water. The water will soon swell the staves so as to close the cracks ; and 
when it has once done leaking, keep it always turned down in the cellar 
when not in use. All kinds of tubs and firkins should be turned down on. 
the cellar floor, to prevent them from leaking, 
t See two receipts, p. 235. 



DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, ETC. 277 

Monday morning. This method is recommended by very good 
housekeepers. 

To do the Washing. Sort the clothes, putting the finest and 
cleanest by themselves, to be washed first, and the coarse and 
more soiled ones together. Where there are white clothes 
enough to make two or three boilings, sort them accordingly ; 
always boil coarse towels by themselves. If there are fine cali- 
coes, nice ginghams, or delicate printed muslins, separate them 
from the common ones, and also the white flannel, angola, or 
merino articles from the colored woollens. 

The tub should be a third full of water, not hot, but very 
warm. Stir in soap enough to make a weak suds, and put in the 
nicest clothes. Hub handkerchiefs, night-caps, and other fine 
articles between the hands, using a little soap. Never rub them 
on a washboard. As fast as they are washed, wring and shake 
them open, and put them into an old pillow case or white bag, 
else they will be liable to be torn by the weight of the larger 
articles when taken out of the boiling kettle. Some persons 
keep a large bag in which they boil all the white clothes to- 
gether ; if the kettle is a nice one, so that there is no danger of 
iron mould, or rrny kind of stain, it is better to boil them with- 
out it. Use a wash-board for the large articles, and for those 
which are not easily made clean, and use more soap than for the 
fine things, taking special pains with places that are most soiled. 
All articles worn upon the person should be washed on both 
sides, and special pains taken with seams and hems. If there 
are streaks which you cannot entirely wash out, rub soap on 
them after you have wrung out the article ready for the boiling. 

Lay all the washed clothes together in an empty tub or the 
draining basket, until you have enough for the first boiling. 
Then dip out all th$ hot water from the kettle into a tub, and 
cover it over with a thick cloth, in order to keep it hot for wash- 
ing more clothes. Put a pail or two of cold water into the ket- 
tle, and a large spoonful of soft soap more if the kettle is a 
large one. Shake open and lay in the clothes, and add enough 
more water to cover them. Do not crowd the boiler very full ; 



278 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

the clothes will not look as well, and beside, the water will be 
continually boiling over. Have a good fire, push the clothes 
down often with the stick, and let them boil steadily, half an 
hour. Set the draining basket upon a tub, with two or three 
strips of board laid across, to keep it up. A little frame, some- 
what like the cheese ladder used in a dairy, is more convenient. 
Place the tub near the boiler, and take out the clothes with the 
stick. When this is done, dip out part of the boiling suds, cover 
it, and set it aside to be used as occasion requires. Add cold 
water to the kettle, and put in more clothes. Continue wash- 
ing until. all the white clothes are rubbed, remembering to dip 
out part of the dirty water from the tub now and then, and add 
some of the boiling suds which you have kept covered. When 
the clothes in the basket are well drained, put them into a tub 
of clean cold water, and take more clothes from the boiler into 
the draining basket. When all the white clothes are rubbed, 
and while the last of them are still boiling, get the second rins- 
ing water ready in the largest tub. (Some people have an idea 
that clothes look best rinsed in hard water, because rain-water 
is not so white as the other. But rain-water is the best, because 
it takes out the soap more thoroughly.) Fill the rinsing tub 
two thirds full of water, squeeze the blue-bag in it two or three 
times, and stir till the water is equally blue."* 

When you wring the clothes from the first rinsing-water, see 
whether the streaks you could not rub out have disappeared. 
If not, they can probably be removed quickly now. Wring 
the clothes dry, else the suds remaining in them will make the 
last rinsing water soapy. If the wash is large, dip off part of 



* To make a blueing-bag, take a very thick piece of cotton or a doubled 
piece, and stitch a close seam near the edge, on three sides, then turn it 
and stitch it round again; put in a piece of indigo as large as an egg, sew 
the end twice across, and put on a loop. If it is slightly made, too much 
of the indigo will come out into the water. Keep it hung up where it will 
not become dusty. 

The Spanish indigo is best. It is hard, and of a rich deep color. Poor 
Indigo breaks easily, and shows a slightly greenish tinge in the sunlight. 



DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, ETC. 279 

the water, when half of the clothes are wrung out, and add clean 
water, and a little more blueing. Strength, and some practice 
arc necessary, to wring large articles dry, and the appearance 
of the clothes will but poorly pay for the labor bestowed, if this 
part of the work is not well done. Perhaps it is the most 
fatiguing part of washing. Much labor can be saved by 
using a good clothes- wringer, of which there are several in 
the market. 

When the white clothes are upon the line, take boiling suds 
and wash the coarse towels ; boil them in a clean water, or in 
some of the last rinsing-water. Wash them thoroughly as the 
, table-cloths ; not negligently because they are coarse. If the 
weather is wet, let the clothes lie in the rinsing-water till a 
fair day, but omit the blueing, as it will be apt to settle in 
streaks upon them ; or some of the articles will be very blue, 
while others will not be so at all. If the weather threatens to 
be rainy, better not put them out, as they cannot be taken in 
half dry, and carried out while damp to be put on the line 
again, without getting more or less soiled. If the wind is vio- 
lent, let them lie in the water even if it is fair (unless they can 
be hung up in an attic or wood-house chamber or in a yard 
sheltered from the wind), as the hems will very likely be 
snapped from the corners of the sheets and table-cloths, and all 
the clothes will be more worn (even if they are not torn) by 
being blown half a day, than by two months' use from week to 
week. In the winter when they will freeze stiff in a few 
minutes, and there is a strong wind, they are liable to be torn. 
I have known a large and new table-cloth, cracked completely 
across, in a few minutes after being hung out. Small and fine 
articles, like caps, collars, handkerchiefs, and baby's dresses 
should be dried in the house in severe winter weather. Clothes 
are made very white by the night frosts, and where the yard is 
sheltered from the wind it is well to leave them out sometimes 
for that reason, provided there is no <fanger f their being 
stolen. 

When the last boiling is done, dip out all the water and save 



280 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

it as before. Heat clean water for the flannels and other wool- 
lens. These should be washed in quite warm water with good 
soft soap. Bar-soap makes woollens hard and wiry. Wash 
the finest and most delicate articles first. If they are much 
soiled, use considerable soap so as to get them clean quickly 
without much rubbing, for it is this which fulls up flannels, as 
we may know from the fact that it is by a similar process 
cloth is made thick at the fulling-mill. As fast as they are 
done throw them into a plenty of scalding water. If they lie in 
a pile until all are washed, they will shrink. When you can 
bear your hands in the water, wring them and throw them into 
another; from this last water wring them dry, snap them well, ( 
and hang them out. Few people rinse flannels twice, but they 
look enough better to pay for the trouble. If the soap is not 
rinsed out, they will shrink, and also become yellow. The 
water used for the white flannels is fit for the colored ones, and 
for mixed footings, or calicoes. All sorts of stockings should be 
washed first on the right side, and then upon the other. 

Red flannel preserves the color best, and is softest, washed 
in hard water. A sailor's red flannels, that have been, during a 
long voyage, often tied to a rope and towed through the waves, 
look better and feel softer than those washed at home. A word 
here in regard to the purchase of flannels, will not be out of 
place. It is the best economy to buy those made of soft wool. 
They will shrink very little, while coarse wool flannels will 
grow small and thick every week, and no pains-taking can pre- 
vent it, 

After hanging out the woollens, wash the calicoes in clean 
water, with hard soap, and rinse them twice. Have the 
starch* ready, and dip them before they are hung up. Calicoes 
should be thrown into the rinsing water as fast as they are 
washed. Even firm colors are injured by lying. If the weather 
is not fair leave them in the second rinsing, but put the light 
and dark ones into separate tubs, unless the colors are perfectly 

* To make starch, see page 287. 



DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, ETC. 281 

fast. Put a little salt into the water. They will not be injured 
any more than white clothes, by lying in the water over night. 
.Nice calicoes and ginghams should be dried in the shade, and so 
put upon the line as to dry quickly. Hang a dress in an angle 
of the line near the post, with the waist down ; put one pin at 
the turn of the line, and one on each side, a few feet from the 
angle, so that the hem of the skirt will form a triangle. 
When the skirt is dry, except near the- waist, shake open the 
waist and sleeves, and reverse the dress, pinning the shoulders 
to the line. 

Calicoes should not be sprinkled till the morning of the day 
they are ironed. The colors sometimes run together when they 
are folded over night, and in very warm weather, the starch in 
a dress that is sprinkled in the evening will become sour by the 
next morning. In July and August, damp clothes that lie 
folded together two nights, are very liable to become mildewed. 
Care should be taken that soiled articles are not put aside in a 
damp state, during the week, for the next wash. Sad accidents 
have occurred through want of care in this particular. 

For the assistance of ladies who are not able to detect the 
reasons, if their clothes do not come from the laundry in good 
order, I will specify a few particulars as to the causes. 

If good water and soap are provided, and yet the white 
clothes look badly, it is owing to one, or possibly, all, of the fol- 
lowing things their not being well assorted, the coarse clothes, 
and those most soiled being washed and boiled with the best 
ones ; or perhaps those places which required special care, had 
no more rubbing than other parts. If the seams of under- 
clothes are not clean, it is because they are not turned, after 
being washed on the right side, and well rubbed on the other. 
If the clothes look yellow, perhaps the washer uses too small a 
quantity of water, and neglects to dip off, often, that which is 
cool and dirty, and add more which is hot ; and very likely too 
many are crowded into the boiler at onc,e. If they are not 
wrung dry from the first rinsing-water, before being thrown 
into the second, they will be yellow ; and lastly, if they are not 



282 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

well wrung out of the second, they will have soapy streaks in 
the gathers and hem^. If spots of iron mould appear, perhaps 
the washer is not careful to avoid touching the clothes while 
wet, to the wire handles of the tubs or pails. If the calicoes 
fade more than you had reason to expect, very likely they are 
washed in boiling suds. The soft soap in it will spoil them ; 
and besides, it is never clean enough for nice calicoes. It is a 
good way to have calico dresses washed on some other day by 
themselves ; it will be easier to have them done well. If the 
flannels are becoming dingy, it may be that they too are washed 
in the water in which the white clothes were boiled, and then 
rinsed but once. If they shrink, although made of fine wool, 
probably the soap is not all rinsed out, and that they were laid 
together in a pile, and became cold before they were thrown 
into scalding water. If they retain the wrinkles after being 
ironed, they were not well shaken out (or snapped) before being 
put out to dry. They should not be sprinkled ; but if laid in 
the basket over night with the folded white clothes, they will 
be just damp enough to iron smooth. If the toes of the foot- 
ings, and woollen stockings feel stiff, they were not washed 
clean. 

Some domestics bestow great care upon the nicest articles, 
and take no pains with common ones. This is neither neat or 
economical. All clothes that are both washed and ironed well, 
keep clean longest. 

There are some advantages in a lady's taking the clothes 
from the bars, after they are ironed, herself. She sees at once 
whether they are well washed without the trouble of unfolding 
them to examine, and all those which need mending can then 
be most conveniently laid apart from the rest. I will only add 
to these minute directions, that the boiler should be left per- 
fectly dry, and the tubs, &c., rinsed and put away clean.* It is 
good economy after the usual cleaning is done, to save all the 
suds to water the garden and trees. The good effects will soon 
reward the trouble. 



DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, ETC. 283 

Starching, Ironing, and Polishing Gentlemen's Linen. 

To make the Starch Dissolve three table-spoonfuls of the 
best of starch in cold water, and stir it very fast into a quart of 
boiling water, and boil it half an hour. Five minutes before it 
is done, put in a piece of spermaceti the size of a large walnut, 
and stir until it is well mixed. Dip the linen as soon as you 
can bear your hands in the starch, and see that every part is 
thoroughly wet, or you will have what are called blisters. Fold 
the collars in a dry towel. Fold the shirts through the middle 
up and down, so as to bring the two parts of the bosom together, 
that the starch may not get on any other part of the shirt. Let 
them lie over night. r 

A bosom board is indispensable. Have a piece of board 
eight inches by eighteen ; cover one side with three thicknesses 
of flannel ; fasten it at the edges with small tacks. Then cover 
both sides with three thicknesses of cotton, sewed on tight and 
perfectly smooth. 

Iron a shirt completely (the bosom upon the side of the board 
where the flannel is), then hang it on the bars to air. After 
about an hour, lay the bosom on the hard side of the board, 
dip a soft towel in cold water, wring it dry, and brush the bosom 
until it looks a little damp. Then lay it upon the softest side 
and use the polishing iron quickly, pressing with all your 
strength. The polishing iron is very different from the common 
flat-iron, and far better for this use. It is oblong, and rounded 
at each end. They are to be found at all the hardware stores, 
and are not expensive. If there is any roughness upon the 
iron, touch it when nearly hot with bees-wax tied up in a rag. 

A porcelain, or tin saucepan should be kept for making 
starch, and used for nothing else. The linen ironed by the 
lady who furnished these directions, was an ample recommend- 
ation of them. 

To wash Calicoes, the colors of which are not Fast. 

Pare and cut up a dozen or fifteen potatoes, and boil them in 
five or six quarts of water. Strain off the water through a hair 



284 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

sieve, and when it is cool enough to put your hands in it, wash 
the dress without soap. The starch imparted to the water by 
the potatoes will cleanse it, and also make it stiff enough with- 
out other starch even after passing through the rinsing water. 
If there is green in the calico, dissolve a piece of alum half as 
large as an egg, in a pailful of water to rinse it. If there are 
grease spots upon a dress, a thread should be run around them 
before it is washed, so that those places may receive special 
care, else they will be as distinct as ever, after being ironed. 
If washing does not remove them, use chloric ether, or new 
spirits of turpentine. Some very nice managers use beef's gall 
in washing calicoes to prevent their being faded. It is good for 
the purpose, but the odor is unpleasant, and will be perceptible 
when the dress is worn, unless it is used sparingly. A table- 
spoonful of the gall, to a pailful of suds is enough. Put what 
you do not use into a bottle, with a large table-spoonful of salt, 
and cork it tight. It is very useful in removing grease from 
woollens, and cleaning the collars of coats. 

To wash Mourning Calicoes, Muslins, and Lawns. 

Wash them in perfectly clean water ; and if the color comes 
out, soak them until the water is clear, even if it should require 
two or three days, changing the water twice a day. A black 
calico that parts with much of the dye in washing, will have 
rusty streaks in it, and look like an old thing, if it is dried with- 
out being soaked. But in the way directed, a dress of good 
quality can be done up many times without losing its beauty, as 
experience amply proves. Such dresses should not be sprinkled 
over night, before being ironed. 

To Wash, Starch, and Iron Muslins, Laces, etc. 

Soiled muslins should be looked over and mended before 
being washed. Embroidered articles should be basted in exact 
shape upon a piece of flannel or other soft cloth. The mu>lin 
will be less liable to be frayed or torn by the weight of the 
needlework. Common laces should be folded evenly together 



/ ^ 



I 
Hrfr^<^ 4^-^ 







DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, ETC. 285 

into many thicknesses, and then basted through and through 
around the edges, with a fine needle and thread. Soak these 
various articles in warm water with Castile or olive soap in it. 
After a few hours, or the next day, squeeze them dry (never 
rub or wring them) ; put on more soap, pour on hot water, and 
let them stand another day. Then squeeze them dry, and 
examine them. If they are not white, lay them loosely into a 
broad dish or platter, with warm suds in it, and set them in the 
sun a day or two ; or, put them into a large white glass bottle, 
with a wide mouth, fill it with warm suds and set it in the sun. 
Turn the muslins over now and then, and also turn the bottle 
round, so as to give every side the benefit of the sun. This is 
a very good way where there is no grass-plot which can be used 
for bleaching. There can be no better way of whitening mus- 
lins than to dip the articles in soap suds, spread them on clean 
grass and let them lie two or three days and nights, wetting 
them once or twice a day with suds. When you take them 
from the grass, rinse them twice in a plenty of water, the last 
time with blueing in it. Squeeze them dry as possible, then dip 
all in fine starch, except those articles which should be very 
stiff, and they should be dried before being starched. Sort them, 
dip those which need most stiffness first, then add hot water 
enough to make the starch thinner for the next, and lastly still 
more, for dipping those which need very little stiffness. Hang 
them all out of doors to dry, unless the weather is cold enough 
to freeze. When dry, sprinkle them very wet, or squeeze them 
in cold water, pull them out a little, and lay them two or three 
double in a sheet a linen one if they are to be ironed in an 
hour or two ; a cotton one if they are not to be done till the 
next day this, because they keep damp much longer in cot- 
ton than in linen. To wash elegant, expensive laces, sew a- 
piece of white flannel closely around a common junk bottle, and 
wind the lace round and round perfectly smooth, and with a 
fine needle and thread, baste it enough to keep it in place. If 
the lace is pointed, pass the needle and thread through each 
point ; put the bottle into a jar or deep pitcher filled with warm 



286 THE YOUXG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

suds. Change the water once a clay for two or three days ; 
then put the bottle into the boiler with the finest white clothes 
on washing day ; as soon as it is taken from the boiler, and 
cooled a little, rinse it again and again in a plenty of cold water, 
then wrap a soft, dry towel around it to press out the water, and 
set it in the sun. When the lace has become entirely dry, take 
out all the threads, unwind it, and wear it without starching. 

Our grandmothers would have thought an elegant lace 
.nearly spoilt by being washed in any other way than this, and a 
very nice way it is. Having once tried it, you will prefer to 
wash your laces yourself, rather than pay a French laundress 
for doing them not half as well. 

When you iron muslins, pull them gently into shape, fold and 
lay them on a plate, and cover them with a bowl, to keep the 
edges from getting too dry. Have clean irons, and rub each 
one before using it with a bit of wax or spermaceti tied up in a 
piece of cotton, and wipe it on a clean rag. This is to prevent 
the starch from sticking to the iron. Lay the muslin upon the 
ironing board, the wrong side up, and always move the iron in 
the direction of the threads. The article will be out of shape, 
and look badly, if ironed diagonally. Bobbinet laces, if ironed 
at all, should be ironed diagonally, as in this way only can the 
mesh retain its shape. Dip them in stiff starch, and after dry- 
ing them, dip them again, then pin them out upon a bed. They 
will dry soon, and will need only to be folded even, and a warm 
iron set upon them to press the folds flat. Whether pressed or 
not, they will look like new bobbinet, and this is a very convenient 
way when a lady is so situated that she cannot iron her own 
kerchiefs, or get them done to her liking by others. 

To iron lace or edging, carefully pull into shape the points or 
scollops, and pearling ; lay it the wrong side up with the wrought 
edge from you, pass the iron along the edge nearest you, and 
then, beginning at the right hand end, move it out from you. 
Do this the whole length, or a yard at a time, then adjust every 
part even, and pass the iron over it again and again until it is 
dry. Lay every piece, as you finish it, upon a waiter or dish, 



DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, ETC. 287 

so that you will not have occasion to handle it again till you lay 
it in its place. 

Needlework should be ironed upon clean flannel, and be long 
enough under the iron to dry it, as it will look ill if laid away 
damp. Iron it on the wrong side. 

Wrought collars, so much worn as to be easily torn by being 
washed, if they are not badly soiled, may be squeezed out of 
cold water, rolled in a dry cloth for a few minutes, and then 
ironed. The same may be done with plain muslins that are 
only tumbled. Sometimes it is convenient to be able to produce 
a clean collar in a few minutes. 

It is convenient to have a board expressly for ironing caps, 
collars, cuffs, laces, and other small articles. It should be about 
two feet long, a foot and a half wide, covered on one side with 
four or five thicknesses of cotton cloth sewed on tight and per- 
fectly smooth, and covered with white flannel. 

To make fine Starch. 

There is a great difference in the quality of starch. It is but 
labor lost to make use of that which is not good. There is so 
much difference in the quantity of gluten in this article, that no 
precise measure can be given. Those who are least expe- 
rienced will soon learn the proportion needed for any given 
number of articles. 

A small sauce-pan or porringer should be kept for boiling 
starch, and used for nothing else. Boil the water in the por- 
ringer, wet the starch smooth in a little cold water, and pour it 
in slowly, stirring steadily till it has become of equal thickness. 
Leave it to boil moderately eight or ten minutes. If starch is 
pure, and well made, it need not be strained. The leg of a fine 
cotton stocking makes a very good strainer. 

To make Flour Starch. 

Wet white flour smooth in cold water, and pour it into boil- 
ing water, just like the fine starch. Some people do not boil it ; 
others think dresses retain the stiffness longer if it is boiled. It 



288 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

should be so made as to have no lumps in it, and if it is not, it 
should be strained through a fine colander. Allow a table- 
spoonful of flour, and nearly three pints of \vater for a dress. If 
there are several dresses and skirts to be dipped, divide the 
starch into two or three parcels, because the first article put into 
it will take too large a proportion of the stiffness, and leave 
what remains too thin for the rest. Reserve those which need 
least stiffness to be starched last. 

To Make and Use Cold Starch. 

Put a tablespoonful of best fine starch to a pint of cold 
water. Stir till dissolved ; stir thoroughly also before dipping 
each article, because the starch settles rapidly. Squeeze the 
articles, and lay them in dry cloths. They may be ironed in 
ten or fifteen minutes, but should not be allowed to remain in 
the cloths longer, as they will not iron well. Lay a thin cloth 
upon them when you pass the iron over the first time. The 
irons should be quite hot. Use more starch if you want it 
very stiff, and not so much if you wish it otherwise. This 
mode of starching is preferred by many persons to the use of 
boiled starch. It is certainly very convenient j and linen 
looks nicely starched thus. 

To wash. Thibet Cloths, Bombazines, Mouslin de Laines, and 

Plaids. 

If you wish to make over a dress before it is badly worn or 
soiled, rip it, and sponge it in warm water with Castile soap in 
it. Sponge a piece at a time, on the side which is to be out, 
and iron it on the other side, until perfectly dry. The irons 
should be quite hot but not so as to change the color. If it is 
hung upon the bars or laid away, damp, it will curl and look 
old. 

Thibet cloths of good q-uality last so long that they are Avorth 
being done up twice. After doing good service, till parts of 
the waist and sleeves are worn out, the dress should be ripped 



DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, ETC. 289 

and washed (sponging will not answer), and if it is of a color 
that fades at all, wash with it any new pieces that you may have 
to use in making it over. Wash it just as you would a nice 
flannel, with Castile or olive soap, and then rinse it in two clear 
warm waters. Remember not to wring it either time, as it is 
almost impossible to iron out the wrinkles. Squeeze out the 
suds a little before you rinse it. Let it drip as it hangs upon 
the clothes line, for twenty minutes or half an hour ; and before 
the upper edge begins to dry, and while the lower edge is still 
wet, -turn the lower edge up over the line, and the dry edge 
down, and let it hang a few minutes, then fold each piece, and 
lay them in a pile with a damp cloth round them. Have a 
steady good fire, and several irons, and press them upon the 
wrong side until dry. 

Bombazines if not badly soiled, can be sponged, in the same 
way as the Thibet cloths. If they are to be made up the .same 
side out as before, sponge that side, and iron on the other. If 
they need to be washed, it is usually best that they should be 
made up the inside out, and of course should be ironed on what 
has been the right side. Wash them just like Thibet cloth. 
The black bombazines, and other similar fabrics worn in mourn- 
ing, all wash well, and can be done repeatedly, and each time 
look ?o well as to reward the trouble. 

Wash de laines and plaids in the same way. It is safe to use 
the genuine olive soap for those of the most beautiful colors ; 
they will remain unchanged. 

To wash Shawls. 

Almost all kinds of shawls bear washing ; and they should be 
done as the Thibet cloths and de laines, except that when there 
is much white in them, or they are composed chiefly of delicate 
colors, there should be a very little blueing in the last rinsing 
water, and after being fifteen minutes on the clothes line, they 
should be laid perfectly smooth into a sheet, which should then 
be folded up (not rolled, because that will make wrinkles), and 
us soon as the water is absorbed, so that the shawl remains only 



290 HIE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

rery damp, iron it on the wrong side, until it is dry, then fold 
it, making the creases as when it was new. 

To wash Colored, Plaid, Black, and Raw Silks and Ribbons. 

For a single dress, pare four or five good-sized potatoes, slice 
them thin and lay them in a quart of cold water for a few 
hours ; then, if the silk is much soiled, sponge both sides freely, 
rubbing the soiled places with most care. Sponge one piece at 
a time, and iron it dry upon the side that is to be the inside, 
moving the iron up and down, or straight across never diag- 
^onally. Have the irons quite hot, yet not so as to scorch, or 
change the color. If they are too cool, they will draw up or 
crimp the silk in very minute gathers, and it will be nearly 
impossible to make such places smooth again. The effect of the 
starch from the potatoes is to cleanse the silk, and also give it a 
little stiffness, and even plaid silks of the most delicate colors 
are made to look new in this way. If a silk is not much soiled, 
sponge it only on what is to be the outside, and iron it on the 
other. A good black silk may be made to look " amaist as 
weel 's the new," again and again by this process, and those who 
have never tried it, would be surprised at the renovating effect. 

Good ribbons, black, white, or colored, are made fresh and 
handsome in precisely the same way. To iron them, set the 
iron across one end, on the wrong side, and while you press it 
hard, draw the whole length of the ribbon under it with the 
other hand. 

Raw silks should be washed in potato water, as directed for 
calicoes that are liable to fade ; and after being rinsed once, and 
hung without wringing upon the line, long enough for the water 
to drip off, they should be rolled for fifteen minutes in a sheet, 
and then ironed dry, on the wrong side. 

To renovate black Veils and Lace. 

Make a very weak solution of gum arabic, so that it will 
barely be distinguishable from pure water ; lay the veil or lace 
upon an ironing, or other smooth board, and apply the gum- 



DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, ETC. 291. 

water with a sponge. See that the article to be sponged li<\- 
straight and even ; and when you have wet it perfectly smooth, 
let it remain untouched till the next day. This is the way that 
ladies who embroider their own veils give them their finish. If 
the gum water is too thick, there will be danger of tearing the 
lace in taking it off. 

To Renovate Velvet or Velvet Ribbons. 

Wipe the dust from the velvet with a dry sponge. Wring 
a clean cloth or towel in cold water, and pin tightly around a 
hot iron ; then pass the velvet across the face of the iron, the 
wrong side of it next to the iron. 

Another very good way is to hold the velvet in the steam of 
boiling water, and then pass it over the edge of an iron. 

To wash English Blankets. 

If care is taken to keep them clean, they will seldom need to 
be washed. New ones ought not to need washing for several 
years. Those which are not in constant use, should be kept 
where they will not be exposed to moths or dust, in a closet, 
pinned close in a cloth, or under a mattress. A chamber-maid 
or a domestic who does the general house-work, should keep a 
large apron to be worn only while she makes beds. Blankets, 
counterpanes, and even bed-ticks sometimes have to be washed 
in consequence of negligence on this point. 

If there are soiled spots on a blanket, baste a thread around 
them, or else wash those places before it is put into the tub. 
Then put a handful of soft soap into the water, and begin to rub 
at one end of the blanket, using more soap, and slipping it along 
as fast as it is washed, from one end to the other ; and as it is 
not possible to rub ,the whole width of large blanket at once, 
after it is washed along one side, taking it up to the middle, 
wash along the other side, just as in washing sheets. It takes 
two persons to wring a blanket or counterpane well. Have 
ready a large tub of as hot water as you can bear your hands 
in, ui id put them as soon as they are washed into it; rinse them 



292 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

in this, and still in another warm water ; and after wringing 
them dry as possible, have the person who assists you take one 
end, and taking the other yourself, open and snap them several 
times. This will take out the wrinkles, so that if the day is fair 
with a good breeze, the blankets will look almost as smooth as 
if they were pressed. If there are several to be washed, cover 
the rinsing tubs, so as to keep the water warm, and have some 
hot water ready to add, when that in the tubs becomes cool. 

To wash white Counterpanes and Calico Quilts. 

"Wash them in the same way as blankets only with hard soap, 
and rinse them in cold water. If convenient, it is the best way 
to take them to a pump ; and pump upon them and pour off the 
water again and again, till it is clear ; then wring them and 
hang them on the line. In this way one wringing is saved, 
which is well, for it is some of the hardest work that is done. 
The heaviest kind of counterpanes, especially if they are large, 
should be rinsed at a pump, and taken in the tub to the clothes 
line, and put upon it without wringing. 

To wash the Tick of a Feather-bed, or Pillow. 

Have it washed very thoroughly and rinsed in a plenty of 
water. When it is entirely dry, melt together bar soap and 
beeswax in the proportion of two parts soap, and one of wax. 
]\Iix it well, and then, having laid the tick, inside out, upon a 
large table or ironing board, spread the soap and wax on it with 
a knife, as thinly as possible. Even a thick tiek, when it is 
washed, does not hold the feathers as securely as before, and the 
u,e of this mixture is to remedy the defect. 

The odor of the soap soon passes away. 

To wash Worsted Table-covers. 

"Wash them in quite warm water with olive soap. If this is 
not to be had, soft soap, if it is of the best kind, is better than 
common bar soap. This last, always has rosin in it, and some- 
times there is so much as to make woollens washed with it feel 



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DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, ETC. 293 

gummy ; and no pains-taking will entirely remove the bad effect 
If there are grease spots, they should be first taken out with 
chloric ether or spirits of turpentine. Make a suds, wash the cloth 
very thoroughly in it, and then in another ; then rinse it twice in 
warm water. Do not wring it when you put it from one water 
into another, but drain it, and very gently press the water out. 
Hang it a short time upon the line, until the water has almost 
ceased dripping from the lower edge ; then reverse it, putting 
the lower edge up on the line. Have the irons hot, and the 
ironing-board ready, and make up your mind to iron patiently a 
long time. A medium-sized broadcloth table cover, such as 
used to be in fashion, required to be ironed two hours and a 
half. A less time is necessary for the thinner fabrics ; but 
whatever the texture is, if it has wool in it, it must be pressed 
until it is dry, else it will not look well. Faded table-covers, 
having one color only, mingled with white, may be dyed with 
advantage. I have seen one that was originally green and 
white, that after being in constant use many years, was sent to 
a dye-house, and came back transformed into a maroon ami 
white cloth, and was as good as when it was new. 

To wash Carpets. 

According to the experience of many persons, the Kidder- 
minster carpets, and others of like fabric, are as well washed at 
a fulling-mill as at a dye-house, or by a professed carpet- 
cleanser. They are washed whole, and if the colors are good, 
they are returned with a good degree of their original beauty ; 
and I have never known one to be torn or injured in any way. 
The charge for washing a large carpet, does not exceed a dollar 
and a quarter, and for medium-sized and small ones, proportion- 
ately less. After a carpet has been in hard service, if it is 
worth being made over, or thoroughly repaired, it is also 
worth being washed ; and a person who has spent two or three 
days in mending an old, unwashed carpet, will appreciate the 
assertion. 

The directions for removing oil and grease from carpets not 



294 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPERS FRIEND. 

having been inserted in the appropriate place, tliey are given 
here. 

When oil is spilled on a carpet, put on a plenty of white flour, 
and do it as quickly as possible, in order to prevent it from 
spreading. If the oil is near a seam, but does riot reach it, rip 
the seam in order to stop it. Put flour on the floor under the 
oil spot. The next day take up all the flour from the car- 
pet and floor, with a dust-pan and a very stiff clothes broom, 
and put on fresh flour, and a plenty of it. It will not be neces- 
sary to do it a third time. To take out grease spots, rub them 
with a bit of white flannel, dipped in new spirits of turpentine ; 
and if they again become visible, rub the spots again, on both 
sides of the carpet, when it is taken up and shaken. If there 
are oil or grease spots on the floor, they should be covered with 
thick paper before the carpet is again laid down. Scouring 
will not entirely remove them. 

To Wliiten or Bleach. 

The best time in the year is the month of May. The dew at 
that period has a peculiar efficacy for bleaching. In the country, 
where clean grass plots are accessible, it is a good way to take 
all the white clothes of the week's wash, from the first rinsing 
water, or from the boiling suds, and lay them on the grass. 
After two or three nights take them up before they are dry in 
the morning, rinse them well, and put them on the line. Their 
improved appearance will pay for the trouble. In August, 
clothes should never be more than one day and night upon the 
grass, lest they become mildewed. In the winter, they will 
whiten fast, in sunny weather, upon clean snow ; and leaving 
them on the line in the frost over night, after being washed, 
makes them white. 



HIKTS IN REGARD TO HEALTH. 



ONE of the first things to be considered in the choice of a 
residence is the healthfullness of the position. In the coun- 
try, the vicinity of low grounds or the banks of a sluggish 
river are to be avoided. A house having a wet cellar 
is never a safe residence for a family. Neuralgia, fevers, 
and consumption are produced by living in a damp house. 
A house having a southern exposure is much to be preferred 
to one where the windows of the rooms most occupied are 
toward the north. The light of the sun is essential to health ; 
and, in selecting a house in the city, this is of even greater 
importance than in the country. 

REGULARITY OF MEALS 

is important to health. The meals of a family should be 
punctual, at regular hours. Three meals are sufficient. Din- 
ner should be the most substantial ; and the country custom 
of having it about one o'clock is good. A large half-hour 
should be allowed for each meal ; more time better than less. 
There are few things that so clog the brain as half-masticated 
food. Luncheons should not be eaten, except in families 
whose dinner-hour is at five or six o'clock. In that case the 
lunch should be taken at noon. A reference to the most prac- 
tical medical writers will convince any one, willing to learn, 
that the habit of taking a lunch tends to produce dyspepsia. 

Time to rest should be taken, after fatigue, before eating. 
For most grown persons, the habit of leaving off before the 
appetite is fully satisfied is healthful. The feeling of hun- 

295 



29G THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

gor will quickly pass away, and the dulness and sense of op- 
pression occasioned by eating 1<><> freely will he avoided. 

A person subject to dyspepsia .should avoid vegetables be- 
cause they require much time to digest, and should take food 
which requires least time and strength for the process, rare 
beef or mutton, good bread, and fruits. 

It is a mistake for hard students to live on a very light diet. 
A skilful physician says, "When the brain is tasked, give the 
stomach plenty to do;" else the tendency of the blood will 
be too much to the head. 

The character of food should vary with ihe season of the 
year. More meat and other substantial food is requisite in 
winter than in spring and summer. 

A more spare diet is healthful in the spring ; fresh rggs, 
fish, spinach, greens, and salad, and, in May and June, the 
small fruits. Most of the fruits of every season, used moder- 
ately, are good, and the use of them promotes health. 

BATHING. 

Cleanliness is not the only thing gained by a bath. A 
good bath brings the blood to the surface, and makes the skin 
vigorous and healthy. Daily ablutions of the entire body, 
says an approved writer, should be as much a part of the 
daily work as eating. A cold bath fortifies the body against 
taking cold; but it is most healthful taken in the morning, 
immediately ou rising, before the body has had time to be- 
como chilled. It should be followed by a glow of warmth. 
This is promoted by the effort to rub the person until per- 
fectly dry. If fulness of the head succeed a cold bath, it 
should be followed the next day by a tepid or a warm bath. 
Clean clothes should be substituted for such as are saturated 
with perspiration. Under clothing worn in the day should 
not be worn through the night. 

In reference to sea-bathing, there is no danger when the 
body is hot, but when it is cooling after being heated. 



SLEEPING-ROOMS. VENTILATION, ETC. 297 

The Shower, Douche, Drop, and Sitz bath, and the wet-sheet 
or Pack, are all invaluable at the proper time, and under ap- 
propriate circumstances. 

SLEEPING-ROOMS. 

Few persons will take cold, even in winter, from sleeping 
with a window open a few inches, provided there is enough 
bed-clothing, and the bed so placed that a current of air will 
not blow on the sleeper. The air of a closed room, re-breathed 
through the night by two persons, becomes poisonous. No 
wonder if they rise in the morning languid, feverish, and 
without appetite for breakfast. Here is one great cause of 
the mortality in the crowded parts of our cities. 

VENTILATION 

should be mentioned in connection with this subject. The 
old-fashioned fire-place and open chimney were more favorable 
to health than our modern stoves, grates, and furnaces. A 
family-sitting room, or nursery, warmed by an air-tight stove, 
should be well aired by opening the windows several times a 
day, even in very cold weather. Double windows are com- 
fortable in winter, but they should be so constructed as to 
allow a frequent change of air in the room. Every part of a 
house warmed by a furnace should be thoroughly aired every 
day. 

CARE OF THE SICK. 

It would be well, if in every house there were a large apart- 
ment which could be appropriated in case of sickness. The 
bed of an invalid should not stand in a remote corner of the 
room, but in a position convenient of access, and where a pro- 
per degree of light can be admitted. In times long past, it 
was customary to exclude the light as much as possible from 
a sick-room whatever might be the disease of the patient. 



298 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Thus many a sufferer was deprived of one of the most genial 
and health-giving of God's many gifts. A sick-room should 
be made cheerful as- possible ; and, in order to this, it 
should not be deeply shaded. Light is almost as necessary 
to health as pure air. One of the first duties of a nurse is to 
secure pure air for her patient. If she can do it in no other 
way, she should cover his head, and open the windows and 
doors for a few minutes several times a day, so as to bring a 
current of air through the room. 

It seems scarcely necessary to say, that a nurse should be 
scrupulously neat in her person, and that she should keep 
clean every article used in the sick-chamber, and, as far as 
possible, observe order in the arrangement of things in the 
room. In severe cases of fever, clean bed-linen should be fur- 
nished every day ; and in all cases of illness, the sheets, blan- 
kets, and mattresses should be aired every morning in another 
room, before open windows, the patient meantime lying upon 
a cot or couch. In sickness, the room should be kept quiet, 
and needless talking avoided. A very little conversation be- 
tween friends or attendants at a late hour in the evening may 
give a nervous invalid a sleepless night. The senses of a. 
little child are more delicate than those of adults ; and many, 
a sick baby suffers from the thoughtless sociability of those 
about him, even when too young to know how it is that he is 
annoyed. 

The discomfort of a fever-patient who is too feeble to take 
a bath is much relieved by his being sponged with tepid 
water, care being taken, in passing from one part of the body 
to another, not to expose him to a current of air. The face 
and hands should be sponged with cold water many times a 
day. The craving for water to drink should be gratified. 

In cases of local inflammation, soft cloths, folded so as to 
make several thicknesses, should be wrung in ice-water and 
appliod : then changed often, as they will only aggravate the 
heut if they remain after they become warm. Not only is 



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CARE OF CHILDREN. 299 

this beneficial in case of brain-fever, but for a severe sick- 
headache. To produce perspiration, in order to relieve a sore 
throat or oppression of the lungs, apply a cloth wrung in ice- 
water, and put closely over it a dry flannel. Friction should 
be used when the perspiration thus produced has subsided, else 
the secretions thrown out upon the skin will be again absorbed 
into the system. In cases of erysipelas, cloths should be 
wrung as directed above in cold water without ice, and changed 
almost as fast as they can be wrung out. The heat in that 
disease is so fiery, that the water in the wash-bowl needs to 
be changed very often. Uncooked cranberries thoroughly 
bruised or ripe tomatoes are each a good application for the 
relief of erysipelas. 

CARE OF CHILDREN. 

As an infant during its first month is usually under the care 
of a physician and nurse, particular directions here would be 
inappropriate; but perhaps a young mother, left for the first 
time, by the departure of her nurse, with the sole charge of 
her infant, may derive some assistance from the following 
suggestions. The health of a child, as well as the comfort of 
a mother, are promoted by systematic arrangement in the 
care of him. The stomach of a very young infant will not 
contain food enough to suffice for several hours. Nature re- 
quires that it should be nursed as often as once every hour 
and a half; a baby of six weeks or two months, once in two 
hours, and a child six months old needs its food but once in 
four hours. There is no nourishment so good for a baby as 
that which Nature supplies from the breast of the mother. 
In case he is from any cause deprived of this, various sub- 
stitutes are recommended by nurses. There are directions in 
this book (pp. 251, 2) for the preparation of food for infants, 
which have long had the sanction of skilful physicians, and 
which have been proved reliable by the fact that many families 
of little ones have been successfully reared according to them. 



300 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 

Respecting good milk for babies, see page 243. 

With a little extra attention on the part of the mother, 
much weariness and loss of time may be saved, by accustom- 
ing an infant to go to sleep at regular hours. A healthy 
baby, under three months, should sleep twice in the day-time. 
An appropriate hour for the morning nap is ten o'clock, and 
for the afternoon three. He should not be rocked to sleep in 
lap, or in the cradle, but be laid in his crib, the light in the 
room not too strong. His clothing should be in every partic- 
ular comfortable, and then if he cries his mother should not 
be disturbed, nor go to 'him to see if any thing is the matter. 
If he is well, it will not hurt him to cry even an hour (which 
lie probably will not do) ; and after going through tins gentle 
discipline, morning, afternoon, and evening, for one or two 
days, he will make no more trouble about going to sleep alone, 
in his crib, at the regular time. There is thus a slight begin- 
ning of that exercise of a mother's control which will prevent 
his "ruling the house," and which will afterwards make his 
submission to her authority in other things more easy. 

It is the advice of an experienced matron, who has reared 
a large family of children, that the mother should not dele- 
gate the care of weaning her child to another. The separa- 
tion from her which would be necessary would be a severe 
privation to the sorrowful baby ; for in addition to the loss of 
his accustomed food, he must lose the solace of his mother's pres- 
ence and loving attentions. The process of weaning a baby 
calls forth in a mother a blended decision and tenderness, 
which adds greatly to her power over him, and makes the sub- 
sequent training of him to habits of obedience comparatively 
easy. 

The new-born infant should of course be washed in blood- 
warm water; but, after he has become accustomed to the tem- 
perature of his native apartment, he should be bathed daily 
in tepid water, or that which has stood in the room over 
night. Children are invigorated by cold bathing, and should 



CARE OF CHILDREN. CONVULSIONS. 301 

"be made clean, from head to foot, once a day. The morning 
is, generally speaking, the best time ; but when they are old 
enough to become tired and soiled with dust by the exposure 
and frolic of the day, they should be bathed before going to 
bed. A bath sooner than two hours after eating is unsafe. 

Children should go to bed early, and they will probably wake 
seasonably ; but they should not be waked from sound sleep 
and required to rise. Nature is the best guide in this as well 
as some other things which could be mentioned. 

A taste for simple food should be cultivated as the surest 
way of making children healthy. Good bread of various 
kinds, fresh vegetables, baked and stewed fruits, rice, plenty 
of milk, and good meats should be provided. Veal is less di- 
gestible and nutritious than beef, mutton, venison, or poul- 
try ; and fresh pork, which is poison to some persons, is not 
healthy food for any one. 

The health of children is injured by eating rich cake and 
pastry ; and much of the candy and most of the nuts, often 
found in their pockets, are very indigestible. Their food 
should be plain and well cooked ; and they should not be com- 
pelled to eat fat, or articles to which they have a strong nat- 
ural repugnance. This is sometimes required, in obedience 
to the rule that nothing should be left on their plates to be 
wasted. A reasonable quantity should be given ; and, if they 
ask for more, they should be helped moderately. A healthy 
child grows fast, and needs a full supply of nutritious food. 

CONVULSIONS. 

Convulsions or spasms in children originate from various 
causes. Some children are constitutionally liable to them, and 
such will be almost sure to have them while getting their 
teeth. An infant not yet weaned may be thrown into con- 
vulsions by a change in the quality of the mother's milk, pro- 
duced by sudden anger, fright, or suffering. Whatever the 



302 THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPElTs FRIEND. 

cause, the first thing to be done, without waiting for 
the arrival of the physician, is to put the child into a warm 
bath, five or ten minutes, until the paroxysm is broken. 
Then wrap him in warm dry flannels. If the spasms continue, 
bathe the feet and legs in water as warm as can be borne, and 
at the same time pour a stream of cold water on the head from 
the height of half a yard. 

CRAMP IN THE LIMBS. 

Wrap them in towels wrung out in cold water, and put out- 
side a thick dry cloth. The relief is immediate and entire. 

BURNS AND SCALDS. 

Every mother should know what to do at once in case a 
child is scalded or burned. The first thing to be done is to 
remove the clothes if the body is scalded. Better to cut them 
off than have much delay. Then apply a thick layer of 
flour, and, when it falls off, lay on more. The object is to 
shield the wound from the air. 

Cotton wool is another good application. A thick fold of it 
should be quickly laid on, and then wet with good sweet oil. 
The smarting will soon subside, and the cotton must remain 
undisturbed until a new skin is formed. A soft bandage 
should be put outside the cotton. If the cotton is removed 
for the sake of putting on a fresh fold, or some other kind of 
dressing, there will be a scar. If it is suffered to remain 
as directed, there will be no scar. 

TO RELIEVE THE STINGS AND BITES OF INSECTS. 

For the stings of bees, hornets, wasps, and the bites of 
poisonous insects, apply ammonia or hartshorn, or, if this 
is not at hand, garden-mould. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



SPECIAL attention is called to the importance of reading the 
directions at the beginning of each chapter before using the 
receipts. 



BREAD. 

PAGE. 

Bread, directions respecting ... 22 

" heating ovens . . 21 

made without sponge . . 28 

" with milk and water . 29 

Boston brown 31 

raised " 31 

steamed " 32 

New Orleans 52 

good family 27 

Graham 30 

Indian loaf 32 

potato 26 

rice 30 

rye ......... 32 

third 30 

dough, various uses of . . 33 

Btale, to make fresh ... 33 
uses for pieces of .... 232 

Biscuit, buttermilk 34 

" cream 34 

" " of tartar 35 

" fried 68 

" potato 35 

" raised 34 

" sour milk ....... 34 

Muffins, raised 88 

" sour milk 38 

Rolls, Parker 39 

Rusk 37 

Yeast 23 

" dry 25 



PAGE. 

Yeast, Maine potato 25 

" soft hop 24 

CAKE. 

Cake, directions for making ... 43 

" frying ... 66 

" Avon snow 58 

" Barnard cup 51 

" Berwick sponge 53 

" bread 50 

" bride's or snow 54 

" Bridgeport cup 51 

" chocolate 56 

" commencement 49 

" composition 52 

" cream 60 

" crullers 67 

" " another 67 

" plainer 67 

" cream of tartar . . 67 

" Delaware sponge .... 53 

" Ellen's bread 50 

" gold 54 

" Harrison 60 

" Howard cup 50 

" jelly 55 

" loaf 49 

" " another . . . '. . . 49 

" Lyman 53 

" magic 59 

" Maine plum 48 

" marble , ... .57 



304 



THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 



Cake, Mount Pleasant cup .... 51 

" one egg ........ 59 

" loaf ........ 48 

" orange ......... 56 

" Park-Street ......... 60 

" Portsmouth ......... 59 

" pound ......... 60 

" Provence ........ 51 

" Queen's ........ 54 

" raspberry roll ...... 57 

" Rochester jelly ..... 58 

" Sandusky .......... 58 

" seed ............. 62 

" silver ......... 55 

" snow or hride's ..... 54 

" " plainer ...... 54 

" sponge ......... 52 

" superior cup ...... 51 

" Tunbridge cup . ..... 50 

" Washington ...... 48 

" wedding ........ 47 

" " another ..... 47 

" White Mountain ..... 55 

" frosting ........ 46 

" " . chocolate .... 46 

COOKIES, GINGERBREAD, 
ETC. 

Cocoanut drops ........ 63 

Cookies .......... 62 

" another ........ 62 

" soft ......... 62 

61 



Cream cakes 
Doughnuts, . 

Gingerbread, hard molasses . 
" " another .. 

" " sugar . . 

" soft, molasses 

" " sugar . . 

" very plain ..... 64 

" without eggs .... 64 

Ginger crackers ....... 65 

" snaps, Boston ...... 65 

" " New York .... 65 

Jumbles, fruit ........ 64 

Kisses ......... . . 63 

Macaroons ......... 63 

Wafers ........... 62 

" Tunbridge ....... 63 



BREAKFAST CAKES. 

Corn cake 42 

Gems 39 

Graham drops 43 

Fritters 42 

snow '. 42 

" Spanish 42 



Griddle cakes, buckwheat . . 
" " buttermilk .*$ 

" " ground rice . . 

" " India meal . . 

" " white flour . . 

" " without an egg 



Jenny Lind 



41 
40 
41 
40 
40 
40 
36 

Johnny cake 43 

Sally Lunn 36 

Strawberry short cake 35 

Top-overs 38 

White-meal cake 42 

Whortleberry cake 36 



SOUPS. 

Soup, stock for 133 

" a rich 167 

" chicken 172 

" corn 212 

" economical 172 

" Julienne 169 

" lamb 171 

" lobster 173 

mock-turtle 170 

" mutton 171 

" ox-tail 

" oyster 

" pea ........ 

" roast-beef-bone . . . < 

" shank 

" tomato .168 

" turkey 170 

" turtle-bean 168 

" veal 171 

" vegetable 171 

" vermicelli 169 



172 
169 
170 

168 
168 



FISH. 

Fish, directions respecting . . .177 



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GENERAL INDEX. 



305 



Fish, directions respecting salting . 190 
'' bass, baked 189 

Black fish, baked 179 

" " boiled 179 

Chowder, to make 179 

" Marblehead 180 

Clams, to open 187 

Clam chowder 187 

" " another 187 

Clams, escaloped 188 

Codfish, baked 179 

" boiled . 178 

" fried ....-... 178 

" Bait fried 180 

" " minced 181 

balls 181 

" sounds and tongues . . . 178 

Eels, fried 188 

" stewed 188 

Halibut, boiled 181 

" broiled 181 

" smoked 190 

Lobsters 186 

" curried 186 

" salad 201 

" " another 201 

Mackerel, broiled 188 

" fresh, broiled 188 

Oysters, curried 185 

" escaloped 184 

" fried 184 

pickled 184 

" raw 185 

" roasted 182 

" steamed 188 

" stewed 185 

" " another .... 185 

Oyster pie 183 

" " 184 

" patties 186 

Perch 188 

Pickerel 188 

Quahogs, or round clams .... 189 

Salmon, boiled 182 

" broiled 182 

" cutlets, English .... 183 

" salad 202 

" smoked 190 

Scolops, fried ........ 187 

" stewed 187 



Shad, baked 1S3 

" broiled 182 

" potted 189 

" salt, to prepare to broil . . . 190 
" to salt to keep a year . . . 195 

Smelts 190 

Trout , . 189 



POULTRY. 

Poultry, directions for selecting . . 159 
" " " cooking . . 159 

" to dish 158 

Chickens, boiled 162 

" broiled 162 

" curried 166 

" fricasee 162 

" fried . . 163 

" prairie, broiled . . . .163 
" " fricasee . . . .163 

" roasted 161 

" salad 162 

" patties . . . .' . . .225 

" pie 164 

Ducks, boiled 164 

" roasted 164 

Goose, roasted 165 

Turkey, directions for cooking . . 159 

" boiled 161 

" boned 163 

" hash 225 

" roasted 160 

" steamed 2^ 

" to stuff 140 



MEATS. 

Meats, how to select 130 

' directions for cooking . . .141 

1 on boiling 135 

* " roasting 134 

" how to dish 158 

" boiled remnants of . . . .224 

Beef, a la mode 143 

" " " more rich . . . .143 

" bouilli . . 144 

" corned 194 

" " boiled . . 145 



THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEND. 



Beef, croquettes 224 

Beef corned, and beans 224 

hashed 226 

" fricassee of 157 

* pie 225 

" roast 141 

" roast remnants of 223 

" " " another . . . 223 

" smoked, frizzled 156 

" " to shave 157 

" steak 141 

" " smothered onions . . 146 

" stuffed 142 

" " with tomato . . . .142 

" stewed 144 

" tongues 193 

Calf s head, brain sauce . . . .151 

Ham and eggs 156 

" a fraise of 175 

" boiled 155 

" broiled 156 

" to cure 192 

" " another way .... 193 
" to keep through summer . . 193 

" to prepare pickle 192 

Hash, with dropped eggs .... 226 

Lamb, a la mode 148 

" boiled 145 

" chops 145 

" curried 166 

" haricot of H6 

" roast 148 

Liver 157 

^itton, boiled 145 

" chops 145 

" " another 146 

" haricot of 146 

" hashed , 226 

" roast 145 

" steak with tomato . . . .146 

Pig, to roast 153 

Pork and beans baked 222 

" a shoulder of 154 

" a spare-rib, or chine .... 154 

" salt, to fry 156 

" steak 154 

" to salt . 192 

" corned 194 

Salt meat and vegetables .... 222 
Sandwiches ...,,. ... 157 

Sausages, to make 194 

" to fry 156 



Souse 227 

Tongue, bouilli 147 

to boil 147 

Tripe 158 

Veal, broiled 151 

" cake, or Melton veal .... 152 

" croquettes of 224 

" " cold 152 

" cutlets 150 

" loin of 149 

" minced 224 

" pie, baked 150 

" pot-pie 149 

" pressed, for lunch or tea . . 226 

" ragout of 151 

" stewed breast of 150 

" to roast, fillet of 148 



GAME. 

Partridges, boiled 165 

" roasted 165 

" to stuff 140 

Pigeons, curried 166 

44 in disguise 165 

" roasted 165 

" to stuff 140 

Pigeon pie 166 

Quails 166 

Rabbits, how to cook 152 

Squirrels, " " 152 

Venison " " 153 

Woodcocks, " " 166 



SAUCES FOB MEATS, FISH, 
AND POULTRY. 

Sauce, anchovy 140 

" apple 126 

" caper 138 

" celery 139 

" cranberry 116 

" currant jelly 140 

" drawn butter 137 

" egg (for boiled fish) . . .138 

" English onion 138 

" lemon 139 

mint . 139 

" mushroom 138 



GENERAL INDEX. 



307 



Sauce, oyster 139 

" " another 139 

Venison, gravy for 137 



SALADS. 



To dress lettuce .... 

" " another . . 

Chicken salad 

Kole slaw 

Lobster salad (for supper) . 

" " (for dinner) . 

" sauce 

Salmon salad 

Superior " dressing . . 



. 200 
. 200 
. 162 
. 202 
. 201 
. 201 
. 202 
. 202 



EGGS. 

Eggs, boiled 173 

" dropped 174 

" fried 173 

" poached .173 

" scrambled 175 

" with a fraise of ham . . . .175 
" to beat the whites of . . . .46 

Omelette, baked 174 

" fried 174 

" oyster 175 

" a fried 175 

" Longwood 254 

" puff 176 

" souffle 176 

" tomato . . 176 



VEGETABLES AND SAUCES. 

Vegetables, for different dishes . . 141 
" directions for cooking . 203 

Artichokes -208 

Asparagus 207 

Beans, shelled 207 

" string 207 

Beets 209 

Cabbage 211 

Carrots 209 

Cauliflowers 212 

Celery 208 



Corn, boiled 212 

Corn oysters 213 

Cucumbers 208 

" another 213 

Egg plant 212 

Greens 211 

Macaroni 209 

Mushrooms 208 

" to select 218 

Onions 211 

Parsnips 209 

Peas 207 

Potatoes and ham 206 

" boiled 203 

" broiled 205 

" chopped, fried 205 

" cold 205 

" fried 205 

" " whole 204 

" heated in milk 205 

" Lyonaise 206 

" mashed 204 

" old 204 

" sweet 206 

Potato balls 204 

Radishes . 208 

Rice, baked 230 

" boiled ' ... 227 

Salsify, or oyster plant 210 

Spinach 211 

Squash, summer ....... 210 

" winter 210 

Succotash 212 

Tomatoes, baked 196 

" broiled 197 

" like cucumbers . . . .197 

" stewed 196 

" "to keep a year . 198 
Turnips, mashed 206 



PIES. 

Pastry, on making 68 

Paste, rich puff 71 

Pie crust, good 72 

" " potato 72 

" apple, stewed 72 

" " sweetened with molasses 73 

" " uncooked . . 73 



308 



THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEXD. 



Pie, apple, uncooked, another ... 73 

" cherry 74 

" cranberry 74 

" currant 74 

" custard 107 

" gooseberry 74 

' lemon, with frosting .... 75 

" meringue 72 

" mince, rich '75 

" " not as rich 75 

" " suet 76 

" temperance 76 

" " very plain 76 

" " " " another . . 77 

" Peach . 77 

" pumpkin 77 

" rhubarb 77 

" rice custard 106 

" squash 77 

" " without eggs 78 

" Washington 55 

" whortleberry 74 

Puffs 78 



PUDDINGS. 

Puddings, directions about ... 79 

Pudding, almond 82 

apple 81 

" a plain 95 

" " Marlborough ... 82 

" " sago 99 

" batter, baked 83 

" " boiled 83 

" " " another . . 83 

" berry 93 

" another 93 

" " English 92 

" bird's-nest 84 

'* bread 84 

" " batter 91 

" charlotte 98 

" Christmas .88 

" cocoanut 85 

" cottage 85 

" " another .... 85 

" cracker 85 

" " another .... 85 



Pudding, Delmonico's 91 

" dumpling, apple, baked . 97 

" " boiled . 96 

" " steamed 96 
" blackberry, baked 97 

" " steamed 97 

" Newburyport 96 

" farina 86 

" fig (a Canadian) .... 82 

" frozen 253 

" gelatine 91 

" German plum 92 

" without eggs . . 93 

" puff 92 

" Indian, baked 93 

" " boiled 94 

" with sweet apples 93 

" maizena 87 

" plum 87 

" queen's 85 

" railroad 94 

" raspberry 92 

" rice, baked 88 

" 230 

" . " convenient .... 86 

" ground 98 

" meringue .... 88 

" " AVithout eggs ... 94 

" roley poley 97 

" rye batter .84 

" sago 89 

" apple 99 

" " without eggs ... 98 
" Salem " " 
" snow . 



strawberry 92 

squash 89 

tapioca 90 

*' frosted .... 254 

vermicelli 86 

White Mountain .... 86 



PUDDING SAUCES. 



Pudding sauce, cold 81 

" " elegant 81 

" plain 81 

" " sour cream . 81 



GENERAL INDEX. 



300 



SWEET DISHES. 



. . 100 
. . 105 
. . 100 
. . 101 
. . 99 
. . 102 
Isinglass . . ... -101 

" moss 102 

Charlotte Russe 1 2 

Custards, almond 10 

apple 



Apple island 
" meringue 
" snow .... 
anc mange, calfs-foot 
" " farina . 

" gelatine 



105 



baked 1 7 

boiled 1 4 

" another 

chocolate 1 6 

coffee 106 



rennet 



111 



" steamed 1 6 

Floating island 1 

Froth, stained 

Jelly, calf s-foot 

" gelatine English 103 

" lemon 

Meringues 

Raspberry trifle ....... 

Snow-balls 



Apples, crab 

pine 

" without boiling 

Blackberries 

Cranberries 

Currants 

Damsons ... 

Egg plums 

Jam, apple, to keep a year . 

cherry 

grape 

pine-apple ..... 
raspberry 

quince 

-101 
" .another 1 - 

Jellies, to make 112 

Jelly, apple 12 

a nutritious 246 

barberry 



Ill 
103 



101 
109 
105 
255 



ICES. 



107 



. 115 
. 115 
. 115 
. 116 
. 116 
. 116 
. 117 
. 121 
. 122 
. 121 
. 121 
. 122 
. 121 



I 23 



253 



Ices, directions for making . 

kl apricot 

" lemon 

" raspberry 

" strawberry 1 8 

Ice Cream 1 9 

' " chocolate 108 

" .Philadelphia 109 

" pine-apple HI* 

rich 108 

Cream, imperial 110 

" Italian 253 

snow H 

. 110 



black currant 249 

crab-apple I 2 

cranberry I 2 

currant 1^ 

lemon 10 

quince I' 2 

; wine .248 

Marmalade, crab-apple 12 

" quince 120 

" sweet-apple 12 

Peaches, preserved 117 

Pine-apple, fresh 256 

Quinces, preserved with sweet ap- 
ples 11 

Quinces, preserved without boiling 

syrup 11 

Strawberries, preserved 120 

" another . . 120 
Syrup, to make for preserves . . .113 
Tomatoes, preserved 197 



BAKED AND STEWED FRUITS. 



Sherbet, lemon 



Apple sauce 



126 



strawberry 



110 



PRESERVES, JEIXIES, ETC. 

Apples, preserved 



boiled cider ..... 127 

" " family 129 

Apples, baked, sweet 127 

" sour 127 

coddled 128 

dried 129 



310 



THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER S FRIEND. 



Apples, steamed 126 

Pears, baked 118 

boiled 129 

Peaches, dried, to stew ..... 129 
Quinces, boiled 126 

ECONOMICAL, RECEIPTS. 

Beef croquettes 224 

" or mutton hashed 226 

" pie 225 

Brawn 224 

Bread, uses for 232 

Bruiss 232 

Chicken patties 225 

Cracked wheat 228 

Crumb cakes 231 

French toast 39 

Hasty pudding 228 

Head cheese 227 

Hominy, boiled 229 

" fried 229 

Milk toast 232 

Minced fish 181 

veal 224 

Oat-meal pudding 230 

Pan pie 230 

" another 231 

Pork and beans, baked 222 

Remnants of roast beef 223 

" " . " another . . 223 

" boiled meat 224 

Salt meat and vegetables .... 222 

Souse . - 227 

Turkey hash 225 

Welch rarebit 176 

PICKLES AND CONDIMENTS. 

Butternut pickle 215 

Cauliflower " 217 

Cherries, pickled 216 

Chili sau%^.^ 218 

Chow chow 217 

Cucumbers, pickled 213 

Currants " 216 

" spiced 254 

Currant catsup 218 

Damsons, pickled 218 

G-encsee pickle 254 

Mangoes, pickled 214 

Martinias " 216 



Mushrooms, pickled 218 

Nasturtiums " 215 

Onions " 215 

Peaches " 214 

Peppers " 215 

Picalilli (of all kinds, pickles) . . 217 

Plums, pickled 216 

Red cabbage, pickled 217 

Sterling pickle . 216 

Tomato " 198 

" catsup 198 

" " another 199 

Tomatoes, pickled 216 

Vinegar, good cider 256 

" raspberry 258 

CANNING FRUITS 124 

DRINKS. 

Beer, English ginger 259 

" maple 259 

" spring 259 

" spruce and boneset . . . .260 

Chocolate 220 

" another 221 

Cocoa ,. '. 221 

" to make the ground . . . .221 

" shells 221 

Coffee, to roast 219 

" to make 220 

" milk 220 

Cream, syrup of 221 

" to raise a thick 221 

Sarsaparilla mead 258 

Tea . 219 



FOOD, DRINKS, AND SIMPLE 

REMEDIES FOR THE 

SICK. 

Apple tea 247 

Arrow root 245 

Barley water 245 

Beef tea 243 

" another 243 

243 

Calf 's-foot broth 245 

Caudle 247 

Chicken broth 244 



GENERAL INDEX. 



311 



Chicken tea 244 

" panada 244 

Chilblains, to relieve 250 

Crust coffee 251 

Currant shrub 258 

" wine 258 

Earache, to cure 250 

Fever, refreshing drink in a ... 251 

Gruel, flour 252 

" ground rice 246 

" Indian meal ....... 246 

" oat " 246 

Herb drinks 251 

Infants, food for 243 

" young 251 

" just weaned . . . 252 

Milk porridge 245 

Mustard plaster, how to make . . 250 

Panada 246 

Pearl sago and tapioca 245 

Poison, antidote to 249 

Rennet, whey 217 

Syrup, blackberry 249 

" lemon 257 

Tea, cinnamon 248 

" flaxseed 248 

Toast water 251 

"VYine whey 245 

" rennet . . 260 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

Beef tongue, pickle for 193 

Butter, making 236 

a good brine for keeping . 240 

" to keep sweet a year . . .241 

Calf's head, to cleanse 262 

Camphor, ice 256 

Candy, molasses 255- 

" lemon 255 

Cheese, to make 241 

Chocolate caramels 256 

Cider, to boil 260 

'' to keep sweet and sparkling . 257 

Cologne water 260 

Eggs, to keep 262 

Fat and drippings, care of .... 233 

Liniment, Canadian 261 

Lard, to try 195 

Milk, the care of 236 



Parsley, to keep 261 

Pomade 268 

Rose butter (a good substitute for 

rose water) 261 

Rennet, to prepare 242 

Soap, to make with ashes .... 235 

" " potash .... 235 

Suet, to keep 261 

Tooth powders 261 



DIRECTIONS FOR WASHING, 
AND SUNDRIES. 

Ants, to drive away 262 

Ashes, sawdust, &c., use to be 

made of 271 

Bedsteads, care of 270 

Blankets, to wash 291 

Books, ink, &c., to keep from 

moulding 261 

Calicoes, to wash 283 

" mourning, to wash . . . 284 

Carpets, to wash 293 

Cellar, to sweep a cemented . . . 269 
Cockroaches and beetles, to kill . . 262 

Counterpanes, to wash 292 

Drain, to purify 264 

Feathers, to remove the bad odor 

from new 264 

Flat-irons, to take off starch or rust . 266 
Fresh paint or grease, to take out . 265 

Frozen limbs, to treat 250 

Furniture, to remove spots from . . 267 
" unvarnished, to polish . 270 

Glass, china, and wood, cement for . 266 
Grass in gravel-walks, to destroy . 271 
House-plants, to prepare earth for . 270 
Hyacinths, to raise in winter . . .271 

Ink, to take out 265 

Inlaid floors, to take care of ... 269 
Iron-mould, to take out . .* Jl . . 264 
Iron ware and stoves, to remove 

rust from 266 

Iron, glass, and earthen ware, to 

prevent being easily broken . . 266 
Knife-handles, to prevent from 

cracking 267 

Knives, to prevent from rust . . . 267 
Lace and black veils, to renovate . 290 
Mildew, to take out 264 



312 



THE YOUNG HOUSEKEEPER'S FRIEXD. 



Mortar or paint, to remove from 

windows 267 

Moths, to keep woollens, furniture, 

&c., from 262 

Moths, to kill 264 

Muslins and laces, to wash, starch, 

and iron 284 

Mousline de Laines, &c., to wash . 288 
Paint, to clean with pumice-stone . 267 
Paper hangings, to clean .... 270 

Piano-keys, to cleanse 269 

Ribbons and raw silks, to wash . . 290 

Roses, soot tea for 271 

Shawls, to wash 289 

Sink or drain, to purify 264 

Starch, fine, to make 289 

" flour " 2S7 

" cold " and use . . .288 
Starching, ironing, and polishing 

linen 283 

Sweeping 268 

Table-covers, worsted, to wash . . 292 
Velvet or velvet ribbons, to reno- 
vate 291 

Washing, directions about . . . .275 



"Wash, calicoes, to 283 

" carpets 293 

" counterpanes 292 

" tick of feather-bed or pillow, 292 
" muslins and laces .... 284 
" ribbons and raw silks . . . 290 
" table-covers, worsted . . . 292 

Well, to purify a 272 

Whiten or bleach, to 294 



HINTS ON HEALTH. 

Bathing . . . 296 

Burns and scalds ........, 302 

Care of children 2U9 

" of sick 297 

Convulsions . 301 

Cramp in limbs -.302 

Location of residence 295 

Regularity of meals 295 

Sleeping-rooms 297 

To relieve the stings and bites of 

insects 302 

Ventilation . 297 



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